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Functional Safety and the Changing Compliance Landscape

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  • 1. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DFunctional Safety and theChanging Compliance LandscapeChris BrogliGlobal Business Development Manager for Safety
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Session Purpose and Intent This session is meant to provide insight to functionalsafety, compliance and the global trends in safety. Additional sessions (SF01, SF02, SF03, SF04 & SF05)provide additional safety content.
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.History of Safety in USA 1877 – Massachusetts, required guarding of belts, shafts and gears 1890 – Nine US states required machine guarding 1930 – All US states had established job-related safety laws 1934 – Bureau of Labor Standards (F. D. Roosevelt - Frances Perkins) Promote safety and health for working men and women 1970 – Occupational Safety and Health Act (William Steiger’s Act) 1981 – Lost Workday Incident Rates policy established by OSHA 1991 – EN 292 – Basic Concepts of Machine Safety 1996 – EN 954 and EN 1050 – Machinery Safety4Safety has been a growing part of the human integrated manufacturingenvironment. Our responsibility is required.
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.U.S. Legislation1970 Williams SteigerOccupational Safety and Health ActPurpose: The Congress declares it to be itspurpose and policy ... to assure so far aspossible every working man and woman inthe Nation safe and healthful workingconditions and to preserve our humanresources.Check out their website on www.osha.gov
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Employer Requirements Defined byOSHAOSHA requires that each employer shall furnish to each of his employeesemployment and a place of employment which are free from recognizedhazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physicalharm to his employees.OSHA specifies minimal standards, and offers little, if any, assistance incompliance solutions.OSHA uses industry standards as well as manufacturer’s instructionswhen investigating accidents.Manufacturers and employers should apply consensus standards to helpassure safety.
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.8Standards OrganizationsInitials Sponsoring Organization ScopeANSI American National Standards Institute U.S.A.AS Australia Standard AustraliaASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers U.S.A.ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers U.S.A.B11 Association of Manufacturing Technology U.S.A.CSA Canadian Standards Association CanadaEN European Norm EuropeanCommunityIEC International Electrotechnical Commission GlobalISO International Organization for Standardization GlobalNFPA National Fire Protection Association U.S.A.OSHA Occupational and Safety Health Administration U.S.A.PMMI Packaging Machinery Manufacturer’s Association U.S.A.RIA Robotic Industries Association U.S.A.
  • 9. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.CopyOHSA/US Standards HierarchyOHSA Machine Safety 1910.xxxMachine Safety - General SafetyRequirementsANSI B11.GSRMachine Safety - Principles for RiskAssessmentANSI B11.TR3Machine Safety - Selection ofProgrammable Electronic Systems(PES/PLC) for Machine ToolsANSI B11.TR4Electrical equipment of machinesANSI/NFPA 79
  • 10. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.EN/ISO Machinery Directive Standards HierarchyEuropean Machine Directive 2006/42/ECMachine Safety - Basic conceptsEN/ISO 12100Machine Safety - Principles for RiskAssessmentEN/ISO 14121Machine Safety -safety-related partsof control systemsEN/ISO 13849-1Non-electrical andsimple electricalMachine Safety - Electrical equipment ofmachinesIEC 60204-1Machine Safety -Functional safety ofEEPES controlsystemsIEC 62061
  • 11. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.CopyEN/ISO and OHSA/ANSI Standards Hierarchy ComparisonOHSA Machine Safety 1910.xxxMachine Safety - General SafetyRequirementsANSI B11.GSRMachine Safety - Principles for RiskAssessmentANSI B11.TR3Machine Safety - Selection ofProgrammable Electronic Systems(PES/PLC) for Machine ToolsANSI B11.TR4Electrical equipment of machinesANSI/NFPA 79European Machine Directive 2006/42/ECMachine Safety - Basic conceptsEN/ISO 12100Machine Safety - Principles for RiskAssessmentEN/ISO 14121Machine Safety -safety-related partsof control systemsISO 13849-1Non-electrical andsimple electricalMachine Safety - Electrical equipment ofmachinesIEC 60204-1Machine Safety -Functional safety ofEEPES controlsystemsIEC 62061
  • 12. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.What does this mean to us? What are the steps?Step 1 - Define theRequirementsStep 2 – Follow andAssessment ProcessStep 3 – Utilize a definedAssessment Tool/MethodStep 5 – Follow the proper regionalelectrical installation standard.The European & North American machinerydirectives/standards outlines the generalrequirements that shall be followed to ensurethat machines are assessed and that properprotection methods have been implemented toensure personnel protection.These harmonized standards (EN/ISO/ANSI)outline the requirements for assessments.The ISO and IEC standards both address thedesign of the safety related parts of the controlsystem including the requirements of designverification.IEC/NEC/NFPA standard s address electricalinstallation and wiring practices.Step 4 - Determine thedesign method and verifythe design
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Trends in SafetyIn recent years there has been a move towards globalizing safetystandards. This has resulted in a re-write of many of the EN and ISOstandards. Many of the changes were to take place in December of 2009but were extended two years to December 2011.These changes include a systems approach to safety. This systemsapproach looks at the equipment, the raw materials, the finished products,the people that interact with the system and the environment theequipment is operated in order to determine the system’s requiredperformance level (PLr).Performance levels are determined through the use of risk assessments.Employers and equipment manufacturers are encouraged to use riskassessments to determine the potential hazards associated with operatinga machine or system in order to determine the required performance level.
  • 15. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15Safety Standards of TodayWithdrawnEN 954CATEGORYFAULT TOLERANCEDIAGNOSTICS2005/6 2011
  • 16. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.State of the Art… Does the standard address critical technologies that exist today and howto apply those technologies in a safety-related way? EN 954 - A standard that was developed for electro-mechanical typesystems (Relays/Contactors/Etc.) ISO 13849-1 - A standard that was developed for more advancedsolid-state type products (Safety PLC’s/Controllers/Drives/Servo’s) ANSI RIA 15.06 - An evolving standard that is moving from theEN954 type methodology toward new technologies that areaddressed by ISO13849, IEC62061 and IEC61508.16
  • 17. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17Safety Standards of TodayEN954 WithdrawnEN 954CATEGORYFAULT TOLERANCEDIAGNOSTICS2005/6 2011FAULT TOLERANCEDIAGNOSTICS SRSRELIABILITYSYSTEMATICFSMIEC/EN 62061 SILEN ISO 13849 PL
  • 18. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.ISO-13849 and ANSI18 ANSI/RIA-15.06 has changed! ANSI/RIA now references ISO-10218 & ISO13849. (This just happened) Documentation is being developed and will release in June of this year! This means that Performance Levels are here to stay!
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061What’s Next!
  • 20. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20Safety Future?Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061WithdrawnFAULT TOLERANCEDIAGNOSTICS SRSRELIABILITYSYSTEMATICFSMIEC/EN 62061 SILEN ISO 13849 PLEN 954CATEGORYFAULT TOLERANCEDIAGNOSTICS2005/6 2011 2016 ?IEC ISO17305
  • 21. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061Where do we go from here?
  • 22. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22Merger of ISO 13849 and IEC 62061
  • 23. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 24. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.IEC 61508 - Functional Safety PL & SILIEC/EN 61508Functional safety of electrical, electronic, and programmable electronicsafety-related systems (EEPE/CS)IEC/EN 61511SIS(SIL1 – SIL4)IEC/EN 62061EEPE/CS(SIL1 - SIL3)EN/ISO 13849SRP/CS(PLa - PLe)Process MachinerySoftware
  • 25. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Changing to Functional SafetyISO 13849-1 IEC 62061Safety Categories are no longerin effect since EN954-1 waswithdrawn in December of 2011.ISO 13849-1 has replacedEN954-1 as the mostcommonly followedinternational machine safetystandard.ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061 are known as functional safety standards.These standards look at how well a safety system needs to operate. Thisallows us to use new technologies to drive productivity and safety. Thesenew technologies are called contemporary safety solutions.
  • 26. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.ComplianceProductivityPerformance ProfitsFunctional safety is a new term that is being used in the industry to look at how well thesafety system needs to function. Manufacturing plants are seeing contemporary safety &control solutions as a method of enhancing productivity and machine utilizationNew Standards are helping by allowing newtechnologies and solutions to be used!
  • 27. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Contemporary Safety Automation In the past, safety and production control systems shared little,if any information Harmonizing your safety and production control systems offertremendous opportunities to improve productivity Shared diagnostics on common HMI for faster troubleshooting Safety system that changes parameters based on the state of the productionsystem Zone control to enable continued production flow when one zone is shutdown Better shut down and restart of production systems after a safety eventOperatingEquipmentControlSystemSafetySystem• A machine control strategy thatincludes both safety and productioncontrol systems– Purpose of production system is to produce– Purpose of safety system is to protect
  • 28. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.CopyriISO 13849-1 Explanation ISO 13849-1 is the result of improvements to the old EN-954-1 standard. EN954 wasdeveloped for simple electro-mechanical devices. ISO13849 allows for the use ofsolid state devices! ISO13849 introduces new design concepts that provide guidance on the design andintegration of safety components to meet required performance levels (PLr). Required Performance Levels (PLr) is determined by doing a risk assessment!Category Performance LevelA performance Level is an improved Category!
  • 29. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Categories still exist but onlyas a subpart of ISO13849!
  • 30. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Copyright © Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.30Categories are still the Major Piece of the Puzzle!Categories are also referred to as Structure!30CAT B/1 CAT 2CAT 3 CAT 4 (higher diagnostic coverage that CAT 3)
  • 31. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Structure + Reliability + Monitoring = Safe Systems31MTTFd Mean Time to Dangerous FailureLow 0 -10 YearsMedium 10-30 YearsHigh 30-100 YearsDC Diagnostic Coverage = Detected Dangerous Failures / All Dangerous FailuresNone DC < 60%Low 60 < DC < 90%Medium 90 < DC < 99%High DC >99%Reliability and Monitoring Calculations
  • 32. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.32abcdePerformanceLevelDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureDesignatedArchitectureCat B Cat 1 Cat 2 Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat3 Cat 4DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg DC avg<60% <60%60% to <90%90% to <99%60% to <90%90% to <99% 99%Structure (Category)Diagnostic Coverage (DC)Reliability (MTTF)Confirming PLr is achieved by…Balancing Structure (Cat), Reliability (MTTFd)and Diagnostic Coverage (DCavg)
  • 33. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 34. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.What do the standards say about machine safety?Companies have 2 choices when dealing with machine safety.Choice 1 – Lock-out/Tag-out(Also known as Energy Isolation)Choice 2 – Alternative means(Also known as Machinery Safety)
  • 35. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Energy Isolation vs. Machine GuardingMachine Maintenance Regulation: Lockout / Tagout or EnergyIsolation Requirement: Release stored energy Tasks: Isolation of Mechanical /Electrical Equipment for Service andMaintenanceProduction Operation Regulation: Machine Guarding oralternative protection means Requirement: Protect operators frommachine production hazards Tasks: Operator Interaction for RegularMachine ProductionMinor servicing must be routine, repetitive and integral to the operation of the system.Minor Servicing Exception• minor jams, minor tool changes & adjustments, exchangeoRegulation: Machine Guarding or alternative protection means• Requirement: Protect operators from machine productionhazards when performing minor servicing• Tasks: Minor servicing such as clearing f work piece, etc.Minor ServiceException to Lockout TagoutMust provide alternativeMeasures that offer effective protection
  • 36. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Lock-out/Tag-out or Energy Isolation PurposeThe purpose is to protect against the consequences of unexpected "energization" orstart-up of mechanical systems, or the release of stored energy. 36An employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safetydevice.Anytime an employee is required to place any part of his or her body intoa hazardous area of a machine or piece of equipment where work isactually performed.The standards say Lock-out Tag-out will be followed when:
  • 37. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Exceptions to Lock-out Tag-out or Energy IsolationNote of Exception:Minor tool changes and adjustments, and other minor servicing activities,which take place during normal production operations, are not covered bythis standard if they are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of theequipment for production, provided that the work is performed usingalternative measures which provide effective protection.“Alternative Measures” include machine safeguardingwhich should be determined thru the use of a riskassessment. 37
  • 38. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.How do you apply alternative measures? Machine hazards should be determined by the useof a safety or risk assessment. The assessment will determine the required systemperformance that is required. The assessment will also determine possiblemitigation solutions.
  • 39. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.What Standard should you use? It depends on: Regional requirements National regulations Industry type Technologies being used Where the machine or system will be utilized Considerations What type of technology is going to be utilized Simple or Complex system needsThe ISO & IEC standards will get you where you need to be anywhere in the globe!ISO12100 is a recommended method or assessment and ISO13849, IEC62061 andIEC61508 are the recommended design standards.
  • 40. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40AgendaClosing & Wrap-upHow can you ensure that you are in compliance?Trends in SafetyOSHA RequirementsHistory of SafetyWhat is functional safety?
  • 41. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.How can Rockwell Automation Help? Safety Consulting Services Training Conformity Audits Hazard Assessments Safety Assessments Risk Assessments Safety System Validation Safety Implementation Services Project Management & Turnkey Safety System Integration Sales Resources Safety Seminars Product Selection Tools Design Tools
  • 42. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DQuestions?
  • 43. Copyright © 2013 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Rev 5058-CO900DThank you for participating!