ROADS’08 Keynote



                Internet TV Today’s and Tomorrow’s
                        Telefonica’s IPTV architect...
Television yesterday 


                                                                     Live content
                ...
Television today 




                                                                 Live & on-demand
                  ...
Part 1. IPTV basics



                                                                 Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves
...
Internet TV (IPTV) 

             Delivering television channels over an IP network
             Three most popular type...
Traffic patterns over the years 

             Over-the-top videos already generate more traffic than the entire
          ...
Internet TV (IPTV) 

             Delivering television channels over an IP network
             Three most popular type...
Telco IPTV 
        Major providers worldwide
            —        France (Free, Orange, Neuf Cegetal), Hong Kong (PCCW)
...
Telco’s IPTV FAQs 

        How is IPTV different from cable or traditional TV?
            —        In traditional TV, a...
And multicast finally happened… 

           Multicast arrived way too soon, in 1988


           To make matters worse, ...
Scenario of watching live TV 
                                                                                            ...
Scenario of watching VoD 



         TV head‐end                                             Regional VoD servers
       ...
Part 1. IPTV basics



                                                                 Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves
...
Design goal 
        Find paths that connect each destination to TV sources under any failures
                          ...
Architectural comparison 



                                         TV head-end




                                    ...
Architectural comparison 



                                         TV head-end




                                    ...
Potential P2P‐TV solution for telcos  
        Implementation
            —        Home gateways or set-top boxes
       ...
Live TV data collection

           User’s channel change input
                       IGMP messages collected across al...
Reduction in Edge Links Cost: P2P 

           Static IP multicast can waste huge bandwidth
           Potential problem...
Reduction in VCR server load: P2P 
        Storing content at peers allow for rewind features
        P2P can reduce the...
Part 1. IPTV basics



                                                                 Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves
...
Traditional TV research 
        Nielsen media research
            —        Pick samples (10,000 homes in USA)
         ...
Case study on a Telco’s network 

             Collected raw data from a large IPTV system
                         A qu...
Channel holding times 

             60% of all channel changes happen within 10 seconds
             Infrastructure mus...
Three user modes 

             Each user is in one of the three states at any given time
             Active session: c...
Per‐program behavior 

      Gradual audience ramp‐up  (asynchronous arrival) 
      High churn of viewers 
      Stron...
Channel popularity 

             90% of online viewers at any given time watch 20% of channels
             Behavior we...
Channel change probability 

             Probability of switching to channel y after joining channel x




             ...
Channel viewing probability 

        Probability of viewing channel y after viewing channel x



                       ...
Clustering users by channel change patterns 
        3-state Markov model
                                               ...
Clustering users by active times 

           Used Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to find 3 types of users



  ...
Summary of viewing habits 
        IPTV trace methodology
            —        Complete raw data of viewing patterns (no ...
Part 1. IPTV basics



                                                                 Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves
...
Advanced features for the future 
        Interactivity
            —        User participation on the fly, real-time fee...
Challenges 
        Network capability
            —        Support for end-to-end quality-guaranteed path
            — ...
Executive summary  
        IPTV different from Web applications and imposes challenges on backbones
            —       ...
Lessons learned from our IPTV research 


                                                           IPTV is the largest n...
TELEFÓNICA I+D
                                                                 38
© 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desar...
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Internet TV Today's and Tomorrow's

  1. 1. ROADS’08 Keynote Internet TV Today’s and Tomorrow’s Telefonica’s IPTV architecture and workload analysis Pablo Rodriguez (Telefonica Research) Meeyoung Cha (MPI-SWS) TELEFÓNICA I+D © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  2. 2. Television yesterday  Live content Lower video resolution Tens of channels A few genres Simple channel chagnes A shared experience TELEFÓNICA I+D 2 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  3. 3. Television today  Live & on-demand High-definition Content diversity Use of channel guides Personalization Mobility  Internet TV has led to many innovations TELEFÓNICA I+D 3 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  4. 4. Part 1. IPTV basics Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves Part 3. TV viewing habits Part 4. Future challenges TELEFÓNICA I+D 4 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  5. 5. Internet TV (IPTV)    Delivering television channels over an IP network   Three most popular types 1. Telco’s nation-wide provisioned service   By AT&T, France Telecom, Korea Telecom, Telefonica 2. Over-the-top box-based video-on-demand   Apple TV, Vudu box, Sony’s Internet video link 3. Over-the-top Web TV   Joost, Zattoo, VeohTV, Babelgum, BBC’s iPlayer TELEFÓNICA I+D 5 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  6. 6. Traffic patterns over the years    Over-the-top videos already generate more traffic than the entire Internet backbone in 2000   Videos will be account for nearly 50% of all Internet traffic by 2012 TELEFÓNICA I+D 6 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  7. 7. Internet TV (IPTV)    Delivering television channels over an IP network   Three most popular types 1. Telco’s nation-wide provisioned service   By AT&T, France Telecom, Korea Telecom, Telefonica 2. Over-the-top box-based video-on-demand   Apple TV, Vudu box, Sony’s Internet video link 3. Over-the-top Web TV   Joost, Zatoo, VeohTV, Babelgum, BBC’s iPlayer TELEFÓNICA I+D 7 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  8. 8. Telco IPTV    Major providers worldwide —  France (Free, Orange, Neuf Cegetal), Hong Kong (PCCW) —  Typically bundled as triple-play (with IP phone and Internet access)   Number of subscribers 2007-2013 TELEFÓNICA I+D 8 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  9. 9. Telco’s IPTV FAQs    How is IPTV different from cable or traditional TV? —  In traditional TV, all the channels delivered to the TV set —  IPTV streams only the channel user requests  massive content —  Customers assigned unique addresses  personalized service   How is IPTV different from Web-based videos? —  Web services based on kilobits of end-to-end path (with high-contention in the backbone) —  IPTV requires megabits of steady end-to-end bandwidth TELEFÓNICA I+D 9 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  10. 10. And multicast finally happened…    Multicast arrived way too soon, in 1988   To make matters worse, we also built the killer applications 20 years too soon (e.g., vic, vat, rat)   …. and we never knew how to monetize them…   Until, Telco’s took it over and implemented IPTV…! TELEFÓNICA I+D 10 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  11. 11. Scenario of watching live TV  IPTV  (5 Mb/s)  1‐2 channels  Internet  (1 Mb/s)  Last mile  VoIP  TV head‐end  (6 Mb/s)   customer premise  DSLAM    TV  All 150 channels  IP backbone  1‐2 channels  Set‐top box  TELEFÓNICA I+D 11 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  12. 12. Scenario of watching VoD  TV head‐end  Regional VoD servers   TV  IP backbone  VoD unicast  Set‐top box  Access network  TELEFÓNICA I+D 12 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  13. 13. Part 1. IPTV basics Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves Part 3. TV viewing habits Part 4. Future challenges TELEFÓNICA I+D 13 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  14. 14. Design goal    Find paths that connect each destination to TV sources under any failures TV head-end TV head-end Backbone Distribution Network VHO Regional Network Broadcast TV VoD VHO Video Hub Office (VHO) Regional Network Regional Network customers TELEFÓNICA I+D 14 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  15. 15. Architectural comparison  TV head-end IP router DSLAM STB IP multicast TELEFÓNICA I+D 15 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  16. 16. Architectural comparison  TV head-end IP router DSLAM STB IP multicast P2P cheaper core & asynchronous/VCR TELEFÓNICA I+D 16 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  17. 17. Potential P2P‐TV solution for telcos     Implementation —  Home gateways or set-top boxes —  Dedicated bandwidth for IPTV (downstream) —  Symmetric provisioning (upstream) —  Topology-aware peer selection   Goal —  Reduce backbone traffic and loads on video servers while enabling asynchronous and VCR viewing TELEFÓNICA I+D 17 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  18. 18. Live TV data collection   User’s channel change input   IGMP messages collected across all 700 DSLAMs   Trace example Collected at  IP mul6cast    Timestamp switching point    DSLAM IP   Set-top box IP DSLAM   Multicast channel IP set‐top‐box   Action (join or leave) TELEFÓNICA I+D 18 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  19. 19. Reduction in Edge Links Cost: P2P    Static IP multicast can waste huge bandwidth   Potential problem for serving massive content Sta6c IP mul6cast (# channels X # DSLAMs)   # TV streams at DSLAMs  Actual # streams consumed  (on average 17% load of sta6c tree)  High poten6al for p2p IPTV  TELEFÓNICA I+D 19 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  20. 20. Reduction in VCR server load: P2P    Storing content at peers allow for rewind features   P2P can reduce the load on the video servers by 95% VoD server load without P2P (100%)  P2P traffic served within DSLAM (80%)  VoD load with P2P (5%)  TELEFÓNICA I+D 20 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  21. 21. Part 1. IPTV basics Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves Part 3. TV viewing habits Part 4. Future challenges TELEFÓNICA I+D 21 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  22. 22. Traditional TV research    Nielsen media research —  Pick samples (10,000 homes in USA) —  Install metering devices at sampled homes —  Collect viewing statistics daily —  Extrapolate statistics across a nation   Drawbacks —  Potential bias in sampling —  Awareness of metering alters user behaviours   Challenges: gathering data at a large enough scale TELEFÓNICA I+D 22 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  23. 23. Case study on a Telco’s network    Collected raw data from a large IPTV system   A quarter million users from a large IPTV system (entire subscribers within a nation)   150 channels including various genres (free-to-air, children, sports, movies, music, etc)   Collected traces for 6 months   Largest-scale study of TV viewing patterns! TELEFÓNICA I+D 23 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  24. 24. Channel holding times    60% of all channel changes happen within 10 seconds   Infrastructure must support fast channel changes   Assist users find interesting programs more quickly TELEFÓNICA I+D 24 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  25. 25. Three user modes    Each user is in one of the three states at any given time   Active session: consecutive time spent surfing or viewing TELEFÓNICA I+D 25 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  26. 26. Per‐program behavior    Gradual audience ramp‐up  (asynchronous arrival)    High churn of viewers    Strong membership among users  TELEFÓNICA I+D 26 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  27. 27. Channel popularity    90% of online viewers at any given time watch 20% of channels   Behavior well-described by the Pareto principle TELEFÓNICA I+D 27 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  28. 28. Channel change probability    Probability of switching to channel y after joining channel x 60% linear  TELEFÓNICA I+D 28 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  29. 29. Channel viewing probability    Probability of viewing channel y after viewing channel x   67% non‐linear  60% within genre  17% to the same  channel  TELEFÓNICA I+D 29 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  30. 30. Clustering users by channel change patterns    3-state Markov model 0.19 0.77 Browse Away 0.21 0.47 0.04 0.08 0.57 0.32 View 0.35   Cluster users by deviation from the average pattern 15% Heavy Browser 40% Average Light User User 20% Focused 25% Viewer TELEFÓNICA I+D 30 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  31. 31. Clustering users by active times    Used Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to find 3 types of users Early-birds Always-On Night Owls 25% 50% 25% TELEFÓNICA I+D 31 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  32. 32. Summary of viewing habits    IPTV trace methodology —  Complete raw data of viewing patterns (no need to sample)   Implications for architecture —  Must support for fast channel changes —  Must handle high churn during commercials —  Can reflect the Pareto channel popularity   Implications for viewing guide —  Need to assist channel browsing in the presence of massive content (10 hours of content uploaded on YouTube every minute!) —  Need smart search and personalized suggestions (based on user clustering studies) TELEFÓNICA I+D 32 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  33. 33. Part 1. IPTV basics Part 2. Architectural alterna6ves Part 3. TV viewing habits Part 4. Future challenges TELEFÓNICA I+D 33 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  34. 34. Advanced features for the future    Interactivity —  User participation on the fly, real-time feedback to broadcasters —  Education, games, karaoke on-demand, voting (e.g., American idol)   Time-shifted or asynchronous —  Watch content at convenient times   Personalization and search —  Program recommendations, target advertisements —  More opportunities for accessing long tail content —  Synch with mobile TV content —  Customization (e.g., local weather and traffic news) TELEFÓNICA I+D 34 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  35. 35. Challenges    Network capability —  Support for end-to-end quality-guaranteed path —  Do we have enough bandwidth to carry all asynchronous traffic?   Real-time processing of massive data —  Strong need to assist users with content search —  Need interdisciplinary research for better understanding users   Privacy issues —  Protect user identity —  Sensitive viewing data   Content diversity issues —  Should Telcos keep walled-garden service? TELEFÓNICA I+D 35 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  36. 36. Executive summary     IPTV different from Web applications and imposes challenges on backbones —  live streaming, planetary coverage, end-to-end bandwidth guarantee   Architectural alternatives —  IP multicast —  Peer-to-peer (P2)   Workload analysis of TV viewing behaviours —  High user churn —  Zipf-like channel popularity —  Linear channel changes and non-linear viewing —  Strong membership per program   Future challenges —  Interactivity, time-shifted, long-tail content, personalization TELEFÓNICA I+D 36 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  37. 37. Lessons learned from our IPTV research  IPTV is the largest networking problem to date Future architecture must handle high user churn and  support massive content and 6me‐shiWed service Users will need assistance in program discovery & search Exci6ng research ahead! TELEFÓNICA I+D 37 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal
  38. 38. TELEFÓNICA I+D 38 © 2007 Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo, S.A. Unipersonal

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