Caught in the Network
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  • 1. Caught in the Network
  • 2. Caught in the Network A research on the effects of the contemporary economic centrality in Am- sterdam North on its adjacent residential neighbourhoods Robin Boelsums 1275267 4 Nov 2011 P1 - Complex CitiesSources: Butler, 2010 Mentor: R.Rocco
  • 3. Sections Global Trends Local Global vs. Local Examples Project location Location Future plans main problems Problem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities Aim Aim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions Methodology Methodology Methods Deliverables Time schedule Next steps First steps
  • 4. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 5. Trends Global Global businesses Network society/city Local Globalisation cluster in nodes in Global & regional disconnectedness + Neoliberalism metropolitan areas connections €€ €€ € €€ € €€ €€€ €€ Source: Globe 2008 Source: Wikipedia 2008 Source: author 2011 Source: author 2011
  • 6. Trends Local Deprived areas 500 deprived social housing estates 18 criteria (NL) 1. Income 2. Job Social Segregation Spatial 3. Education 4. Small dwellings inequality inequality 5. Old dwellings 6. Cheap dwellings 7. Vandalism 8. Vandalism 9. Social nuisance Exclusion Concentration Exclusion 10. Social nuisance of people of poverty of places 11. Unsafety 12. Satisfaction dwelling 13. Satisfaction neigh- bourhood 14. Moving tendency Less attractive for investments Economic problems for estate owners 15. Sound nuisance Less attractive for house hunters Social stigmatisation 16. Waste Reduces private and public services Insecurity 17. Traffic Decline of physical environment Increases social expenses for local 18. Safety Increases crime authoritiesSource: Skifter Andersen 2004 Source: Rijksoverheid 2007
  • 7. Trends Global vs. Local Globalisation Establishment of Strong regional economic cen- infrastructural net- tralities work Social Spatial Segregation inequality inequality Exclusion Concentration Exclusion of people of poverty of places Source: Skifter Andersen 2004
  • 8. Trends In practiceCanary Wharf, LondonBird’s eye view Deprived areas + Canary WharfSource: www.som.com Source: Mapstube
  • 9. Trends In practiceZuidas AmsterdamSegregation InequalitySource: Google maps 2008 Source: Google maps 2008
  • 10. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 11. Location Project location Volendam Purmerend Zaanstad Beverwijk IJmuiden Monnickendam Zaandam Bloemendaal Haarlem Almere Amsterdam Diemen Hoofddorp Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp Naarden Hillegom Bussum Nieuw-Vennep Lisse Uithoorn Laren Source: author 2011
  • 12. Location Project location Sources: Randstad 2040 (2007) Sources: Randstad 2040 (2007)
  • 13. Location Centralities Ideas 1960s Critique Industry and offices Slowly becomes multifunctional Monofunctional Still excluded from Seperated from adjacent problem residential neigh- area bourhoods by train tracks Together with Schiphol and Zui- das it forms the ‘economic motor’ of Amsterdam 1960s - Amsterdam ArenA UtrechtSource: Bruijne et al 2010
  • 14. Zaanstad Beverwijk Location Centralities IJmuiden Monnickendam Ideas 1982 Zaandam Critique Large, attractive Not many invest- business district ments Bloemendaal Bank offices District remained small Haarlem Good connections, potential for devel- Almer opment Diemen Hoofddorp Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp NaardenHillegom Bussum Nieuw-Vennep 1982 - Sloterdijk Teleporte Uithoorn Utrecht Sources: Jolles et al 2003
  • 15. Zaanstad Beverwijk Location Centralities IJmuiden Monnickendam Ideas 1998 Zaandam Critique Demand from mar- Inflexible ket (ABN Amro) Bloemendaal Too long time hori- Highrise zon International attrac- Too monofunctional Haarlem tion Programme: Almer Multifunctional 1,100,000 m2 offices 9000 dwellings Programme: Diemen 650,000 m2 offices 1450 dwellings (400 in 2010) Hoofddorp Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp NaardenHillegom Bussum Nieuw-Vennep 1998 - Zuidase Uithoorn Utrecht Sources: Salet, Majoor 2005
  • 16. Zaanstad Beverwijk Location Centralities IJmuiden Monnickendam Ideas 2005 Zaandam Critique Multifunctional That’s the question working, living Bloemendaal High rise office buil- gins Haarlem housing 20 % Social Almer Development of IJ banks Diemen Programme: 2200 dwellings Work 60,000m2 Facilities Hoofddorp 20,000m2 Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp NaardenHillegom Bussum Nieuw-Vennep 2005 - Amsterdam Northe Uithoorn Utrecht Sources: Gemeente Amsterdam
  • 17. Location Project location Volewijck Prewar garden village Deprived neighbourhood - high unsafety rate - high % low income - 73% social housing Source: TU Delft maps 2011 Source: author 2011
  • 18. Location Project location Overhoeks Economic centrality Since 2005 Programme: - 2200 dwellings - facilities 20,000 m2 - work 80,000 m2 Source: TU Delft maps 2011 Source: author 2011
  • 19. Location Future plans Source: Overhoeks 2007
  • 20. Location Future plansNoord-ZuidlijnSource: TU Delft maps 2011; Gemeente Amsterdam 2011 Source: Gemeente Amsterdam 2011
  • 21. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 22. Problem statement Main problems Spatial Inequality disconnectedness €€ Social Segregation Spatial inequality inequality €€ € €€ Exclusion Concentration Exclusion of people of poverty of places € €€ Segregation scheme (Skifter Andersen, 2004) €€€ €€ Local segregation (author, 2011)
  • 23. Problem Statement Main problems Lack of opportunities “There is no straitforward link between city and neighbourhood fortunes” (Mumford, Lupton 1999:30) Weakness: neighbourhood cannot benefit from adjacent opportunities Threat: this may increase inequality Visible in segregation, but also in pro- gramme. Source: Author 2011
  • 24. Problem Statement Main problems Lack ofopportunities Source: Author 2011
  • 25. Problem statement SegregationOVERHOEKS * * VOLEWIJCK Source: author 2011
  • 26. Problem statement SegregationOVERHOEKS * * Source: Shell 2006
  • 27. Problem statement Segregation VOLEWIJCK Source: author 2011
  • 28. Problem statement Segregation Spatial inequalityOVERHOEKS Source: author 2011 VOLEWIJCK
  • 29. Problem statement Segregation Spatial inequalityOVERHOEKS Source: author 2011 VOLEWIJCK
  • 30. Problem statement Segregation Economic inequality Work sectors Q gezondheids- en welzijnszorg P onderwijs O overheidOVERHOEKS N overige zakelijke dienstverlening M advisering en onderzoek L handel, verhuur onroerend goed K financiële instellingen J informatie en communicatie Amsterdam I horeca Noord H transport en logistiek Workers in own district or elsewhere G handel F bouwnijverheid E waterwinning en afvalverwerking D energiebedrijven C industrie 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 High % construction workers & industry 20% social housing 73% social housing 80% rent + owner occupied 4% rent 23% owner occupied Source: Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek 2011 VOLEWIJCK
  • 31. Problem statement Segregation Economic inequality Income 2007 Rent prices: €900-2400/monthOVERHOEKS Economic activities concentrated in Overhoeks Source: Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek 2007 Source: Palmbout 2005 VOLEWIJCK
  • 32. Problem statement Segregation Social inequality UnsafetyOVERHOEKS Safety Source: Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek (2011) Source: Palmbout 2005 VOLEWIJCK
  • 33. Problem statement Segregation Social inequality Origin Antillianen 1% Suriname 6% Turks 5% Maroccans 7%OVERHOEKS Netherlands 53% Not-Western 8% Western 27% Source: author 2011, Dienst Onderzoek & Statistiek 2007 VOLEWIJCK
  • 34. Problem Statement Segregation Spatial disconnectedness Source: author 2011; gemeente Amsterdam 2011 Source: TU Delft maps 2011
  • 35. Problem statement Lack of opportunities Focus on other centralities and cities in the region Volendam Purmerend Zaanstad Beverwijk IJmuiden Monnickendam Zaandam Bloemendaal Haarlem Almere Diemen Hoofddorp Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp Naarden Hillegom Bussum Nieuw-Vennep Lisse Uithoorn Utrecht Laren Source: author 2011
  • 36. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 37. Aim Aim Volewijck Social Spatial Segregation inequality inequality Create an economic sustain- able residential neighbour- hood that benefits from the adjacent economic develop- Exclusion Concentration Exclusion ment; prevent it from being of people of poverty of places gentrified.
  • 38. Aim Aim Overhoeks Retain the economic vitality, image and attraction. Create an easy scale jump, from the global to the re- gional to the local scale. On what aspects should 1 the areas be equal and in- equal?
  • 39. Aim Main RQ How can the residential neighbourhoods benefit from the adjacent contemporary economic centrality in ‘Overhoeks’ Amsterdam North?
  • 40. Aim Main RQ How can the residential neighbourhoods benefit from the adjacent contemporary economic centrality in ‘Overhoeks’ Amsterdam North? Volendam Purmerend Zaanstad Beverwijk IJmuiden Monnickendam Zaandam Bloemendaal Haarlem Almere Diemen Hoofddorp Schiphol Amstelveen Weesp Naarden Hillegom Bussum Nieuw-VennepLisse Uithoorn Utrecht Laren
  • 41. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 42. Methodology RESEARCH Inequality between Overhoeks and VolewijckCONTEXT Inequality Amsterdam Exclusion of Volewijck caused by Overhoeks DESIGN Relevance Process of Overhoeks and its e ects Strategy - general Inequality between cent- rality and neighbourhood Problem Disconnected- Case studies Exclusion of neighbour- Vision Statement ness hood by centrality Process of centrality and - Amsterdam North its e ects Research Causes and e ects of Design Questions inequality - Key location Lack of Literature Causes and e ects of opportunities exclusion Process of centrality I II III
  • 43. Methodology Methods Research Questions Mp SO DR SS GIS RD Lit How can the surrounding residential neighbourhoods benefit from the contemporary economic centrality in ‘Overhoeks’ Amsterdam North? What forms the inequality between the Volewijck and Overhoeks?Amsterdam What causes the disconnectedness between the Volewijck and the centrality? What opportunities could residents have in the centrality and what makes that they cannot benefit from it? What effect does inequality have on residential areas adjacent to cen-Case studies tralities? How can the contemporary economic centrality be spatially, socio-spa- tially and economically connected to its residential neighbourhoods? How can residential neighbourhoods benefit from an adjacent eco- nomic centrality? What effect does inequality have on the deprivation of residential ar- eas? Main methodLiterature What effect does disconnectedness have on the deprivation of resi- dential areas? How can residential neighbourhoods benefit from an adjacent eco- nomic centrality? Submethod CS = Case Studies DR = Data Research GIS = GIS Research RD = Research by Design Mp = Maps SO = Site Observation SS = Space Syntax Lit = Literature Source: author 2011
  • 44. GlobalTrends Local Global vs. Local In practice Project locationLocation Future plans main problemsProblem Statement Segregation Lack of opportunities AimAim + RQ Main research question Sub research questions MethodologyMethodology Methods Deliverables Time scheduleNext steps First steps
  • 45. Next steps Time scheduleWeek 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40Onderdeel Sep Oct P1 Nov Dec Jan P2 Feb Mar Apr P3 May P4 June P5CONTEXTDefine context+structureANALYSIS+RESEARCHAnalysis AdamResearch on locationLITERATURELiterature studyWrite paperCASE STUDIESResearch+analysisDraw conclusionsDELIVERABLESDevelop strategyDevelop visionDevelop designWrite thesisMake presentationSource: author 2011
  • 46. Next steps First steps Amsterdam Case studies Literature Continue analysis Define cases studies Continue literature based on criteria study
  • 47. Thank you!Questions? Robin Boelsums 1275267 4 Nov 2011 P1 - Complex Cities Mentor: R.Rocco