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[18-22 Oct 2010] Auto-Guided Movements on Minimally Invasive Surgery for Surgeon Assistance
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[18-22 Oct 2010] Auto-Guided Movements on Minimally Invasive Surgery for Surgeon Assistance

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This paper focuses on autonomous movements to aid the surgeon to perform certain tasks. Robotic assistants have solved the drawbacks of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and provide additional skills …

This paper focuses on autonomous movements to aid the surgeon to perform certain tasks. Robotic assistants have solved the drawbacks of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and provide additional skills to the surgeons. However, some authors argue that these systems could lengthen the operating time. The solution is the automation of certain maneuvers that help the surgeon during a surgical maneuver. This work proposes control architecture for a surgical robot capable of performing autonomous movements. In this way, a trajectory planner based on a behavior concept computes the required velocity vector of the surgical instrument hold by the robot. This planner has been implemented and tested on the control architecture of the surgical assistant CISOBOT, designed and developed at the University of Malaga.

Published in Health & Medicine , Technology
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  • 1. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es System Engineering and Automation Department http://www.isa.uma.es University of Malaga (Spain) INTELLIGENT ROBOTICS AND SYSTEMS (IROS 2010) AUTO-GUIDED MOVEMENTS ON MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR SURGEON ASSISTANCE Enrique Bauzano Núñez Víctor Muñoz-Martínez, Isabel García-Morales
  • 2. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance OUTLINE I. General Overview II. Laparoscopic Auto-Guided Navigation Problem III.Control Strategy a. APF behavior b. Velocity corrections c. Backward movement IV.Implantation and Experiments V. Conclusions and Future Works
  • 3. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es I. GENERAL OVERVIEW INDEX I.Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance
  • 4. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es I. General Overview LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY Advantages  Lessen recovery time  Limit post-operative complications  Lower scars Constraints  Movement limitations  Loss of touch and 3D perception  Hand-eye coordination problems INDEX I.Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Main Drawback of Robotic Assistants: Lengthen operating time Solution: Give more autonomy to surgeon assistants
  • 5. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es A Semi-Autonomous Micro-Robotic System for Colonoscopy (Robotics & Biomimetics, 2008) G. Chen & M. Pham Motion Estimation in Beating Heart Surgery (Biomedical Engineering, 2005) T. Ortmaier, M. Gröger et al. I. General Overview Visual Servoing: The robot assistant automatically focuses the workspace where the surgeon is working. Auto-Guided Movements: The robot assistant moves to a target or performs a task without the surgeon direct intervention. EXAMPLES INDEX I.Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions
  • 6. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es II. LAPAROSCOPIC AUTO-GUIDED NAVIGATION PROBLEM INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance
  • 7. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions II. Laparoscopic Auto-Guided Navigation Problem R C S P RG CG SG PG Robot Camera Target Primary Tool View Field Abdomen Robot Trajectory GOAL: Find a path for the robot to reach the Target (primary tool) by avoiding the Obstacle (secondary tool). AUTO-GUIDED NAVIGATION PROBLEM Secondary Tool
  • 8. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es CISOBOT: SEMI-AUTONOMOUS ROBOT ASSISTANT Surgeon Patient Surgeon Model 3D Tracking Image Processing Tool Movement Surgeon Command (Voice, Gesture…) Surgeon’s Tools Location Maneuver Processed Image Robot Assistant PWE Controller Auto-Guide System Robot Trajectory Image Caption INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions II. Laparoscopic Auto-Guided Navigation Problem 3-Layer Control for Active Wrists in Laparoscopic Surgery (IROS, 2009) E. Bauzano, V.F. Munoz et al.
  • 9. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es III. CONTROL STRATEGY INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance
  • 10. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions III. Control Strategy MULTI-BEHAVIOR OBSTACLE AVOIDER Fuzzy Decision APF Planner Velocity Corrections Backward Movement Σ AUTO-GUIDE SYSTEM (LOCAL PLANNER) c1 c2 c3 v1 v2 v3 vsecondary vrobot 2 1 3 4 vsecondary vrobot FUZZY DECISION
  • 11. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy a. APF Planner b. Velocity Corrections c. Backward movement IV.Experiments V.Conclusions III. Control Strategy ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL FIELD (APF) PLANNER Procedure for Automatic Movements 1) Locate the minimal distance point MR 2) Calculate its target MR f 3) Apply the forces and compute the needed velocity of MR 4) Move the robot tool to fit both, the new location and the fulcrum constraint GR End Procedure 0 02 2 0 if0 ifˆ 2 111 n r KF goal r rep   goalaatt rKF  2  t m F tvttv 1 1 11 )()(   New Method for Improving Artificial Potential Field in Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance (International Conference on Automation and Logistics, 2007) S. Enxiu, C. Tao et al.
  • 12. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es III. Control Strategy VELOCITY CORRECTIONS RM SM Estimated second tool trajectory Robot’s Path Time to cross Distance to cross INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy a. APF Planner b.Velocity Corrections c. Backward movement IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Behavior: Reduce the robot velocity when it moves nearby the surgeon’s secondary tool (obstacle).
  • 13. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es III. Control Strategy BACKWARD MOVEMENT INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy a. APF Planner b. Velocity Corrections c. Backward movement IV.Experiments V.Conclusions GR GS Behavior: Follow the surgeon’s secondary tool trajectory when he or she forces the contact with the robot tool. SvBF  3 ρmin
  • 14. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es IV. IMPLANTATION AND EXPERIMENTS INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance
  • 15. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions IV. Implantation and Experiments IMPLANTATION Robot Assistant 3D Tracker Camera Tool Surgeon’s Tools Virtual Patient Force Sensor
  • 16. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions IV. Implantation and Experiments IN-VITRO EXPERIMENT Link to videoCISOBOT Video
  • 17. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions IV. Implantation and Experiments EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS STATIC OBSTACLE DYNAMIC OBSTACLE
  • 18. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es V. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions Auto-Guided Movements on MIS for Surgeon Assistance
  • 19. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es CONCLUSIONS The robot tool movements must be restricted to the camera cone of vision, and the camera should follow the robot tool. Include a map of the abdominal cavity to avoid inner collisions with the patient. The robot tool-patient interaction must be studied to extend the possible maneuvers. FUTURE WORKS An auto-guided system has been developed to find paths for the robot assistant to reach a surgeon tool while it avoids collisions with the other one. Thanks to the force sensor, the fulcrum is always located and forces over the abdomen are reduced. The robot tool may react just before a contact with the obstacle tool. This is useful for surgeon-robot interaction. V. Conclusions and Future Works INDEX I. Overview II.Auto-Guided Problem III.Control Strategy IV.Experiments V.Conclusions
  • 20. SystemEngineeringand AutomationDepartment Mr. Enrique Bauzano Nuñez ebauzano@uma.es Thanks for your attention Auto-Guided Movements in Surgeon Assistance