European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility 16 th  February 2012 Roberto Torena Cristóbal Brussels Office Manager
<ul><li>What does accessibility and accessible design mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important and what is the position...
Extent to which  products ,  systems ,  services ,  environments  and  facilities  can be used by people from a population...
<ul><li>Design focused on principles of  extending standard design to persons with some type of performance limitation  to...
<ul><li>The UNCRPD (article 9) recognizes access to  ICT , including the  Web , as a basic human right [2] </li></ul><ul><...
“ The power of the Web is in its universality.  Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.”   Tim...
Accessibility in the Web European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Web developers normally use au...
Example of source code [8]: <! DOCTYPE   html   PUBLIC   &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN&quot;   &quot;http:/...
Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility People use  Web browsers ,  me...
Example of a  web browser output  [8]: Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAcces...
Video with an introduction of the usage of  a screen reader  (an example of an Assistive Technology, AT)   in the document...
The WCAG documents explain how to make Web content accessible  [10] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) European i...
<ul><li>Web content must be [11]:  </li></ul><ul><li>Perceivable  - Users must be able to  perceive the information  being...
<ul><li>Under each principle there is a list of guidelines [12]:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Perceivable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1...
<ul><li>Under each guideline, there are success criteria [11]: </li></ul><ul><li>written as a statement that will be eithe...
<ul><li>The  Success Criteria  are assigned to one of the  three levels  of conformance ( A, AA  or  AAA ) depending on [1...
<ul><li>Several conformity assessment types are possible [1] </li></ul><ul><li>The two more commonly used are : </li></ul>...
Conformance logo European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
Example of certification European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
Web monitorisation studies European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
<ul><li>Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM 1.2)  [14] </li></ul><ul><li>Two evaluation procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Expert testing vs. automatic testing European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Expert testing Automatic testing <u...
European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) [15] WAB Cluster results (2008) European initiatives for measuring eAcc...
<ul><li>24 European Member States  and  EC  websites [15] </li></ul><ul><li>Websites  selected from Capgemini’s study for ...
<ul><li>Accessibility of European Commission websites, comparison and recommendation provision </li></ul><ul><li>Websites ...
<ul><li>Level of compliance with WCAG 2.0, and approaches to implement those specifications (focus on the transitioning fr...
<ul><li>Monitor the status and progress made in eAccessibility and identifying the best practices in the fields of legisla...
Monitoring eAccessibility in the ICTs European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
<ul><li>EC M376 requires the three European standard organisations  CEN ,  CENELEC  and  ETSI  to harmonise and facilitate...
<ul><li>Monitor the status and progress made in eAccessibility and identifying the best practices in the fields of legisla...
<ul><ul><li>Selection of technologies to be monitored  </li></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 -...
<ul><li>Research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Process of information gathering by  National Experts (NEs) </li></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Survey to user’s organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation to  relevant organisations  in order to get feedb...
<ul><li>Validation processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With  National Experts (NE)  and  National Authorities (NA) </li></ul><...
Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Visit us  http://www.eaccessibility-monitoring.eu European init...
Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Produce your own dynamic reports through the Balance Score Card...
Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Visit the Benchmarking reports: http://www.eaccessibility-monit...
Thank you for your attention Roberto Torena Cristóbal  Brussels Office Manager [email_address] http://es.linkedin.com/in/r...
[1] Working Document: Technical Report. Guidance for the application of conformity assessment to European accessibility re...
[12] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. W3C Recommendation 11 December 2008 (2008). W3C,  http://www.w3.org/...
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European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility

  1. 1. European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility 16 th February 2012 Roberto Torena Cristóbal Brussels Office Manager
  2. 2. <ul><li>What does accessibility and accessible design mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important and what is the position of the W3C? </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility in the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How People with Disabilities Use the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web monitorisation studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAB Cluster results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study 1. European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) (2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study 2. Accessibility of European Commission websites (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study 3. Web accessibility in European countries (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring eAccessibility in the ICTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate 376 and the first European Standard (EN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) </li></ul></ul>Index European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  3. 3. Extent to which products , systems , services , environments and facilities can be used by people from a population with the widest range of characteristics and capabilities to achieve a specified goal in a specified context of use [1]. What does accessibility mean? European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  4. 4. <ul><li>Design focused on principles of extending standard design to persons with some type of performance limitation to maximize the number of potential customers who can readily use a product, building or service, which may be achieved by: </li></ul><ul><li>Designing products, services and environments that are readily usable by most users without any modification , </li></ul><ul><li>Making products or services adaptable to different users (adapting user interfaces), and </li></ul><ul><li>Having standardized interfaces to be compatible with special products for persons with disabilities [1]. </li></ul>What does accessible design mean? European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  5. 5. <ul><li>The UNCRPD (article 9) recognizes access to ICT , including the Web , as a basic human right [2] </li></ul><ul><li>The UNCRPD has been ratified by the EU and most MS [3] </li></ul><ul><li>Supports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabled people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with low digital literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with situational constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People using old devices or low bandwidth communications, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is also a strong business case for accessibility [4, 5] </li></ul>Why is it important? European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  6. 6. “ The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” Tim Berners-Lee W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web (WWW) [6] What is the position of the W3C? European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  7. 7. Accessibility in the Web European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  8. 8. Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Web developers normally use authoring tools and evaluation tools to create Web content [7].
  9. 9. Example of source code [8]: <! DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd&quot;> < html xmlns =&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml&quot; xml : lang =&quot;es&quot; lang =&quot;es&quot;>< head > < title > Technosite, expertos en accesibilidad. </ title > < meta http-equiv =&quot;Content-Type&quot; content =&quot;text/html; charset=iso-8859-1&quot; /> < meta name =&quot;keywords&quot; content =&quot;Technosite, Fundación ONCE, Fundosa, página web, Fundosa Technosite, soluciones integrales, Internet, consultoría estratégica, accesibilidad, accesibilidad web, usabilidad, e-business, business intelligence, e-learning, gestión integral de portales, consultoría, concepto gráfico, diseño creativo, … Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  10. 10. Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility People use Web browsers , media players , assistive technologies , or other &quot;user agents&quot; to get and interact with the content. [7].
  11. 11. Example of a web browser output [8]: Essential Components of Web Accessibility European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  12. 12. Video with an introduction of the usage of a screen reader (an example of an Assistive Technology, AT) in the documents and in the web [9]: How People with Disabilities Use the Web European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  13. 13. The WCAG documents explain how to make Web content accessible [10] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Core Documents
  14. 14. <ul><li>Web content must be [11]: </li></ul><ul><li>Perceivable - Users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses) </li></ul><ul><li>Operable - Users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that a user cannot perform) </li></ul><ul><li>Understandable - Users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Robust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents , including assistive technologies . </li></ul>The 4 principles of the WCAGs European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  15. 15. <ul><li>Under each principle there is a list of guidelines [12]: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Perceivable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 Provide text alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Provide alternatives for time-based media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Create content that can be presented in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 Make it easier for users to see and hear content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Operable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Make all functionality available from a keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 Do not design content in a way that cause seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 Provide ways to help users navigate and find content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Understandable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 Make text content readable and understandable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Robust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.1 Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies . </li></ul></ul>The 12 guidelines of the WCAGs European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  16. 16. <ul><li>Under each guideline, there are success criteria [11]: </li></ul><ul><li>written as a statement that will be either true or false </li></ul><ul><li>written to be technological neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be automated using software evaluation programs, others require human testers </li></ul><ul><li>Example [12]: </li></ul><ul><li>Guideline 1.1 Text Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success criteria “1.1.1 Non-text Content” : All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. (Level A) </li></ul></ul>The success criteria of the WCAGs European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  17. 17. <ul><li>The Success Criteria are assigned to one of the three levels of conformance ( A, AA or AAA ) depending on [13]: </li></ul><ul><li>whether it is essential </li></ul><ul><li>whether it is possible to satisfy it for all Web sites and types of content </li></ul><ul><li>whether it requires skills that could reasonably be achieved by the content creators </li></ul><ul><li>whether it would impose limits on the &quot;look & feel&quot; and/or function of the web page </li></ul><ul><li>whether there are no workarounds if the Success Criterion is not met </li></ul>Levels of conformance European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  18. 18. <ul><li>Several conformity assessment types are possible [1] </li></ul><ul><li>The two more commonly used are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier’s declaration of conformity . Statement issued by a supplier or manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third party certification . An assessment and certification performed by a body that is independent of the supplier or manufacturer </li></ul></ul>Conformity assessment types: Third party certification vs. Supplier’s declaration of conformity European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  19. 19. Conformance logo European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  20. 20. Example of certification European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  21. 21. Web monitorisation studies European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  22. 22. <ul><li>Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM 1.2) [14] </li></ul><ul><li>Two evaluation procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert or Tool based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-random sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core Resource List </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 1.0 Level A and AA </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting evaluation results: a conformance claim , a text-based report, a machine-readable report and/or a scorecard report </li></ul><ul><li>F(s) = Failure rate for a web site </li></ul>WAB Cluster results (2008) 26 indicators 240 indicators European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  23. 23. Expert testing vs. automatic testing European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Expert testing Automatic testing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Check more success criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment of difficult cases and WCAG interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on unique pages a selection of the Core Resource List. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Costs more than automated testing </li></ul><ul><li>Requires human input </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Require less time and efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger number of web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger number of pages per site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More frequent re-assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires minimal human supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Can only test &quot;Yes&quot; or &quot;No&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce false positives (e.g. cannot tell if an alt attribute is correct) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not distinguish the Core Resource List ( random sampling ) </li></ul>
  24. 24. European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) [15] WAB Cluster results (2008) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  25. 25. <ul><li>24 European Member States and EC websites [15] </li></ul><ul><li>Websites selected from Capgemini’s study for evaluating online services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about 2,500 unique government web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to 6,000 crawled pages for each website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random sampling : Up to 600 pages per website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automated testing of WCAG 1.0 Level AA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 24 of the 26 automatable tests of UWEM 1.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eGovMon offers/uses an updated version of EIAO tool [16] </li></ul>Study 1. European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) (2008) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  26. 26. <ul><li>Accessibility of European Commission websites, comparison and recommendation provision </li></ul><ul><li>Websites selected by the European Commission ( governmental websites ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-random sampling ( C ore Resource List ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 pages for eInclusion and <30 for the remaining websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual testing carried out by experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCAG 1.0 and 2.0 Level A and AA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility and usability tests carried out by users </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architecture analysis carried out by experts in the eInclusion Unit website </li></ul>Study 2. Accessibility of European Commission websites (2009) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  27. 27. <ul><li>Level of compliance with WCAG 2.0, and approaches to implement those specifications (focus on the transitioning from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0) [17] </li></ul><ul><li>9 European Member States and US </li></ul><ul><li>Websites selected by their relevance : governmental websites and private / sectoral websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 websites (12 per country) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic testing of WCAG 1.0 Level A ( Test Accessibilidad Web, TAW ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random sampling: 25 pages per website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual assessment of WCAG 2.0 Level A conformance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-random sampling: 3 pages per website (home, contact and search pages) </li></ul></ul>Study 3. Web accessibility in European countries (2009) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  28. 28. <ul><li>Monitor the status and progress made in eAccessibility and identifying the best practices in the fields of legislation, policies and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on a set of technologies , not only in web [18] </li></ul><ul><li>12 European Member States and Australia , Canada and USA </li></ul><ul><li>Websites selected by national experts : governmental websites and private / sectoral websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 websites (8 per country) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-random sampling ( C ore Resource List ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 pages per website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both automated and manual testing by national experts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance Claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated testing (TAW) in WCAG 1.0 Level A and Double-A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual testing of a set of critical points (both WCAG 1.0 and 2.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3-4 representative pages per site) </li></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  29. 29. Monitoring eAccessibility in the ICTs European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  30. 30. <ul><li>EC M376 requires the three European standard organisations CEN , CENELEC and ETSI to harmonise and facilitate public procurement of accessible ICT products and services by [17]: </li></ul><ul><li>identifying a set of functional accessibility requirements </li></ul><ul><li>developing an on-line toolkit to help public procurers in their procurement process </li></ul><ul><li>They are producing the first European Standard [20] that specifies: </li></ul><ul><li>the functional accessibility requirements applicable to ICT products and services </li></ul><ul><li>a full description of the test procedures and evaluation methodology for each requirement </li></ul>Mandate 376 and the first European Standard (EN) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  31. 31. <ul><li>Monitor the status and progress made in eAccessibility and identifying the best practices in the fields of legislation, policies and practices [18] </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries: 12 EU, 3 Non-EU + 2 voluntary basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EU countries: Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Non-EU countries: United States, Australia and Canada. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries participating in a voluntary basis: Norway, Greece </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of analysis : 2010-2011 </li></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>Selection of technologies to be monitored </li></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility TELEPHONY: Fixed Mobile Special telephones (text and videotelephone) Mobile Web INTERNET: Web COMPUTERS: Software Hardware MEDIA: Analogue television Digital television HOMES: Digital homes Telecare URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ATMs Vending machines Virtual kiosks Digital information panels EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT: Electronic books Elearning platforms ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: Hardware Software
  33. 33. <ul><li>Research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Process of information gathering by National Experts (NEs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 technology experts (technology questionnaire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 policy experts (policy questionnaire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires and harmonised methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+250 information fields each </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. for the 1 st and 2 nd public TV broadcaster : </li></ul></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility Access services provided during the previous year (Yes or No) If so, what proportion of the overall programming was available with access services (in %)? If so, what proportion of the programming broadcast in national language was available with subtitles (in %)? Programming with subtitles Programming with sign language interpretation Programming with audiodescription
  34. 34. <ul><li>Survey to user’s organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation to relevant organisations in order to get feedback on each technology category covered by the former questionnaire. ANEC, EDF and AGE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach based in a Balance Score Card (BSC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative and Quantitative assessment </li></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  35. 35. <ul><li>Validation processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With National Experts (NE) and National Authorities (NA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEs: confirming the accuracy of the policy and technology data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NA: contrasting the results as well as gather additional information that may reinforce the national results presented in the Study. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops with experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Workshops: 2010 and 2011 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of main results and feedback from experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency plans </li></ul></ul></ul>Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  36. 36. Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Visit us http://www.eaccessibility-monitoring.eu European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  37. 37. Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Produce your own dynamic reports through the Balance Score Card: http://www.eaccessibility-monitoring.eu/BSC/ European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  38. 38. Study 4. Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2010 - 2011) Visit the Benchmarking reports: http://www.eaccessibility-monitoring.eu/BSC/ European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  39. 39. Thank you for your attention Roberto Torena Cristóbal Brussels Office Manager [email_address] http://es.linkedin.com/in/robertotorena/en
  40. 40. [1] Working Document: Technical Report. Guidance for the application of conformity assessment to European accessibility requirements for public procurement of ICT products and services (2011). CEN/CENELEC/PT, http://www.mandate376.eu/JWG_eAcc_N19-D4-TR_Conformity_Assessment-31-07-2011-final.doc [2] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol (2008). United Nations, http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf [3] Convention and Optional Protocol Signatures and Ratifications (n.d.). United Nations, http://www.un.org/disabilities/countries.asp?id=166#E [4] Study on economic assessment for improving eAccessibility services and products (2012). Technosite, Tech4i2, Abilitynet and NOVA, http://www.eaccessibility-impacts.eu [5] Henry, S. L. and Andrew Arch, A. eds. (2010). Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization. W3C, http://www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/ [6] Accessibility (n.d.). W3C, http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility [7] Essential Components of Web Accessibility (n.d.). W3C, http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/components.php [8] Technosite (n.d.). http://www.technosite.es/ [9] Introduction to the Screen Reader with Neal Ewers (n.d.). University of Wisconsin-Madison, http://www.doit.wisc.edu/accessibility/video/intro.aspx [10] The WCAG 2.0 Documents (n.d.). W3C, http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag20 [11] Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0 (n.d.). W3C, http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/intro.html References (1/2) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility
  41. 41. [12] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. W3C Recommendation 11 December 2008 (2008). W3C, http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ [13] Understanding Conformance (n.d.). W3C, http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html [14] UWEM, Unified Web Evaluation Methodology version 1.2 (2008). WAB Cluster, http://www.wabcluster.org/uwem1_2/ [15] EIAO, European Internet Accessibility Observatory (2008). EIAO, http://www.eiao.net/ [16] eGovMon. eAccessibility (n.d.). eGovMon, http://accessibility.egovmon.no/en/pagecheck/ [17] Web accessibility in European countries: level of compliance with latest international accessibility specifications, notably WCAG 2.0, and approaches or plans to implement those specifications (2009). WRC, empirica, EWORX, http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/einclusion/library/studies/web_access_compliance/index_en.htm [18] Monitoring eAccessibility in Europe (2011). Technosite, NOVA, CNIPA, I2BC, The Blank Group and CDLP-NUI, http://www.eaccessibility-monitoring.eu/ [19] European Accessibility Requirements for Public Procurement of Products and Services in the ICT Domain (n.d.). CEN, CENELEC, ETSI, http://www.mandate376.eu/ [20] Draft EN &quot;European accessibility requirements for public procurement of ICT products and services&quot; (2012). CEN, CENELEC, ETSI, http://www.mandate376.eu/EN%20301%20549%20v0034a.doc References (2/2) European initiatives for measuring eAccessibility

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