Geodesy Basics for Kentucky GIS

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  • Tied east and west coast survey networks together Provided survey control all across the country Names on map are the measured Baselines used for scale Provided an arc to help determine precise size and shape of earth Total cost $500K Longest Arc of a parallel ever undertaken by any single gov’t Completion called “One of the historic events in the progress of geodesy” (from SP#4)
  • ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) just has an origin; take NAD83 shaped ellipsoid centered at the ITRF origin to derive ITRF97 ellipsoid heights. Ellipsoid heights NAD83 vs. ITRF97 - Defined origins are best estimate of the center of mass; NAD83 is not geocentric. Move origin; move ellipsoid surface as illustrated. Ellipsoid height differences reflect the non-geocentricity of NAD83.
  • NGVD29 consisted of the national vertical network referenced to 26 tide stations along the coast of North America Click That network was warped or twisted to fit those tide stations. The difference between the geoid (what we run levels on) and LMSL is not the same for every tide station due to prevailing winds, ocean current, etc. It is that difference that warped the network. Click NAVD88 utilized additional leveling data along with gravity measurements (to measure the geoid) and was referenced to only one tide station on the St. Lawrence Seaway. As you can see in the graphic, the network was unwarped which changes those reference mark’s elevations (differences between NAVD88 and the local mean sea level shown) This is not the difference between NAVD88 and NGVD29 but it is a representation of what happened.
  • Realization and unification of NAD83 in Canada and the U.S. via the ITRF. http://www.geod.nrcan.gc.ca > Geodetic Survey Division > Publications > Papers
  • ACURRACY BUT NOT CONSISTENCY!! To summarize: This slide shows how far we’ve come since 1986, really since 1927. Unfortunately, --- Next slide ----
  • Geodesy Basics for Kentucky GIS

    1. 1. Ross Mackay Kentucky Geodetic Advisor Geodesy Basics for Kentucky GIS 2009 Kentucky Geospatial Summit Frankfort, Kentucky September 10, 2009
    2. 2. ellipsoid Datum
    3. 3. geoid Datum
    4. 4. <ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul>National Spatial Reference System NSRS Geodesy layer and how these values change with time Datum
    5. 5. h Land Surface h = Ellipsoidal Height Ellipsoid Geoid model H H = “elevation” N = Geoid height H ≈ h - N Datum N ?
    6. 6. Passive Control
    7. 7. TRANSCONTINENTAL ARC OF TRIANGULATION http://www.holoscenes.com/cgi-bin/moin.cgi/TranscontinentalTriangulation Map courtesy of Jim Irwin
    8. 8. Datum KGRN (NSRS 2007) 863 Horizontal 2079 Vertical 10123
    9. 9. Active Control
    10. 10. National CORS Network 1381 National CORS September 1, 2009 CORS
    11. 11. <ul><li>Paducah, KYTA </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson, KYTJ </li></ul><ul><li>Morehead, KYMH </li></ul><ul><li>Cumberland, KYCB </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset, KYSC </li></ul><ul><li>Campbellsville, KYCB </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor Lake, Lou5 </li></ul><ul><li>Madisonville , KYTB </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling Green, KYTC </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabethtown, KYTD </li></ul><ul><li>Louisville, KYTE </li></ul><ul><li>Covington, KYTF </li></ul><ul><li>Lexington, KYTG </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset, KYTH </li></ul><ul><li>Flemingsburg, KYTI </li></ul><ul><li>Manchester, KYTK </li></ul><ul><li>Pikeville, KYTL </li></ul><ul><li>Greenbo Lake SRP, KYGB </li></ul><ul><li>Dale Hollow SRP, KYDH </li></ul><ul><li>Rough River SRP, KYRR </li></ul>CORS
    12. 12. Hyperactive Control
    13. 13. NSRS
    14. 14. NSRS
    15. 15. NAD 83 vs. ITRF00 2.2 meters NAD 83 origin ITRF 00 origin Earth’s Surface h 83 h 00 Identically shaped ellipsoids (GRS-80) a = 6,378,137.000 meters (semi-major axis) 1/f = 298.25722210088 (flattening) NSRS
    16. 16. NAVD 88 Referenced to Father’s Point NSRS
    17. 17. GRAV-D NGS 10-Year Plan NSRS
    18. 18. Ten-Year Milestones (2018) <ul><li>NGS will redefine the NSRS vertical datum based on GNSS and a gravimetric geoid. </li></ul><ul><li>NGS will redefine the NSRS horizontal datum, removing disagreement with the ITRF. </li></ul>NSRS
    19. 19. Predicted positional changes for datums in 2018 (Florida example) NSRS Horizontal = 0.82 m (2.7 ft) Ellipsoid Height = - 1.55 m (- 5.1 ft) Predicted with HTDP Orthometric Height = - 0.04 m (- 0.1 ft) Predicted with HTDP and USGG2009
    20. 20. Ross Mackay Kentucky Geodetic Advisor [email_address] on the web at ngs.ky.gov (502) 564-1474

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