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Functional Safety and the Changing Compliance Landscape

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This session will introduce you to functional safety standards and requirements that apply to industrial automation equipment. Many of these requirements are driven by the European Machinery Directive …

This session will introduce you to functional safety standards and requirements that apply to industrial automation equipment. Many of these requirements are driven by the European Machinery Directive but are globally accepted by multinational manufacturers. Understand the standards, the upcoming merger between
IEC 62061 and ISO 13849, their application, assignment of risk and performance levels, and tools available to help you calculate machinery safety data.

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  • 1. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. PUBLIC INFORMATION Functional Safety and the Changing Compliance Landscape Chris Brogli Global Business Development Manager for Safety
  • 2. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Session Purpose and Intent  This session is meant to provide insight to functional safety, compliance and the global trends in safety.  Additional sessions (SF01, SF02, SF03, SF04 & SF05) provide additional safety content.
  • 3. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 4. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. History of Safety in USA 4  1877 – Massachusetts, required guarding of belts, shafts and gears  1890 – Nine US states required machine guarding  1930 – All US states had established job-related safety laws  1934 – Bureau of Labor Standards (F. D. Roosevelt - Frances Perkins)  Promote safety and health for working men and women  1970 – Occupational Safety and Health Act (William Steiger’s Act)  1981 – Lost Workday Incident Rates policy established by OSHA  1991 – EN 292 – Basic Concepts of Machine Safety  1996 – EN 954 and EN 1050 – Machinery Safety Safety has been a growing part of the human integrated manufacturing environment. Our responsibility is required.
  • 5. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. U.S. Legislation 1970 Williams Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act Purpose: The Congress declares it to be its purpose and policy ... to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources. Check out their website on www.osha.gov
  • 6. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 7. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Employer Requirements Defined by OSHA  OSHA requires that each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.  OSHA specifies minimal standards, and offers little, if any, assistance in compliance solutions.  OSHA uses industry standards as well as manufacturer’s instructions when investigating accidents.  Manufacturers and employers should apply consensus standards to help assure safety.
  • 8. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Standards Organizations Initials Sponsoring Organization Scope ANSI American National Standards Institute U.S.A. AS Australia Standard Australia ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers U.S.A. ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers U.S.A. B11 Association of Manufacturing Technology U.S.A. CSA Canadian Standards Association Canada EN European Norm European Community IEC International Electrotechnical Commission Global ISO International Organization for Standardization Global NFPA National Fire Protection Association U.S.A. OSHA Occupational and Safety Health Administration U.S.A. PMMI Packaging Machinery Manufacturer’s Association U.S.A. RIA Robotic Industries Association U.S.A.
  • 9. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. OHSA/US Standards Hierarchy Copy OHSA Machine Safety 1910.xxx Machine Safety - General Safety Requirements ANSI B11.GSR Machine Safety - Principles for Risk Assessment ANSI B11.TR3 Machine Safety - Selection of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES/PLC) for Machine Tools ANSI B11.TR4 Electrical equipment of machines ANSI/NFPA 79
  • 10. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. EN/ISO Machinery Directive Standards Hierarchy European Machine Directive 2006/42/EC Machine Safety - Basic concepts EN/ISO 12100 Machine Safety - Principles for Risk Assessment EN/ISO 14121 Machine Safety - safety-related parts of control systems EN/ISO 13849-1 Non-electrical and simple electrical Machine Safety - Electrical equipment of machines IEC 60204-1 Machine Safety - Functional safety of EEPES control systems IEC 62061
  • 11. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. EN/ISO and OHSA/ANSI Standards Hierarchy Comparison Copy OHSA Machine Safety 1910.xxx Machine Safety - General Safety Requirements ANSI B11.GSR Machine Safety - Principles for Risk Assessment ANSI B11.TR3 Machine Safety - Selection of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES/PLC) for Machine Tools ANSI B11.TR4 Electrical equipment of machines ANSI/NFPA 79 European Machine Directive 2006/42/EC Machine Safety - Basic concepts EN/ISO 12100 Machine Safety - Principles for Risk Assessment EN/ISO 14121 Machine Safety - safety-related parts of control systems ISO 13849-1 Non-electrical and simple electrical Machine Safety - Electrical equipment of machines IEC 60204-1 Machine Safety - Functional safety of EEPES control systems IEC 62061
  • 12. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What does this mean to us? What are the steps? Step 1 - Define the Requirements Step 2 – Follow and Assessment Process Step 3 – Utilize a defined Assessment Tool/Method Step 5 – Follow the proper regional electrical installation standard. The European & North American machinery directives/standards outlines the general requirements that shall be followed to ensure that machines are assessed and that proper protection methods have been implemented to ensure personnel protection. These harmonized standards (EN/ISO/ANSI) outline the requirements for assessments. The ISO and IEC standards both address the design of the safety related parts of the control system including the requirements of design verification. IEC/NEC/NFPA standard s address electrical installation and wiring practices. Step 4 - Determine the design method and verify the design
  • 13. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 14. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trends in Safety  In recent years there has been a move towards globalizing safety standards. This has resulted in a re-write of many of the EN and ISO standards. Many of the changes were to take place in December of 2009 but were extended two years to December 2011.  These changes include a systems approach to safety. This systems approach looks at the equipment, the raw materials, the finished products, the people that interact with the system and the environment the equipment is operated in order to determine the system’s required performance level (PLr).  Performance levels are determined through the use of risk assessments.  Employers and equipment manufacturers are encouraged to use risk assessments to determine the potential hazards associated with operating a machine or system in order to determine the required performance level.
  • 15. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Evolution of Safety Systems Copyright © Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. 1960 1970 2000 Future1980 1990 You invest a safety system to protect people. You invest in advanced safety technology to enhance machine performance. 2010 Legacy • High Productivity • Low Safety • No Assessment Initial Safety • Lower Productivity • Medium to High Safety • Hazard Assessment Modern Safety • High Productivity • High Safety • Risk Assessment
  • 16. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Safety Standards of Today 16 Withdrawn EN 954 CATEGORY FAULT TOLERANCE DIAGNOSTICS 2005/6 2011
  • 17. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. State of the Art… 17  Does the standard address critical technologies that exist today and how to apply those technologies in a safety-related way?  EN 954? – A standard that was developed for electro-mechanical type systems (Relays/Contactors/Etc.)  ISO 13849-1? A standard that was developed for more advanced solid-state type products (Safety PLC’s/Controllers/Drives/Servo’s)  ANSI RIA 15.06? An evolving standard that is moving from the EN954 type methodology toward new technologies that are addressed by ISO13849, IEC62061 and IEC61508.
  • 18. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Safety Standards of Today 18 EN954 Withdrawn EN 954 CATEGORY FAULT TOLERANCE DIAGNOSTICS 2005/6 2011 FAULT TOLERANCE DIAGNOSTICS SRS RELIABILITY SYSTEMATIC FSM IEC/EN 62061 SIL EN ISO 13849 PL
  • 19. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ISO-13849 and ANSI 19  ANSI/RIA-15.06 has changed!  ANSI/RIA now references ISO-10218 & ISO13849. (This just happened)  Documentation is being developed and will release in June of this year!  This means that Performance Levels are here to stay!
  • 20. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061 What’s Next!
  • 21. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Safety Future? Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061 21 Withdrawn FAULT TOLERANCE DIAGNOSTICS SRS RELIABILITY SYSTEMATIC FSM IEC/EN 62061 SIL EN ISO 13849 PL EN 954 CATEGORY FAULT TOLERANCE DIAGNOSTICS 2005/6 2011 2016 ? IEC ISO 17305
  • 22. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061 Where do we go from here?
  • 23. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061
  • 24. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 25. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. IEC 61508 - Functional Safety PL & SIL IEC/EN 61508 Functional safety of electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic safety-related systems (EEPE/CS) IEC/EN 61511 SIS (SIL1 – SIL4) IEC/EN 62061 EEPE/CS (SIL1 - SIL3) EN/ISO 13849 SRP/CS (PLa - PLe) Process Machinery Software
  • 26. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Changing to Functional Safety ISO 13849-1 IEC 62061 Safety Categories are no longer in effect since EN954-1 was withdrawn in December of 2011. ISO 13849-1 has replaced EN954-1 as the most commonly followed international machine safety standard. ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061 are known as functional safety standards. These standards look at how well a safety system needs to operate. This allows us to use new technologies to drive productivity and safety. These new technologies are called contemporary safety solutions.
  • 27. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ComplianceProductivityPerformance New Standards are helping by allowing new technologies and solutions to be used! Profits Functional safety is a new term that is being used in the industry to look at how well the safety system needs to function. Manufacturing plants are seeing contemporary safety & control solutions as a method of enhancing productivity and machine utilization
  • 28. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Contemporary Safety Automation  In the past, safety and production control systems shared little, if any information  Harmonizing your safety and production control systems offer tremendous opportunities to improve productivity  Shared diagnostics on common HMI for faster troubleshooting  Safety system that changes parameters based on the state of the production system  Zone control to enable continued production flow when one zone is shut down  Better shut down and restart of production systems after a safety event Operating Equipment Control System Safety System A machine control strategy that includes both safety and production control systems – Purpose of production system is to produce – Purpose of safety system is to protect
  • 29. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ISO 13849-1 Explanation  ISO 13849-1 is the result of improvements to the old EN-954-1 standard. EN954 was developed for simple electro-mechanical devices. ISO13849 allows for the use of solid state devices!  ISO13849 introduces new design concepts that provide guidance on the design and integration of safety components to meet required performance levels (PLr).  Required Performance Levels (PLr) is determined by doing a risk assessment! Category Performance Level A performance Level is an improved Category!
  • 30. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Categories Still Exist but Only as a Subpart of ISO13849!
  • 31. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Copyright © Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Categories are still the Major Piece of the Puzzle! Categories are also referred to as Structure! 31 CAT B/1 CAT 2 CAT 3 CAT 4 (higher diagnostic coverage that CAT 3)
  • 32. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Structure + Reliability + Monitoring = Safe Systems 32 MTTFd Mean Time to Dangerous Failure Low 0 -10 Years Medium 10-30 Years High 30-100 Years DC Diagnostic Coverage = Detected Dangerous Failures / All Dangerous Failures None DC < 60% Low 60 < DC < 90% Medium 90 < DC < 99% High DC >99% Reliability and Monitoring Calculations
  • 33. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.33 a b c d e PerformanceLevel Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Designated Architecture Cat B Cat 1 Cat 2 Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat3 Cat 4 DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg <60% <60% 60% to < 90% 90% to < 99% 60% to < 90% 90% to < 99% 99% Structure (Category) Diagnostic Coverage (DC) Reliability (MTTF) Confirming PLr is achieved by… Balancing Structure (Cat), Reliability (MTTFd) and Diagnostic Coverage (DCavg)
  • 34. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 35. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Do the Standards Say About Machine Safety? Companies have 2 choices when dealing with machine safety. Choice 1 – Lock-out/Tag-out (Also known as Energy Isolation) Choice 2 – Alternative means (Also known as Machinery Safety)
  • 36. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Energy Isolation vs. Machine Guarding Machine Maintenance  Regulation: Lockout / Tagout or Energy Isolation  Requirement: Release stored energy  Tasks: Isolation of Mechanical / Electrical Equipment for Service and Maintenance Production Operation  Regulation: Machine Guarding or alternative protection means  Requirement: Protect operators from machine production hazards  Tasks: Operator Interaction for Regular Machine Production Minor servicing must be routine, repetitive and integral to the operation of the system. Minor Servicing Exception • minor jams, minor tool changes & adjustments, exchange Regulation: Machine Guarding or alternative protection means • Requirement: Protect operators from machine production hazards when performing minor servicing • Tasks: Minor servicing such as clearing of work piece, etc. Minor Service Exception to Lockout Tagout Must provide alternative Measures that offer effective protection
  • 37. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Lock-out/Tag-out or Energy Isolation Purpose 37 The purpose is to protect against the consequences of unexpected "energization" or start-up of mechanical systems, or the release of stored energy. An employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device. Anytime an employee is required to place any part of his or her body into a hazardous area of a machine or piece of equipment where work is actually performed. The standards say Lock-out Tag-out will be followed when:
  • 38. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exceptions to Lock-out Tag-out or Energy Isolation 38 Note of Exception: Minor tool changes and adjustments, and other minor servicing activities, which take place during normal production operations, are not covered by this standard if they are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment for production, provided that the work is performed using alternative measures which provide effective protection. “Alternative Measures” include machine safeguarding which should be determined through the use of a risk assessment.
  • 39. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. How Do You Apply Alternative Measures?  Machine hazards should be determined by the use of a safety or risk assessment.  The assessment will determine the required system performance that is required.  The assessment will also determine possible mitigation solutions.
  • 40. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Standard Should You Use?  It depends on:  Regional requirements  National regulations  Industry type  Technologies being used  Where the machine or system will be utilized  Considerations  What type of technology is going to be utilized  Simple or Complex system needs The ISO & IEC standards will get you where you need to be anywhere on the globe! ISO12100 is a recommended method or assessment and ISO13849, IEC62061 and IEC61508 are the recommended design standards.
  • 41. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41 Agenda Closing & Wrap-up How can you ensure that you are in compliance? Trends in Safety OSHA Requirements History of Safety What is functional safety?
  • 42. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. How Can Rockwell Automation Help?  Safety Consulting Services  Training  Conformity Audits  Hazard Assessments  Safety Assessments  Risk Assessments  Safety System Validation  Safety Implementation Services  Project Management & Turnkey Safety System Integration  Sales Resources  Safety Seminars  Product Selection Tools  Design Tools
  • 43. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. We care what you think! 43  On the mobile app: 1. Locate session using Schedule or Agenda Builder 2. Click on the thumbs up icon on the lower right corner of the session detail 3. Complete survey 4. Click the Submit Form button Please take a couple minutes to complete a quick session survey to tell us how we’re doing. 2 3 4 1 Thank you!!
  • 44. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. PUBLIC INFORMATION Questions?
  • 45. Copyright © 2014 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. PUBLIC INFORMATION Thank you for participating!