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How to Improve Plant Operations Through Better HMI Graphics

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  • 1. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DHow to Improve Plant Operations throughBetter HMI GraphicsDavid Board & Martin GrantCommercial Project EngineersRockwell Automation, EMEA
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2AgendaLayout and ColorsInterpreting the DataBad PracticesSituation AwarenessPutting the Ideas into PracticeUsing PatternsPattern RecognitionUsing TrendingLevel IndicationWhy HMI Graphics Matter
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3Acknowledgements The High Performance HMI Handbook PAS - Bill Hollifield, Dana Oliver, Ian Nimmo and Eddie Habibi Designing for Situation Awareness (An approach to User-centeredDesign) Mica R. Endsley and Debra G. Jones Human Machine Interface (HMI) Design: The Good, The Bad, and TheUgly (and what makes them so) ICS Triplex - Paul Gruhn, P.E.This presentation was developed from ideas and reference materialslisted below. We respectfully acknowledge the material and authors:
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4Why HMI Graphics matter Poor HMI Graphics causes Confusion Operator Fatigue Low Situation Awareness All of the above could Cause the operator to miss vital information Lead the operator to make misinformed decisions Cause a serious accident
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5Why HMI Graphics matter Who wants to be responsible for designing an HMI graphic that can leadto this? U.S. CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARDINVESTIGATION REPORT REPORT NO. 2005-04-I-TX
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6Why HMI Graphics matter The Operator viewed this screen, which provides information on raffinateproduct leaving the unit but not the liquid being added to the unit.
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7Situation Awareness Situation awareness means Being aware of what is happening around you. Understanding what that information means to you now. Understanding what that information means to you in the future. Situation awareness relates to the goals and objectives of a specific job orfunction. Designers and engineers form in their heads a different mental model of theprocess than an operator. By understanding how operators select and use goals, designers can betterunderstand how information is perceived. Without understanding the user’s goalson Situation Awareness, the information presented has no meaning.
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8Situation Awareness Applying SA terminology to HMI Graphics Level 1 SA – P&ID representation with live numbers. Level 2 SA – Provide the operator with the relevant information they needto understand how the plant is operating. Level 3 SA – Provide trending data so that the operator can see how itwas / will perform. Level 2 and Level 3 SA reinforces the operators mental model of the plantor process.
  • 9. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9The History of Bad or is it? Is the pump in alarm or stopped ? Are the valves in alarm or closed ? High Contrast Causes eye fatigue.
  • 10. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10Modern BUT Good or Bad Is this a good graphic? What is the reactor temperature? What Percentage of the screen is presenting useful data? The pretty 3D objects are superfluous. The flame attracts your attention. The moving lorry attracts your attention. Overuse of color – causes confusion.
  • 11. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11Elements of displays that hinderSituation Awareness High contrast High Contrasting objects strain the eyes and cause fatigue. The warm colors – red, orange and yellow – Draws your attention to them, are they in alarm, warning or just aroute product indication Draws your attention to it. Complex graphics and 3D objects Make it difficult to develop a metal model.The following objects when used in a display for a normal situation alldraw your attention, cause distractions/fatigue, and could cause theoperator to miss important data.High contrastEspecially when flashingMovement
  • 12. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12Interpreting the Data Is this chap healthy? What should the numbers be? How long does it take you to scan and interpret the information? Do the numbers mean anything to you? Are the numbers actually meaningful? How much training would you require before you could interpret thenumbers?
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13Interpreting the Data We can now see the upper and lower limit for these values. How long does it take you to scan and compare these numbers? How much longer does it take you to calculate by how much they arewithin range? This is data that requires thinking about and processing. (Level 1 SA) Data should be presented that supports comprehension. (Level 2 SA)
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Interpreting the Data We need to Provide a pointer to a scale. Provide a clear indication of the normal working range. Clearly show upper and lower limits. With analog The brain interprets an analog display quicker than a number. Can easily see WHERE the value is as well as WHAT it is. Can easily see rates of change.What we need is analog.
  • 15. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15Interpreting the Data1960s Science Fiction to the rescue
  • 16. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16Moving Analog Indicator Normal operational values shown in white. High and low alarm ranges shown in dark grey. Desirable operational ranges shown in dark blue. Alarm indicator with priority level and color.
  • 17. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17Depicting Material Balance Two major accidents with flammable material have been attributed to HMIgraphics that did NOT show flow in and flow out on the same graphic. P&ID representation often leads designers of graphics to split the flow inand the flow out of a vessel across two screens – all to common practice. A properly implemented mass balance or volumetric material balancecalculation and display of that data could have stopped these accidents.
  • 18. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18Layout and Colors Do Grey is in fashion – grey backgrounds, grey pipelines, grey vessels. Use low contrast. Only show information that supports comprehension of the process orplant. Represent performance data as trends. (Level 3 SA) Design to allow the operator to achieve his goals. Only attract attention to an area of the display if there is a potentialissue. Don’t Decrease the operator’s situation awareness ; this can occur whenyou go too far and make the operator feel he is out of the loop.
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19Color BlindnessNormal Protanopia Deuteranopia TritanopiaRed-Green Blue-Yellow 7 to 10% of males are Red-Green Color Blind Good graphic design avoids using color coding or using color contrastsalone to express information; this not only helps color blind people, butalso aids understanding by normally sighted people.
  • 20. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20Representing Digital Devices Do not use red for stopped/closed or green for running/opened. Only use color to bring attention to an abnormal condition. A pump simplynot running is not an abnormal condition. Consider using a visually different shape within the object to representRunning/Opened. This not only helps color blind people, but also aidsunderstanding by normally sighted people. Use status words that describe the digital condition (i.e. Running andStopped not Run and Stop). These could be confused with commandwords.
  • 21. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21Representing Digital Devices andControl Valves Do not use overly complex depictions. Tiny moving arrows on the stem of a valve. Tiny illegible scales to represent percentage open Variable shading schemes..
  • 22. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22Representing Multiple Digital Devices Multiple digital devices can be represented as a light box. Running is a normal condition, so there is no need to show a color for it’sstatus. How about going one step further and removing the normal condition fromthe screen and only display the item if it’s in a abnormal condition?
  • 23. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23Consistent Navigation Be consistent
  • 24. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24The use of Trending Provides assistance for Level 3 SA projection of future status through theuse of trend displays. The operator can then see where the process is heading. The operator can then be proactive and recognize impending problems,rather than being reactive and responding to alarms and problems afterthe fact. Use trending with thought. For instance a trend with 8 trends on it isconfusing and takes a long time to analyze.
  • 25. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25The use of Trending We can see the value and it’s past trends. We can make predictions of what the value is about to do based on itshistorical behaviour.BUT What should the value be? What are the normal good operating High and Low limits?
  • 26. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26The use of Trending We can see the value and it’s past trends. We can see what the value should be. We can see what are the normal operational High and Low limits
  • 27. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27Level Indication Provide High and Low Bad indication on the vessel. Provide normal Good Upper and Good Lower indication. Trend the level inside of the vessel outline.
  • 28. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28Pattern Recognition 12 Numbers on a screen take time to interpret. 12 Trends on a trend become confusing. Filled Radar Plot The radar plot is a graph that consists of a sequence of equi-angularspokes, called radii, with each spoke representing one of thevariables. The data length of a spoke is proportional to the magnitude of thevariable for the data point relative to the maximum magnitude of thevariable across all data points. Scaling of each of the axis can generate a pattern for normal range ofvariables. For example 6 values can be scaled to form an equilateralhexagon when the plant is running under normal conditions. A change in the pattern is very quickly identified by the operator.
  • 29. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29Putting the ideas into practice Grey background, vessels and pipes low contrasting grey. No movement of objects to distract attention. Use color for abnormal plant conditions only. Analog Status indicator. Key operating parameters trended on screen, not having to click to show. Radar plot for easy monitoring of multiple related variables. Low level details of plant accessible by clicking on them. Consistent navigation across displays. Mixed upper and lower case characters are easier to read than all UPPERcase.
  • 30. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30View5000 Standard Objects Moving analog indicator – hihi, hi, normal, lo, lolo Filled Radar chart – 6 variables
  • 31. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31Acknowledgements The High Performance HMI Handbook PAS - Bill Hollifield, Dana Oliver, Ian Nimmo and Eddie Habibi Designing for Situation Awareness (An approach to User-centeredDesign) Mica R. Endsley and Debra G. Jones Human Machine Interface (HMI) Design: The Good, The Bad, and TheUgly (and what makes them so) ICS Triplex - Paul Gruhn, P.E.This presentation was developed from ideas and reference materialslisted below. We respectfully acknowledge the material and authors:
  • 32. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32Guidelines ASM Consortium Guidelines – ISBN 978-1440431647 Effective Operator Display Design ISA 101, Human-Machine Interfaces - Website http://www.isa.org/MSTemplate.cfm?MicrositeID=1142&CommitteeID=6899 ISA 101, Sharepoint http://isa101.isa.org/default.aspxThe following guidelines are available as an aid to designing HighPerformance HMIs
  • 33. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DQuestions?
  • 34. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DThank you for participating!Please remember to tidy up your work area for the next session.We want your feedback! Please complete the session survey!VZ09 – How to Improve Plant Operationsthrough Better HMI Graphics