© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   Cisco Confidential   1
IPTV networks and
Quality of Experience



  Nick Fielibert
  CTO Europe & APAC
  Scientific –Atlanta
  a Cisco Company


...
End User Experience,
A Key Ingredient Of IPTV Success




   © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   Cisco Confi...
Video End User Quality Of Experience
Related Standards & Efforts
 IPTV/Telco Related
    ITU-T IPTV Focus Group, SG 9, 12,...
IPTV End User Quality of Experience
 Key Requirements
1.Service Availability & Reliability
    Limited Frequency & severit...
IPTV QoE In The End To End Model
Highlights of the main areas                                                     Oversubs...
Delivering Optimum IPTV QoE
       Contrasting Architectural Approaches
         L2 VPLS                                  ...
Delivering Optimum IPTV QoE
Network Linkages for Carrier-Class Video Operations
                                          ...
Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience
L3-Based Architectures Enabling High Service Availability
  Layer 3 Multicast Archit...
Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience
The Need for Video Admission Control
• What happens when demand exceeds design assum...
Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience
Integrated Video CAC
CAC required to guarantee End User experience
Integrated Video ...
Content is key to QoE
    By Offering a differentiated experience – E.g. content, HD
                                     ...
Content is key to QoE
         Grasp revenue possibility created by the Long Tail
     African                            ...
Picture Quality correlates very strongly with QoE
 D9054 HD H.264 Encoder Video Quality Improvements
                     ...
Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience
 Visual Quality Experience (VQE) Technology

Real-time video error
repair
  Eliminat...
VQE—Video Error Repair
 Conditions DSL Lines for Advanced Video Services


                       iFrame       b      p …....
Role of Middleware in QoE: The Enabler
 Enables
    Revenue producing IPTV services
    Differentiation for service provid...
Key attributes of Successful Middleware
                          Drives Service Provider Success


                      ...
Key attributes of Successful Middleware
                     Drives Service Provider Success



                          ...
Simplified STB data flow
                                                                               Private
          ...
Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience
       Fast Channel Change & Dynamic Multicast
         Common misconception :
     ...
Scalable Standard-based Rapid Channel Change
   Maintains the Channel Surfer’s Experience
                                ...
STB data flow with early start
                                                                                           ...
MPEG4 IPTV with unicast buffer fill and early start
 early start S-A concept – works in either, xDSL, FTTH, Lab

         ...
Summary
IPTV: From Service Provider To Experience Provider
  Video & IPTV: Foundation Of Experience Provider
  With Video ...
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   Cisco Confidential   26
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Examining the Network Requirement for the delivery of Optimum ...

  1. 1. © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  2. 2. IPTV networks and Quality of Experience Nick Fielibert CTO Europe & APAC Scientific –Atlanta a Cisco Company © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  3. 3. End User Experience, A Key Ingredient Of IPTV Success © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  4. 4. Video End User Quality Of Experience Related Standards & Efforts IPTV/Telco Related ITU-T IPTV Focus Group, SG 9, 12, 13 & 16 ATIS IIF DSL Forum TR-126 DVB-IPI (ETSI TS 102 034) Media Delivery Index (RFC 4445) DVB/Broadcasting Related SMPTE Technical Standards EBU Technical Documents DVB Forum (ETSI TR 101 129, TS 101 154, etc…) ITU-R Broadcasting Services BT series Perceptual Metrics: V-Factor, MPQM, Video-MOS, … © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  5. 5. IPTV End User Quality of Experience Key Requirements 1.Service Availability & Reliability Limited Frequency & severity of impairments 2.Content Quality & Scope Premium Content, live events, exclusivity, VoD catalogue quality etc.. 3.Content Definition & Resolution D1, HDTV, Dolby Surround, AAC, etc… 4.Customer Care & Management: Time & way to solve end user video related problems 5.IPTV Service Usability Easiness & friendliness of service discovery & selection interface foundation of a new TV viewing experience 6.Channel change time Satellite, Cable and DVB-T Benchmark © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  6. 6. IPTV QoE In The End To End Model Highlights of the main areas Oversubscription STB management A/V decode buffers, Channel Change, packet Lip sync, retransmission Output Interfaces, FEC A/V Encoding IRT/RTE Central/End Home Offices gateway A/V VoD Servers Encoding Super Home FEC Head gateway End District DSL Live Offices Broadcast Metro Home gateway & VoD IP/MPLS Aggregation Asset Core Network Home Distribution gateway MW Servers Home gateway EPG info quality VoD Servers Central/End Home GUI design Office gateway Fiber IRT/RTE Network Elements VOD Delay, jitter, Home networking Server load Delay, jitter, packet packet ordering distribution ordering © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  7. 7. Delivering Optimum IPTV QoE Contrasting Architectural Approaches L2 VPLS L3 L2 VPLS L3 Central L3 All services per sub Distributed L2 QoS QoS, H-VPLS Video Aggregation • Agg: H-VPLS for all IP / MPLS services Core H-VPLS • QoS: Per sub for all Voice L2 QoS services VoD Access PPPoE Servers BRAS L2 QoS L2 Bridging L3 Central L2 Bridged L3 L3 and per sub Centralized QoS • Agg: L2 bridging all IP / MPLS services L2 Core • QoS: Per sub for all VoD services Servers Access L2 & L3 L3 L3 for Application Service L3 Service Optimized IP NGN Per-sub QoS and Per service QoS, CAC Aggregation: EomPLS for BRAS transport services and L3 aggregation for • L1, L2, L3 based on L2 QoS voice/video service • Instrumentation & IP / MPLS L2-HIS/Biz control Core L3 - Voice / Video QoS: Dist L2 QoS • Aggregate for Router Access applications VoD L2 QoS • Per sub for transport Servers MPLS PE © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  8. 8. Delivering Optimum IPTV QoE Network Linkages for Carrier-Class Video Operations IP Routing Anycast IRT/RTE PE-AGG VOD National Servers Video Head Live End Broadcast Metro & VoD IP/MPLS Aggregation Asset Core Distribution Network PE-AGG IRT/RTE Local Broadcast IP Routing Anycast VOD Insertion (eg PEG) Servers Benefits • Redundant Broadcast Sources • Subscriber STB Load sharing across dual trees (localized content) • “Anycast” enables Dynamic Failover - merges trees into one trunk • Enabled with Video Headends © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  9. 9. Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience L3-Based Architectures Enabling High Service Availability Layer 3 Multicast Architecture Benefits Provides consistent convergence <1s in all scenarios Anycast for dual redundant headend H-VPLS transport Architecture Benefits MPLS FRR for link failures for <50ms BUT failure of Aggregation Node, Designated Router, Source, or Headend result in slow STP or IGP based convergence Link in Node DR/Querier Source at metro PE-AGG at NPE National HE H - VPLS <1s 2-3s ~5s >2-3s Impact (#subs) 10,000 50,000 100,000 1,000,000 Layer 3 <1s <1s NA <1s Impact (# subs) 10,000 50,000 NA 1,000,000 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  10. 10. Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience The Need for Video Admission Control • What happens when demand exceeds design assumptions? Network design based on some allowed blocking factor Blocking factor based on peak concurrency rate of subscribers at the finite take rate of the service What if take rate of service is higher than forecast? What if HDTV, TVoD is accelerating faster than forecast? What if peak concurrency is higher than forecast? • Without a “Graceful Busy Signal” for video service, excess streams result in degraded video for Many Oversubscription leads to random packet loss for many! No more than one artifact per 2 hours => 10-6 PLR !! Loss mean visible artifact on subs’ TV for a varying amount of time 0.5 % Packet © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Loss 10
  11. 11. Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience Integrated Video CAC CAC required to guarantee End User experience Integrated Video CAC approach combines two methods: On-path RSVP-CAC for Aggregation Off-path CAC based on Broadband Policy Manager (BPM) for DSL line VOD stream will be denied if business rules of either fail Prioritize blocking of Free VOD vs. Pay VOD Multicast CAC optional 1 VOD Request Deny or Admit 5 2 2 RSVP-CAC 2 6 4 BPM 2 COPS 3 PE-AGG DSLAM N-PE © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  12. 12. Content is key to QoE By Offering a differentiated experience – E.g. content, HD Competition for soccer content kicks in: FW starts distributing Sky <1% <1% soccer package, being 129 130 133 130 133 Customer base evolution in the only alternative to 108 Thousands of IPTV customers satellite 37% 88 37% Average quarterly 62 growth 16% 16% 38 20 24 27 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q Source: McKinsey Analysis, Fastweb Company Report 2002 2003 2004 2005 Exclusive Content (e.g. Football) High Definition © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  13. 13. Content is key to QoE Grasp revenue possibility created by the Long Tail African Arabic Armenian Chinese Farsi French ABN America - $14.99/mo. 15 channels - $39.99/mo. Armenia TV - $14.99/mo. 17 channels - $29.99/mo. 3 channels - $32.99/mo. 3A Telesud - $14.99/mo. Al Jazeera Kuwait TV German Greek Israeli Italian Japanese Korean 1 channel - $14.99/mo. 6 channels - $36.99/mo. Israeli Network - $19.99/mo. 2 channels - $12.99/mo. TV Japan - $25.00/mo. 4 channels - $36.99/mo. Portuguese Russian South Asian Tagalog Urdu Polish 4 channels - $38.99/mo. TV Globo - $19.99/mo. 2 channels - $24.99/mo. 6 channels - $49.99/mo. 1 channel - $14.99/mo. 3 channels - $34.99/mo. The high price of these offerings demonstrates the value to niche consumers. © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  14. 14. Picture Quality correlates very strongly with QoE D9054 HD H.264 Encoder Video Quality Improvements HD needs to stay HD! No reduction of resolution and Color Depth CBR Bit rate No massive pre-processing for sharpness 10 Bitrate reductions PAFF 8.8 Dynamic & hierarchical GOP features 8.2 Optimized HP 8x8 features 7.6 7 6 4 April 06 June’ 06 IBC’ 06 Dec06/Feb07 April/07 Q4/ 07 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Time14
  15. 15. Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience Visual Quality Experience (VQE) Technology Real-time video error repair Eliminates effects of uncorrelated bit errors on individual DSL lines Local re-transmission of dropped IP packets to STB in Sub-100ms Scalable, standard-based fast channel change Maintains consistent user experience Sub-second channel change time Diagnoses problem areas Monitoring and reporting of faults per DSL line above threshold Complementary to FEC Repairing Multiple Uncorrelated Dropped Packets © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  16. 16. VQE—Video Error Repair Conditions DSL Lines for Advanced Video Services iFrame b p …. p iFrame Sends standards- based message to VQE VQE STB Re-transmits Detects missing packet loss STB DSLAM packet(s) STB Re-sequences video stream Error repair done in less than 100 ms Reduces SP OpEx and Customer Churn—Avoids costly help desk calls Enhances Customer Video Experience Quality—Delivers better video © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  17. 17. Role of Middleware in QoE: The Enabler Enables Revenue producing IPTV services Differentiation for service provider: Perquisite to compete Consistent and extensible consumer experience interoperability of systems components Compelling GUI Roadmap for current and future rich media development Linkage of rich media with consumer SHOW a family watching tv © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  18. 18. Key attributes of Successful Middleware Drives Service Provider Success Operational Customer Experience Interoperability Requirements ROBUST OPEN SCALABLE COMPELLING INTEGRATED AGILE MANAGEABLE FLEXIBLE PORTABLE UPGRADIBLE COST EFFECTIVE © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  19. 19. Key attributes of Successful Middleware Drives Service Provider Success Customer Experience ROBUST – Highly ROBUST Available and Reliable COMPELLING COMPELLING – A rich FLEXIBLE User Interface that is interactive and customizable FLEXIBLE – To support the specific needs of different service providers © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  20. 20. Simplified STB data flow Private STB data To CPU Video Decode Buffer Video data STB Network Buffer Transport Demux CBR/VBR De-jitter Video Packets Re-order FEC/re-xmit STB Audio data Audio Decode Buffer audio TV 1. Packets enter the 2. Transport network buffer Demux separates video 3. When buffer is ~½ full, and audio Audio and Video Decoders play from Buffer © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  21. 21. Protecting IPTV Quality of Experience Fast Channel Change & Dynamic Multicast Common misconception : IP multicast causes slow channel change. Main culprits: Waiting for the Next I-Frame MPEG buffering (AVC) Channel Change Latency % total Factor budget Delay for Mcast Stream to Stop from DSLAM 4% 50 ms Multicast Join for New Channel 4% 50 ms Dynamic Multicast Set Up Delay 75 ms 6% Jitter Buffer Fill 100 ms 8% I-Frame Delay *depends on compression 39% 500 ms or greater* MPEG Buffering *depends on STB & compression 39% 500 ms or greater* T=0 Channel Change Time © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  22. 22. Scalable Standard-based Rapid Channel Change Maintains the Channel Surfer’s Experience Cisco 7600 STB VQE New Channel New Channel New Channel Unicast Multicast Join Request from VQE (VQE Stops Unicast) Old Channel Video Stream < 100ms * 1-5 Seconds without VQE VQE Technology Bridges Multicast Join Delays <1 second to Complete Channel Change * Full frame of integrated video content © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  23. 23. STB data flow with early start STB Video Decode Buffer Video data STB Network Buffer Transport Demux CBR/VBR De-jitter Video Packets Re-order FEC/re-xmit STB Audio data Audio Decode Buffer audio TV 1. Packets enter the network buffer 3. When buffer is ~1/4 4. When buffer is ~1/2 2. Transport full, Audio and Video full, Audio and Video Demux Decoders play from Decoders play from separates video Buffer at 80% speed Buffer at full speed and audio © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  24. 24. MPEG4 IPTV with unicast buffer fill and early start early start S-A concept – works in either, xDSL, FTTH, Lab Action unit time total time Send IGMP leave <10 ms Send IGMP join <10 ms Interleaved D-server join <10 ms DSLAM gets leave <10 ms DSLAM gets join <10 ms ~20 ms DSLAM switches streams 30 ms ~50 ms DSL (including FEC) ~10 ms ~60 ms Cached PAT/PMT 0 ms ~60 ms Buffer Wait for CA <50 ms I-frame (first frame) <100 ms De-jitter <50 ms MPEG buffer (1x with early start ) 500-800 ms 560-860 ms Selective Retransmittion <200 ms 760-1060 ms Decode <50 ms 810-1110 ms © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  25. 25. Summary IPTV: From Service Provider To Experience Provider Video & IPTV: Foundation Of Experience Provider With Video (HDTV, On Demand), Quality Of Experience Matters Quality Of Experience : impacting Telco’s profitability Reducing SP Opex & Customer Churn Avoids Costly Help Desk Calls Differentiating Beyond Price & Content © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  26. 26. © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26

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