Rheology of Nylon 11/Clay<br />Nanocomposites<br />SITI NORAINI BT KAWAEED               0724126<br />NUR NADIAH AJMAN    ...
HISTORY OF NYLON(POLYAMIDES)<br />Nylon was the first truly synthetic fiber to be commercialized (1939).<br />Nylon was de...
GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC NYLON<br />high melting points.<br />good mechanical properties.<br />strength and ductility.<br />...
Figure 1 Steady shear viscosity versus shear rate for neat<br />PA11 and its clay nanocomposites at 210°C. <br />
SHEAR RATE<br />The steady shear viscosity as a function of shear rate for PA11 and its nanocomposites is shown in Figure ...
Shear rate(cont.)<br />Then, the slope of  ŋ versus γ on a log-log plot in the power-law region is (n1), where n is called...
Viscosity<br />At high temperature, viscosity is slightly lower than at lower temperature.<br />At higher temperature, the...
shear stress (τ)<br />Cox-Merz rule (named by type-II) <br />correlates the first derivative of shear stress (τ) with resp...
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Presentation1 polystyrene

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Presentation1 polystyrene

  1. 1. Rheology of Nylon 11/Clay<br />Nanocomposites<br />SITI NORAINI BT KAWAEED 0724126<br />NUR NADIAH AJMAN 0727574<br />NOR SUHAILA NOR SAIDI 0727830<br />SITI KHADIJAH ABDUL RAHMAN 0720050<br />
  2. 2. HISTORY OF NYLON(POLYAMIDES)<br />Nylon was the first truly synthetic fiber to be commercialized (1939).<br />Nylon was developed in the 1930s by scientists at Du Pont, headed by an American chemist Wallace Hume Caruthers (1896-1937).<br />Nylons are semi-crystalline polymers.<br />
  3. 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC NYLON<br />high melting points.<br />good mechanical properties.<br />strength and ductility.<br />excellent resistance to solvents.<br />Fatigue and abrasion.<br />
  4. 4. Figure 1 Steady shear viscosity versus shear rate for neat<br />PA11 and its clay nanocomposites at 210°C. <br />
  5. 5. SHEAR RATE<br />The steady shear viscosity as a function of shear rate for PA11 and its nanocomposites is shown in Figure 1 as a function of clay loading.<br />Each flow curve displays a similar profile with shear rate independent viscosity at lower shear rates and shear thinning at higher shear rates.<br />the viscosities increase with increasing the clay loading.<br />
  6. 6. Shear rate(cont.)<br />Then, the slope of ŋ versus γ on a log-log plot in the power-law region is (n1), where n is called non-Newtonian index.<br />Then, the critical shear rate (γc) is defined as the onset point of shear-thinning transition and is approximately equal to the inverse of t1 (or the longest relaxation time).<br />the addition of clay renders the transition from the Newtonian plateau region to shear-thinning region occurring at lower critical shear rate with increasing the clay concentration.<br />
  7. 7. Viscosity<br />At high temperature, viscosity is slightly lower than at lower temperature.<br />At higher temperature, the greater average kinetic energy of the molecules more easily overcome the attractive forces between molecules. <br />It has been reported that the viscosity of the confined melts is greater than that of bulk chain.<br />The large viscosity of confined melts is believed to arise from an “immobilized hydrodynamic layer” near the wall having a thickness of the order of radius of gyration of the polymer chains.<br />
  8. 8. shear stress (τ)<br />Cox-Merz rule (named by type-II) <br />correlates the first derivative of shear stress (τ) with respect to strain, that is, the so called “consistency,” with the imaginary part of the dynamic viscosity with the following expression: <br />

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