Background of english English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria Historically, English originated from the fusion of languages and dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers by the 5th century Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Great Britain but one of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate, and it is in this that the poem Beowulf is written. The linguistic shifts in English following the Norman invasion produced what is now referred to as Middle English Modern English, which includes the works of William Shakespeareand the King James Bible, is generally dated from about 1550, and when the United Kingdom became a colonial power
Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.Hamlet's famous "To be, or not to be" lines, written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare.
English continued The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African English, Indian English and Caribbean English
English as a global language Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language“ While it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language English is an official language of the United Nations and many other international organizations, including the International Olympic Committee Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death Some linguists believe that it is no longer the exclusive cultural property of "native English speakers", but is rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it continues to grow English itself is now open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.For this reason, the 'English language is forever evolving'.