IPTV Multicast Video
          End-to-end service



          Greg Shepherd
          Cisco Systems




Presentation_ID  ...
Agenda

           IPTV vs IPVideo?
           Current Deployments
           Over-the-top Video




Presentation_ID   ...
Lessons Learned
          European Broadcasting Union

           IPTV = Video content to end consumer (assumed lower qua...
Solution Smoke…
           P2P and P2MP overlay networks only provide a circuit-switched
            human interface
    ...
IPTV Content Service Networks
          Cable/DSL
                                                                        ...
IPTV Deployments today
                 Two schools of thought in deployments today:
                   1) I think I need...
Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream

                                                                                    ...
Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream

                                                                    I   B B P B B P ...
Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream
                  Network events create correlated packet loss, not
                 ...
MPEG Frame Impact from Packet Loss
                             120%




                             100%




           ...
MPEG Frame Impact from Packet Loss

           P/B frame loss is less noticeable
                   Error concealment tec...
What are the Impairment Contributors?

           Link Failures
           Node Failures
           Random Uncorrected ...
What are the Impairment Contributors?

           1st: Need Quantify Impairments
                   Need some “standard”
...
What are the Impairment Contributors?

           Some Assumptions / Some Industry Standard Data / Some Customer
        ...
What are the Impairment Contributors?

                      Trunk Failures:                                              ...
Network Impairment Contributors

           All HW/SW/Link failures combined do not compare to uncorrected
            bi...
Some Vendor’s IPMcast Cvg Performance
                                               SSM Convergence as a function of the ...
Access Provider Challenges

           Current IPTV is a value added service
                   On-net injection
        ...
Access Provider Challenges



                                                                                         Voi...
Access Provider Challenges

           IPTV works as a Value Added service today
           Access bandwidth growth open...
Access Provider Challenges

           How does a provider say in the food-chain?
           Continue to expand content ...
What Happened to Global IPMulticast?

           What worked with IPMulticast?
           What didn’t work?




Presenta...
What Worked?
As long as IP Mulitcast is                                                                                   ...
What Worked?
The benefits being an unlimited                                                                              ...
What Didn’t?
Even though the content owner                                                                                ...
What’s Wrong?

           Multicast in the Internet is an all-or-nothing solution
                  Each receiver must be...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling

           Automatic IP Multicast without explicit Tunnels
                 ...
AMT
            Automatic Multicast Tunneling
 The AMT anycast address allows for
                                        ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                                (S,G) is learned from                         ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                         AMT Relay replicates
                                ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                  Additional recievers are served by
                         ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                                                                              ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                                                                              ...
AMT
          Automatic Multicast Tunneling
                                                                              ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
AMT
          Connecting Multicast Islands
       Unicast-only Local Provider                                             ...
Current AMT status

           Cisco development in DCOS
           Public reference implementation
                   C...
AMT Deployment Trial

           NETNOD - MIX in Sweden
                   Radio and IPTV content customers
           I...
Thank you!



          shep@cisco.com
          www.cisco.com




Presentation_ID   © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights...
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IPTV Multicast Video End-to-end service

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IPTV Multicast Video End-to-end service

  1. 1. IPTV Multicast Video End-to-end service Greg Shepherd Cisco Systems Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  2. 2. Agenda  IPTV vs IPVideo?  Current Deployments  Over-the-top Video Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  3. 3. Lessons Learned European Broadcasting Union  IPTV = Video content to end consumer (assumed lower quality requirements)  IPVideo = Production Video (assumed unique quality requirments)  If it’s MPEG over UDP, the only difference is bitrate  Them: QoS = SLA (many/most of them lease services)  Me: QoS = IPQoS  I had to change my preso to prevent confusion  “Is IP ready for Video?” presentation… Leased an MPLS P2P circuit from a provider Pushed IPVideo over the pipe Didn’t meet requirements - loss, latency, jitter Conclusion: IP is not ready for video.. WHAT? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  4. 4. Solution Smoke…  P2P and P2MP overlay networks only provide a circuit-switched human interface It’s still a packet-switched network  MPLS wholesale services are a great way to oversell bandwidth Elastic IP content can’t tell, IPVideo/IPTV CAN tell  Customer Confusion Example Wanted unlimited per-customer / per-application provisioning Configuration allows provisioning beyond physical queues - more smoke Them - “What do I do if I have a new application or customer?” Me - “Who’s bandwidth are you going to take away to provision this?” Configuration cannot make bandwidth Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  5. 5. IPTV Content Service Networks Cable/DSL Cable Plant Live VOD MPEG over IP Direct Optical Unicast-only peering CMTS VOD Live VOD DSLAM … VOD Redundant source (backup, live-live, MT) Cable and DSL with similar backbones (regional / national) Numerous customer aggregation sites Populate local VOD servers via multicast over the backbone Live video over IP Multicast Native IPMulticast core BUT Unicast-only peering = walled garden Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  6. 6. IPTV Deployments today  Two schools of thought in deployments today: 1) I think I need 50ms cvg 2) IPMulticast is fast enough  IPMulticast is UDP The only acceptable loss is 0ms How much is “reasonable”?  50ms “requirement” is not a video requirement Legacy telco voice requirement Efforts for 50ms only cover a limited portion network events  Where to put the effort? Make IPMulticast better? Improve the transport? Add layers of network complexity to improve core convergence? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  7. 7. Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream 0% Packet Loss Video is very susceptible to IP Impairments 0.5 % Packet Loss 5 % Packet Loss Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  8. 8. Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream I B B P B B P B B P B B  Compressed Digitized Video is sent as I, B, P Frames  I-frames: contain full picture information Transmit I frames approximately every 15 frames (GOP interval)  P-frames: predicted from past I or P frames  B-frames: use past and future I or P frames I-frame loss “corrupts” P/B frames for the entire GOP Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  9. 9. Impact of Packet Loss on MPEG Stream Network events create correlated packet loss, not random single packet loss. What’s the relationship between network CVG time and I-frame loss?  Example Assumptions: MPEG2 stream CBR = 4.8828Mbps MPEG2 IP stream pps = 427.35pps L3 pkt_size = 1487Bytes (encap IP + UDP + RTP) GOP-size-in-msec 480 GOP-size-in-pkts 205 Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  10. 10. MPEG Frame Impact from Packet Loss 120% 100% 80% % Chance of Lost Frame I-Frame 60% P-Frame B-Frame 40% 32% 20% 0% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Impairment (ms) Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  11. 11. MPEG Frame Impact from Packet Loss  P/B frame loss is less noticeable Error concealment techniques in the receiver can mask some  I-Frames loss is more problematic I-frame loss can result in an entire GOP loss A single packet lost from an I-frame corrupts the entire I-frame I-frame (GOP) loss can result in blank screen for 1-2 secs  50ms is a phantom goal 32% chance of I-frame loss ..another way.. 32% of your streams will have 1-2 sec blank screen outage Why then is this a goal for some? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  12. 12. What are the Impairment Contributors?  Link Failures  Node Failures  Random Uncorrected Bit Errors  Congestion How do we measure these? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  13. 13. What are the Impairment Contributors?  1st: Need Quantify Impairments Need some “standard” Relevant to viewers’ experience # Impairments per 2 hours Representative of a typical movie duration Allow for comparing contributions over a standard window of time Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  14. 14. What are the Impairment Contributors?  Some Assumptions / Some Industry Standard Data / Some Customer Experience Data  Total Value Across a Typical Provider Network  Trunk Failures - .0010 Imp/2hr  HW Card Failures - .0003 Imp/2hr  SW Failures - .0012 Imp/2hr NSF/SSO reduces the realized amount of this contribution  SW Upgrades - .0037 Imp/2hr Modular code (IOS-XR) reduces the realized amount of this contribution Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  15. 15. What are the Impairment Contributors? Trunk Failures: .0010 HW Failures: .0003 SW Failures: .0012 Maintenance: .0037 Total: .0062 Imp/2hrs  Uncorrected Bit Errors - 11.4629 Imp/2hrs "Video over IP" by WesSimpson (page 238) - 10-10 per trunk Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  16. 16. Network Impairment Contributors  All HW/SW/Link failures combined do not compare to uncorrected bit errors  Last-mile networks often most significant contributors  SW failures/Maintenance each contribute much more than link failures Stable, modular software with NSF/SSO can reduce this contribution even further  Fast convergence in the core is a worthy goal Improves core-contributed artifacts Need to consider the balance of a solid platform vs. layered complexity  Solid performing platform is more important than complex protocol solutions Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  17. 17. Some Vendor’s IPMcast Cvg Performance SSM Convergence as a function of the number of IPTV channels 2500 IGP, 250k BGP 4000 IPTV 1A ACL 4000 isis2500 channels bgp250k max of max median of median 1A 800800 isis2500 ACL IPTV bgp250k channels 1A 400400 isis2500 ACL IPTV channels bgp250k 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 ms Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  18. 18. Access Provider Challenges  Current IPTV is a value added service On-net injection PPV or local Advertising Revenue  Walled Garden Edge provider “owns” the customer  Will this last? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  19. 19. Access Provider Challenges Voip Video Access  Access bandwidth is driven by competition  Access bandwidth rapidly surpassing video bandwidth  Video bandwidth is semi-bounded Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  20. 20. Access Provider Challenges  IPTV works as a Value Added service today  Access bandwidth growth opens up new applications  Over-the-top video is already here - in some form.. Joost, MacTV, YouTube, BitTorrent, AMT  More available bandwidth will only improve these applications  DVRs are changing how people watch TV  Consumers don’t care how their DVRs are populated  Will live-TV be relevant in the future? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  21. 21. Access Provider Challenges  How does a provider say in the food-chain?  Continue to expand content offering Stay ahead of the curve  Open IPMcast transport to off-net content Look for key strategic content partners  Integrated Directory API Cisco/SciAtl Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  22. 22. What Happened to Global IPMulticast?  What worked with IPMulticast?  What didn’t work? Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  23. 23. What Worked? As long as IP Mulitcast is Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP enabled on every router from the source to the receivers the benefits of IP Mulitcast are realized. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Mcast Join Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  24. 24. What Worked? The benefits being an unlimited Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP number of receivers can be served with a single stream of content at no additional costs. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Mcast Join Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  25. 25. What Didn’t? Even though the content owner Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP and core provider are IP Multicast enabled, the majority of edge networks are still Unicast-only. Unicast-Only Network ..tick Mcast Traffic ..tick Mcast Join ..tick Timeout! Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  26. 26. What’s Wrong?  Multicast in the Internet is an all-or-nothing solution Each receiver must be on an IP Multicast enabled path. Many core networks have IP Multicast enabled - but few edge networks do.  Even Mcast-aware content owners are forced to provide unicast streams to gain audience size  Unicast will never scale for streaming content Splitters/Caches just distribute the problem Still has a cost-per-user  But is there a future for streaming? (without AMT perhaps not) Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  27. 27. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling  Automatic IP Multicast without explicit Tunnels http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-09.txt  Allow multicast content distribution to extend to unicast-only connected receivers. Bring the flat scaling properties of multicast to the Internet  Provide the benefits of multicast wherever multicast is deployed. Let the networks which have deployed multicast benefit from their deployment.  Work seamlessly with existing applications No OS kernel changes Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  28. 28. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling The AMT anycast address allows for Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner all AMT Gateway to find the “closest” closest” AMT Relay - the nearest edge of the multicast topology of the source. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Once the multicast join Mcast Join times-out, an AMT join is sent from the host AMT Request Gateway toward the global AMT anycast address Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  29. 29. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling (S,G) is learned from Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner the AMT join AMT request message, then (S,G) PIM join is sent AMT captured by the Relay router toward the source. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  30. 30. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling AMT Relay replicates Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner stream on behalf of downstream AMT receiver, adding a uncast header destined to the receiver. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  31. 31. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling Additional recievers are served by Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner the AMT Relays. The benefits of IPMulticast are retained by the Content Owner and all enabled networks in the path. Unicast-Only Network Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  32. 32. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner Creates an expanding radius of incentive to deploy multicast. Unicast-Only Network Enables multicast content to a large (global) audience. Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  33. 33. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner Creates an expanding radius of incentive to deploy multicast. Unicast-Only Network Enables multicast content to a large (global) audience. Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  34. 34. AMT Automatic Multicast Tunneling Mcast Enabled ISP Content Owner Creates an expanding radius of incentive to deploy multicast. Enables multicast content to a large (global) audience. Mcast Traffic Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Mcast Enabled Local Provider Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  35. 35. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP Multicast join follows route Mcast Traffic to the network border Mcast Join router. AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  36. 36. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP AMT on the border router Mcast Traffic performs the AMT Gateway Mcast Join service and sends an AMT Join toward the AMT AMT Request anycast address. Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  37. 37. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP AMT request captured by the Mcast Traffic AMT Relay router. The (S,G) is learned from the AMT join Mcast Join and a multicast join is now sent toward the Source. AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  38. 38. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP Data flows natively along the Mcast Traffic IP Multicast distribution tree. Mcast Join AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  39. 39. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP The AMT Relay router Mcast Traffic encapsulates the data in a unicast header destined to Mcast Join the address of the joining AMT Relay. AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  40. 40. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP The AMT Gateway decapsulates Mcast Traffic the data and forwards the packets natively along the IP Multicast Mcast Join distribution tree within the enterprise network. AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  41. 41. AMT Connecting Multicast Islands Unicast-only Local Provider Content Owner Mcast Enabled ISP Additional local joiners in the IP Mcast Traffic Mulitcast enabled enterprise do not impact the network resources Mcast Join from the source. AMT Request Ucast Stream Multicast Enabled Enterprise Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  42. 42. Current AMT status  Cisco development in DCOS  Public reference implementation Cisco Research grant to UCSB/UTDallas Relay/Gateway - Linux/FreeBSD Gateway - VLC (Mac, Win), Linksys Java Applet wrapper for web-embedded AMT content Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  43. 43. AMT Deployment Trial  NETNOD - MIX in Sweden Radio and IPTV content customers  ISC.org Global mcast mix network  SDP extensions for AMT anycast address and timer IETF 71  Other trial locations welcome Contact me Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  44. 44. Thank you! shep@cisco.com www.cisco.com Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
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