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  • 1. Houlin Zhao Deputy Secretary-General, ITU New ITU Directions in the field of ICT for Innovation International Telecommunication Union Waseda University Symposium, 23 March 2007
  • 2.
    • 1837 Invention of the first electric telegraph
    • 1844 Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph Iine between Washington and Baltimore
    • 17 May 1865 Foundation of the “International Telegraph Union” with the adoption of the “First International Telegraph Convention”
    • Alexander Graham Bell patents his invention of the telephone
    • 1906 First “International Radiotelegraph Convention” signed
    • 1924 Paris - Creation of CCIF (International Telephone Consultative Committee)
    • 1925 Paris - Creation of CCIT (International Telegraph Consultative Committee)
    • 1927 Washington - Creation of the CCIR (Intl. Radio Consultative Committee)
    • 1932 Madrid - Plenipotentiary Conference. Telegraph Union changes name to
    • International Telecommunication Union
    • 1947 ITU becomes a Specialized Agency of the United Nations
    • 1956 Geneva - CCIF and CCIT merged into CCITT (International
    • Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee)
    • 1992 Geneva - Plenipotentiary Conference. Creation of 3 Sectors:
    • ITU-T replaces CCITT, ITU-R replaces IFRB, CCIR, and ITU-D replaces TCD
    ITU Landmarks
  • 3.
    • Telegraph: Morse Code  telegraph  telex (wireless) (wired + wireless)
    • Telephone: analogue  digital  IP Telephony
    • Network Switch: manual, automatic (mechanic), SPC (circuit switch, packet switch), ISDN/B-ISDN, TMN, NGN
    • Data: PSS, connectionless, internet
    • Transmission: cable, submarine cable, optical fibre, microwave, radio; broadband, PCM, DSL, LAN, DWDM, CWDM, TDM, SDH, FR, ADPCM, OTN, PON, GPON
    • Coding: Voice coding, fax coding, still image coding, moving image coding (MPEG)
    • TV: black and white, colour, high definition TV, digital TV, Cable TV, IPTV
    • Mobile/cellular: analogue, digital (GSM, CDMA), IMT-2000 (3G), Mobile TV
    • Radio: SOS, VHF/UHF, LF/MF broadcasting, satellite, space communications
    • Languages: CHILL, TTCN, ASN.1, etc.
    • Other areas: QoS, security, numbering and addressing, tariff and accounting, etc.
    • New topics:
    • LAN, WLAN, Wi-Fi, WiMax, ENUM, IPv6, Universal access, Multilingual internet
    • Home networking , IPTV, RFID
    • also
    • Spam, virus, phishing, hackers, …
    Telecommunications evolution
  • 4. Competing Technologies Relative speeds (in Mbit/s) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 GPRS CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO CDMA 2000 1x EV-DV WCDMA (HSDPA) (Wi-Fi) 802.11b 802.11g 802.11a ADSL VDSL Fibre-to-the-home Fixed WLAN Mobile
  • 5. The trade-off between mobility and speed
    • xDSL
    • FTTH - Wi-Fi
    • 2G, e.g. GSM - 2.5G
    • early 3G
    high- speed high - mobility low-mobility low- speed Mobile Broadband : 3G + Mobile-Fi? WiMax ?
    • Body/personal area networks e.g .
    • - RFID
    • Zigbee
    still largely untapped markets !
  • 6. 25 years of policy & regulatory reform
    • ~ 25 years ago, AT&T f ormally agreed t o the break-up of Bell sy stem;
    • about 10 years ago, in concluding the WTO basic telecoms agreement, some 80 countries have committed to telecoms market liberali z ation;
    • Now, 145 independent regulators established;
    • Countries with privatized operators and some degree of competition are now in majority among ITU 191 Member States.
    • Many new comers, ISPs joined the markets
  • 7.
    • Mega-internet service providers like Google, MSN, eBay and Yahoo
      • strong brands, deep pockets
      • entering audiovisual content business
        • - Most internet traffic will be video in a few years
      • entering voice markets and some infrastructure provisioning
    New players
  • 8. Anytime, Anywhere, by Anything and Anyone A ubiquitous network society is a society where it is possible to seamlessly connect “ anytime, anywhere, by anything and anyone ”, and to exchange a wide range of information by means of accessible, affordable and user friendly devices and services. … It will support the design and realization of a people-centered information society, where the secure and reliable flow of information will be ensured. Chairman’s Report, WSIS Thematic Meeting on “Ubiquitous Networks Societies”, Tokyo, 16-17 May 2005, Para 4.
  • 9. A new ubiquity for technology…
    • Marc Weiser’s vision : dedicated IT devices will eventually disappear, while information processing capabilities will be increasingly available
    • Ubiquity refers to unobtrusive connectivity anytime and anywhere, by anyone …
      • Extending connectivity to the underserved
      • Early example: reaching two billion mobile phones in 2005
    • … but also by any thing
      • Creating a “network of things”
  • 10. Four key technological enablers
    • T agging Things : R FID
      • enabling real-time identification and tracking
    • S ensing Things : S ensor technologies
      • enabling detection of environmental status and sensory information
    • T hinking Things : S mart technologies
      • building intelligence into the edges of the network
      • enabling smart homes, smart vehicles etc
    • S hrinking Things : N anotechnology
      • making possible the “networking” of smaller and smaller objects (more powerful?!)
  • 11. Characteristics of 21 st Century Networks
    • High-speed, high-capacity
    • Interchangeably fixed or mobile
    • Differing ranges for different networks
    • Each household or office may have dozens of devices and sensors connected
    • Billions of objects will have RFID chips
    • Flat-rate pricing models will be dominant
    • Options to pay for premium content, extra security etc
  • 12. Recent developments in ITU work on innovation (I)
    • 2003: Study Group Question on Telecoms for Disaster Relief launched
    • 2004: NGN Focus Group established, for smooth transition from PSTN to IP
    • 2004: Study Group Question on Distributed Speech Recognition (DSR) and Distributed Speaker Verification (DSV) launched
    • Feb 2006: Work begins on RFID
    • April 2006: IPTV Focus Group formed
    • May 2006: VDSL2 standards established
    • June 2006: Regional Radio Conference establishes transition plan for digital broadcasting
  • 13.
    • November 2006: PP-06 Resolution 133 continues work on internationalised domain names
    • January 2007: ITU-T and Universities workshop
    • January 2007: New Initiatives workshop on “Future of Voice”
    • January 2007: Workshop on “Market mechanisms for spectrum management”
    • February 2007: Focus Group on Identity Management formed
    • February 2007: Study Group 2 discusses numbering allocation for Child HelpLine Int’l
    • March 2007: Fully-networked car workshop (during Geneva car show)
    Recent developments in ITU work on innovation (Cont’d)
  • 14. Recent developments in ITU work: Focus on Cybersecurity
    • July 2004: ITU hosts WSIS Thematic Meeting on combating spam
    • Nov 2005: ITU nominated by WSIS as coordinator for action line C5 (Cybersecurity)
    • May 2006: “Partnerships in Global Cybersecurity” launched following May 15-16 meeting
    • May 2006: Cybersecurity gateway launched (
    • October 2006: ITU joins “Stop Spam Alliance” with other international organisations
    • Nov 2006: PP-06 identifies cybersecurity as a high priority work item in Res 130
    • May 2007: Second C5 facilitation meeting to be held, 14-15 May 2007, Geneva
  • 15. See you in ITU, Geneva Thank you Houlin Zhao ITU Deputy Secretary-General dsg Tel: +41 22 730 5595 Fax: +41 22 730 5137