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  • 1. NGN and its S tandardization September 27, 2006 NEC Corporation ITU-T NGN security requirements (Y.2701) editor Takashi Egawa NGN: Next Generation Network
  • 2. NGN is coming! Evolution of enterprise networks Decrease of $/Bit Evolution of telecommunications FMC Next generation Internet WEB2.0 、 RSS Telecommunication- broadcast convergence NGN (Next Generation Networks) (Evolution of architecture and revolutionary services) needs meets seeds ・ Broadband/mobile gets popular ・ network is now a part of life ・ Expansion of biz-use net ・ Emerges net-based business ・ Opt/IP/mobile technologies ・ Intl. standardization individuals Business Technologies Needs Seeds Lifestyle changes New business changes Network business leap Starting of new evolution
  • 3. Expectation and changes of NGN
    • Increase of usability
    • Flourish of services
    • Easy to use, with ease
    • Simple/cheap
    For personal users For enterprise
    • Rebuilding of business
    • New source of profit
    • CAPEX/OPEX decrease
    • Business area expansion
    For network providers NGN: enabling technology Revolution for layman/enterprise as well as network providers
    • Infrastructure of biz
    • Biz.expansion base
    • Adoption to new biz models
    • Reliable/cheap
  • 4. Agenda
    • Why NGN?
    • Standardization process
    • ITU-T NGN
    • NGN standardization in Japan
  • 5.
    • Why NGN?
  • 6. Technological necessity of NGN Does the Internet continue to evolve? Best-effort QoS: New applications are hard to develop Commercial quality real-time communications are difficult to provide TV conference, streaming, … Security/Reliability: Not carrier-grade Children/elders can’t apply patches everyday Mobility: the next bonanza will be in mobile gadgets Current (ordinary) IP assumes fixed network Discussions at Linux Symposium (2006) The Internet created various applications thanks to the freedom of end-users. Does it apply to IPTV, Web 2.0, or FMC?
  • 7. Limitation from IP’s principle
    • Routing table are updated in local manner; no network-wide, no equipment-wide sync  scalable and cheap, but no QoS guarantee becomes possible
    • No state in routers; minimize memory access  expandable and faster, but traffic engineering becomes unavailable
    • Very limited functions in networks  interoperable ‘Internet Protocol’, but no security, no QoS-awareness
    router router router Packet (header + payload) TE TE Routing table Principle of IP The problems tightly linked with IP principle and merits
  • 8. IP Design Philosophy: Main Goals
    • Effective multiplexed utilization of existing networks
      • Packet switching, not circuit switching
    • Continued communication despite network failures
      • Routers don’t store state about ongoing transfers
      • End-hosts provide key communication services
    • Support for multiple types of communication service
      • Multiple transport protocols (e.g., TCP and UDP)
    • Accommodation of variety of different networks
      • Simple, best-effort packet delivery service
      • Packets may be lost, corrupted, or delivered out of order
    • Distributed management of network resources
      • Multiple institutions managing the network
      • Intradomain and interdomain routing protocols
    Grosshauser (2002)
  • 9. Characteristics of the Internet
    • The Internet is
      • Decentralized (loose confederation of peers)
      • Self-configuring (no global registry of topology)
      • Stateless (limited information in the routers)
      • Connectionless (no fixed connection between hosts)
    • These attributes contribute
      • To the success of the Internet
      • To the rapid growth of the Internet
      • … and the difficulty of controlling the Internet :<
    Grosshauser (2002)
  • 10. Operator Philosophy: Tension with IP
    • Accountability of network resources
      • But, routers don't maintain state about transfer
      • But, measurement isn’t part of the infrastructure
    • Reliability/predictability of services
      • But, IP doesn’t provide performance guarantees
      • But, equipment is not very reliable (no ‘five-9s’) Downtime: IP networks: 471min/year, POTS: <5min/year
    • Fine-grained control over the network
      • But, routers don’t do fine-grain resource allocation
      • But, network self-configures after failures
    • End-to-end control over communication
      • But, end hosts adapt to congestion
      • But, traffic may traverse multiple domains
    Grosshauser (2002)
  • 11. But operators cannot rely on PSTN services any more # of calls in Japan (from MIC’s white paper 2005) (1e8) (fiscal year) PDC mobile fixed Total In most developed countries, 2000 or around was the peak of telephone traffic
  • 12. We must make Operator-friendly IP networks
    • NTT: trial starts by the end of fiscal 2006
    • KDDI: Fixed network becomes all-IP by fiscal 2007
    • BT: by 2008
    • Korea: long-distance is by 2007, local by 2010
    IP traffic > telephone traffic Fiscal 2004: 34.1Gbps (in Japan: converted 533k Erlang using 64kbps/call) > -5%/year May 2006: 524Gbps (Public Internet in Japan) > 20%/year Timeline IP must be the base of future networks
  • 13. NGN: best mix of packet and circuit
    • &quot;Service Stratum&quot; for per-session control of packet transmission
    • Data is transmitted with IP packet for interoperability
    • All necessary functions are in the network (fat network approach)
      • Operators can maintain every aspect of functions  increase reliability
      • All the terminals can do is just to call network’s functions  increase security
      • Control interface is open  promotes development of applications
    NGN transport functions NGN service control functions Telephone Services Data Services (WWW, e-mail, etc) Video Services (TV, movie, etc) Internet Protocol (IP) Anything & Everything Everything (Any & All Network technologies) (Any/All Applications e.g. voice , data , video) Scope Of &quot;Internet&quot; &quot;Service Stratum&quot; (Session control by using SIP, etc.) &quot;Transport Stratum&quot; (managed IP network) ITU-T Y.2011 &quot;General principles and general reference model for Next Generation Networks&quot; Hourglass model of IP
  • 14. 2. Standardization process
  • 15. De jure standards v. De facto standards
    • Open and fair process
    • Results are shared among all participants (usu. without charge)
    • Reflects broader opinions
    De jure standards
    • Operated by highly motivated volunteers
    • Faster standardization
    • Currently very popular
    ITU, ISO, TTA, TTC, .. IETF, TMF, WiMAX, .. framework Individual components and technologies NGN framework includes regulations and policies (e.g., how to standardize emergency services, how to design market regulations considering network architecture)  De jure standards becomes important In NGN De facto standards
  • 16. NGN related standard bodies ITU-T ETSI (EC) CCSA (China) TTA (Korea) APT (Asia Pacific) ATIS (USA) TIA (USA) ISACC (Canada) 3GPP TTC (Japan) ACIF (Aust) ARIB (Japan) 3GPP2 Close collaboration Regional De Jure SDOs & Partnership Projects TISPAN project standardize NGN, esp. VoIP. Release 1 issued in Dec. 2005. Standardize NGN in NGN-GSI, esp. SG13. Issued first recommendations in July 2006. De Facto SDOs IETF OMA WiMAX TMF aaa DSL Forum MSF … . SDO: Standard Development Organization International De Jure SDO Standardize IMS, NGN’s central module. Partnership Project among regional SDOs.
  • 17. Timeline of NGN standardization NGN-JCA Focus Group IPTV NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative) Study Period 2005-2008 2004 2005 2006 2007 Study Period 2000-2004 ITU-T Focus Group NGN Collaboration among SG13,11,19 and other SGs Release 1 (architecture, VoIP) Release 2 (IPTV, FMC, etc.) (European NGN standards) Integrated in 2003 TIPHON SPAN ETSI (TISPAN) Release 1 (architecture, VoIP) Release 2 (IPTV, FMC, etc.) IMS based NGN architecture (3G mobile specs) 3GPP IMS Release6 IMS Release7 Collaboration on IMS (International NGN standards) We are here
  • 18. Organization of ITU ITU-R ITU-T: Telecommunications ITU-D: developing country support ITU-R: Radio SG2 (numbering, etc.) SG4 (management) SG9 (cable net) SG15 (transport) SG17 (security & language) SG12 (QoS) SG3 (charging) SG5 (electromagnetic protection) SG6 (plant) SG11 (signaling) SG13 (NGN) SG16 (multimedia) SG19 (mobility) TSAG(steering) TSB (bureau) Q1 (project mngt) Q3 (func. architecture) Q6 (mobility & FMC) Q10 (satellite) Q12 (frame relay) Q8 (service & deployment) Q2 (requirements & scenarios) Q4 (QoS architecture) Q5 (net. management) Q7 (net. & service integration) Q9 (IPv6) Q11 (terminology) Q13 (public data net.) Q14 (multi service net.) Q15 (security) Q16 (commercial off-the shelf components ) NGN security requirements NGN authentication AAA Certificate management ITU Chair, vice chair Rapporteur, associate rapporteur editor Title:
  • 19. ITU-T NGN standardization structure SG13 (NGN) 1. Planning and promotion of overall NGN standardization process (e.g., roadmap) 2. Development of core technology’s requirements that are used by other SGs to develop their recommendations (Stage 1) 3. Development of network architectures (Stage 2) SG11 Protocol and signaling (stage 3 ) SG19 Mobility SG 2 Numbering SG16 multimedia SG12 QoS SG4 Management SG17 Security and Languages Requirements OCAF-FG FG-IPTV FG(Focus Group) Special task force for particular areas NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative)
  • 20. ITU-T NGN-GSI structure SG11 SG19 Other SGs SG13 Control and protocol Management Project management and scope Architecture Service Requirements, Capabilities and scenarios QoS and network capabilities Security NNAR (including ID) Charging Interwork and evolution Q1(WP1) 1 WP1/13 Q11(WP1) Q1(WP1) Q1 Q2 Q5 Topics Cooridnator 2 WP2/13 3 WP3/13 4 WP4/13 5 WP2/11 6 WP2/4 7 WP2/13 8 WP3/13 9 WP3/13 10 WP3/13 NNAR: Numbering, Naming, Addressing and Routing Q3(WP2) Q6(WP2) Q9(WP2) Q10(WP2) Q29/16 Q2(WP3) Q8(WP3) Q4(WP4) Q5(WP2) SG12 Q3(WP2) Q5(WP4) Q2 Q15(WP2) SG4 NGNMFG WP2/17 Q2(WP3) Q3 Q1/2 Q2(WP3) SG3 Q7(WP3) Working party chairman coordinates Question activities in 10 topics
  • 21. ITU-T NGN Management standardization structure SG4 (Telecommunication Management) 1. Telecommunication service/networks/equipment management for NGN and other networks 2. Application and evolution of TMN framework 3. Test, measurement and other mngt-related issues Question 8 of SG4 Management framework of NGN (e.g., M.3060) SG13 NGN Requirements NGN Management Focus Group (Chair: Dave Sidor (Nortel), Vice Chair: Leen Mak (Lucent)) 1. Specifies NGN (esp. NGN Release 1) management related to FCAPS interfaces 2. Currently focusing on development and maintenance of NGN Management Specification Roadmap for Release 1 (maps existing/developing standards, analyses gaps, etc.) NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative) The roadmap of NGN Management FG is available at http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com04/roadmap.html
  • 22. 3. Important ITU-T NGN standards
  • 23. ITU-T NGN Release1 Scope (Y.2000 supplement 1) Defines what is included in NGN Release 1
    • Network or Service provider selection
    • Prevention of unsolicited bulk telecommunications.
    • Malicious communication identification
    • User identifier presentation & privacy
    • Online services
    • Sensor Network services
    • Remote control/tele-action services
    • Broadcast Services
    • Hosted and transit services for enterprises
    • Information services
    • Location-based services
    • Presence and general notification services
    • 3GPP Release 6 and 3GPP2 Release A OSA-based services
    • Virtual Private Network (VPN) services
    • Existing data services
    • Data retrieval services
    Data communication services
    • Emergency Communications (including support of Early Warning):
    • Support for users with disabilities
    • Lawful Interception
    • Service unbundling
    • Number portability
    Public Interest Aspects
    • Real-time Conversational Voice services
    • Messaging services
    • Push to talk over NGN (PoN)
    • Point-to-Point interactive multimedia services
    • Collaborative interactive communication services
    • Content delivery services
    • Push-based services
    Multimedia services
    • Provides PSTN/ISDN equivalent services and interfaces on IP network infrastructure
    PSTN/ISDN Emulation services
    • Provides PSTN/ISDN like services by using session control of IP networks
    PSTN/ISDN simulation services Service description Service Types
  • 24. ITU-T NGN Release1 Requirements (Y.2201) (1/2) Defines requirements on these aspects (1/2)
    • Management
    • Open service environment
      • Service coordination
      • Interworking with service creation environments
      • Service discovery
      • Service registration
      • Development support
    • Profile management
      • User profile
      • Device profile
    • Policy management
    • Service enablers
      • Group management
      • Personal information management
      • Message handling
      • Multicast support
      • Presence
      • Location management
      • Push
      • Device management
      • Session handling
      • Web-based application support
      • Content processing
      • Data synchronization
    • Numbering, naming and addressing
      • General requirements for Numbering, Naming and Addressing
      • Numbering
      • Numbering, Naming and Addressing schemes
      • Name/Address resolution
      • Numbering, naming and addressing interworking
    • Identification, authentication and authorization
      • General requirements
      • Requirements for identification
      • Requirements for authentication
      • Requirements for authorization
    • Security
    • Mobility management
    • OAM
      • General OAM requirements
    • Survivability
      • Protection switching requirements
      • Rerouting requirements
      • Service resiliency requirements
    • Transport connectivity
    • Communication modes
    • Media resource management
    • Codecs
    • Access network and network attachment
    • User networks
    • Interconnection, Interoperability and Interworking
      • Interconnection
      • Interoperability
      • Interworking with non-NGN networks
    • Routing
    • Quality of Service
      • General QoS requirements
      • Network QoS classes
      • Service/Application Priority
      • QoS control
      • QoS Signalling
      • Performance measurement and management
      • Processing and traffic overload management
    • Accounting and charging
  • 25. ITU-T NGN Release1 Requirements (Y.2201) (2/2)
    • NGN management capabilities shall support the aims of the NGN by:
    • 1. Providing the ability to manage, through their complete life cycle, NGN components, both physical and logical. This includes resources in the transport stratum and the service stratum, access transport functions, interconnect components and user networks and terminals;
    • 2. Providing the ability to manage NGN service components independently from the underlying NGN transport components and enabling organizations offering NGN services (potentially from different service providers) to build distinctive service offerings to customers;
    • 3. Providing the management capabilities which enable organizations offering NGN services to offer users the ability to personalize user services and to create new services from NGN capabilities (potentially from different service providers);
    • (9 more requirements cont.)
    Defines requirements on these aspects (2/2) Requirements examples; on management 12 requirements are defined. Below are the first 3
    • PSTN/ISDN emulation and simulation
      • PSTN/ISDN emulation requirements
      • PSTN/ISDN simulation requirements
    • Public interest aspects
      • Lawful interception
      • Malicious communication identification
      • Unsolicited bulk telecommunications
      • Emergency telecommunications
      • User identity presentation and privacy
      • Network or Service Provider selection
      • Users with disabilities
      • Number portability
      • Service unbundling
    • Critical infrastructure protection
    • Non disclosure of information across NNI interfaces
    • Inter-provider exchange of user-related information
  • 26. NGN functional architecture (Y.2012)
    • Transport stratum for managed IP packet transfer, and Service stratum for session control and for additional services, are clearly separated. (Does not align with OSI model; e.g., transport stratum includes session)
    • Transport stratum: composed of Transport Function for IP packet transmission, NACF for user attachment (authentication, IP address assignment, etc.), and RACF for QoS
    From ITU-T Y.2012 (06/07)
    • Service stratum: composed of SCF for IMS and PSTN/ISDN emulation, and support functions for developing applications
    • Terminal: for 3G terminals: IPv6, for traditional fixed-network terminals: IPv4
    • 3 rd Party applications for Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) works on Application Network Interface (ANI)
    NGN architecture overview Transport stratum Service stratum Management Functions A NI Transport Control Functions Network Attachment Control Functions Network Attachment Control Functions (NACF) NNI UNI Application Support Functions & Service Support Functions Applications Transport Functions End- User Functions Other Networks Service Control Functions (SCF) Transport User Profiles Control Media Management Resource and Admission Control Functions (RACF) Service User Service User Profiles T ransport User
  • 27. Detailed functional architecture (Y.2012)
  • 28. IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) overview
    • Provides various SIP-based services
      • Provides session control, charging, security functions
        • Increase end-user’s experience by unifying registration, authentication and charging
      • Provides interfaces to control transport functions
        • QoS, media gateway, alignment of charging on transport functions and service functions
      • Provides interfaces not only to operators, but 3 rd party application vendors
    • Clearly defined SIP from operator’s point of view
      • IETF SIP is not enough for network operators e.g., IETF SIP does not define the start and the end of charging
    • ITU-T NGN refers 3GPP Release 7 IMS
  • 29. IMS for NGN (Y.2021)
    • CSCF (Call Session Control Function): SIP server, the core of this architecture. P-CSCF (Proxy CSCF) is a sip server that communicate with user terminals
    • Various functions are defined as the gateway to other networks
  • 30. Per-session Resource and Admission Control Functions (Y.2111)
    • End-user (terminal) requests SCF a session establishment
    • RACF manages the current network resources, and grant/reject the request to achieve QoS guarantee
      • Relative QoS (e.g., diffserv’s CoS) is acceptable
      • Various message flow and protocols are defined, operators will choose
    • ETSI NGN Release 1 defines RACF for access network only ITU-T defines core network RACF as well
    SCF SCF : Service Control Functions (IMS and PSTN/ISDN emulation function on IMS) RACF : Resource Admission Control Functions AP server SIP server … Access-RACF Resource control server PDF Core-RACF Resource control server PDF Access network (e.g, metro ethernet) Core networks (e.g., MPLS) Other NGN networks Session establish Request by SIP DIAMETER, etc.
  • 31. Security Requirements (Y.2701)
    • Border element on the edge protects inside NEs
      • Security requirements are defined for outside NEs, inside NEs and Border Elements
    • Does not define requirements on SIM
    CPE CPE-BE (home GW) Media BE Signaling BE NGN BE The Internet BE SIP server Various NEs OpS Other networks Trusted zone an NGN operator can trust Trust model
  • 32. Session Border Controller (Y.2012 supplement 1)
    • Defines S/BC functions for media path and signaling path
    • S/BC can be placed between any networks
    • This document is a supplement --- not mandatory
    • Traffic control for signalling messages
    • Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
    • Signalling protocol translation
    • Signalling protocol interworking
    • Session-based routing
    • DSP service control
    • End-user information hiding
    • Topology and infrastructure hiding
    • DoS protection
    • Signalling encryption and decryption
    • Support for ETS/TDR
    • Support for emergency calls
    • VPN bridging or mediation
    • Opening and closing of a pinhole (Firewall)
    • Policing and marking
    • Detection of inactivity
    • NAT and NAPT
    • Assisting remote NAT/NAPT traversal
    • Resource and admission control
    • IP payload processing
    • Performance measurement
    • Denial of service (DoS) detection and protection
    • Media encryption and decryption
    • Support for Emergency Telecommunications Service/Telecommunication for Disaster Relief (ETS/TDR)
    • Support for emergency calls
    Signaling path func. Media path func.
  • 33. New services/capabilities discussed in ITU-T (1/2) Service Stratum Transport stratum End-user func. Other networks Management Applications UNI NGN
    • Application
    • IPTV (-)
    • Multi-play by DSLAM (Poland)
    • UPT (C)
    • IMS based real-time conversation voice service (C)
    • Telematics (for ITS support) (K)
    • Service stratum related capabilities
    • Charging (K)
    • ID based applications (RFID support, etc.) (K)
    • Open service environment capabilities (K)
    • Web service based Convergence service (K)
    • Convergence terminals (K)
    • Transport stratum related capabilities
    • FMC (C)
    • VPN (K)
    • Multicast with MPLS-based QoS support (K)
    • Contents Conversion Service Scenario (K)
    • MPLS-based mobility and QoS (K)
    ANI (proposed country, K: Korea C: China)
  • 34. New services/capabilities discussed in ITU-T (2/2)
    • Service stratum related capabilities
      • RFID; Describes RFID applications. Requirements for NGN will be added in the future
      • Open Service Environment Capabilities: Describes integrated ANI (application network interface) including 3GPP OSA. Requirements for NGN will be added in the future
    • Transport stratum related capabilities
      • FMC; documents on requirements, IMS-based architecture, Service scenario for NGN with PSTN-based access networks are under discussion
      • Multicast with MPLS-based QoS support: Requirements, architecture overview, information flow are under discussion
    • Application related services
      • IPTV discussion is moved to Focus Group on IPTV (~2006/07)
    • Most new services are proposed by Korea and China in ITU-T
    • # of experts are ITU-T is not enough, and most recommendations on these issues are not very mature
  • 35. 4. NGN standardization in Japan
  • 36. Structure of NGN Study/Standardization in Japan
    • Next Generation IP Network Promotion Forum
    • Combines strength of operators, vendors, academies, domestic fora and application vendors to promote all-IP networks
    • Established in December 2005, 211 members (March 2006)
    • Promotes interoperability tests, demonstration experiment, information exchange as well as standardization based on R&D
    • Technological focus: QoS and function, dependability (security and safety), interoperability and interconnectivity
    • TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee)
    • Develops NGN-related technical standards as a committee to establish telecommunication related standards and protocols
    • Created NGN architecture WG and NGN upstream SWG in April 2005
    • Collaborates and contributes to ITU-T and various foreign fora such as 3GPP and 3GPP2
    MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
  • 37. MIC-TTC coordination ITU-T Sectional Meeting NGN committee (SG11, SG13) NGN WG Leader: Prof. Koichi Asatani Leader: Naotaka Morita (NTT) Sub-leader: Hideaki Yamada (KDDI) Sub-leader: Takashi Egawa (NEC) 1. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (Information and communication Technology Sub-counsil) Technical Assembly Strategy Committee 2. TTC NGN Architecture WG NGN upstream Sub-WG (SG13) Signaling WG Signaling upstream Sub-WG (SG11) Technical Study AG Global Collaboration AG NGN AG Leader: Naotaka Morita (NTT) Leader: Takuya Sawada (KDDI) Advisory Groups (AGs) CJK NGN-WG /w CCSA, TTA Integral operation Network Management Committee (SG4) Net. Management WG
  • 38. Structure of Next Generation IP Network Promotion Forum Forum Chair: Tadao Saito (Prof. Emeritus, U-Tokyo) Vice-Chair: Ryuji Yamada (NTT) 、 Yasuhiko Ito (KDDI) Bureau (NiCT) Technology Group Chairman: Shigeki Goto (Waseda-U) R&D/Standardization Group Chair: Koichi Asatani (U-Kogakuin) Planning & Promotion Group Chair: Yuichi Matsushima (NiCT)
    • Interconnectivity test planning, promotion and coordination, including the coordination with relevant fora
    • Studies regulatory issues of IP telephony, in particular QoS and functionality, safety and security, interconnectivity and interoperability as well as regulatory issues of other advanced services. Practices proving test, if necessary.
    • Promotes R&D and the standardization of its results by establishing basic strategies and promotion methods, and by practicing proving tests. R&D focuses not only on NGN R1&R2, but beyond R2.
    • Promotes deployment and information exchange of next generation IP networks. Publicize appropriate information through publications, symposiums and market promotions. Surveys domestic and international R&D trends.
  • 39.  
  • 40. Backup slides
  • 41. ITU-T document list Experts agree that the document is mature Approved as ITU-T recommendation by Governments' voting TAP: 6~9 month for policy and regulation related recommendations AAP: 2 month for technical recommendations ITU-T recommendation approval process
  • 42. ETSI TISPAN document list (1/5) - Status -           Pub : Published (before December 2005) -           App : Approved at TISPAN#9 (December 2005) -           AbC : Approval by correspondence after TISPAN#9 (deadline 20 January 2006) -           Plen: Approval expected at TISPAN#10 (February 2006) - Deliverable/Type of Document -           TR : ETSI Technical Report (enters the Publication process immediately after TISPAN approval) -           TS : ETSI Technical Specification (goes to Publication process immediately after TISPAN approval) -           ES : ETSI Standard (has to pass the Membership Approval Procedure before Publication) - Q.x/SG: identifies the Question in the SG Note: the &quot;Short title&quot; given is based on the Work Item title and is not the exact title of the ETSI TISPAN approved document.
  • 43. ETSI TISPAN document list (2/5)
  • 44. ETSI TISPAN document list (3/5)
  • 45. ETSI TISPAN document list (4/5)
  • 46. ETSI TISPAN document list (5/5)

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