Bergamo 2013-2014 Lectures. 1. Quality is our task

638 views
552 views

Published on

2013-2014 Lectures at the Università degli studi di Bergamo. Quality is our task

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
638
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bergamo 2013-2014 Lectures. 1. Quality is our task

  1. 1. Università degli Studi di Bergamo Area didattica di Lingue e Letterature straniere Progettazione e gestione dei sistemi turistici / Planning and Management of Tourism Systems Centro Studi per il Turismo e l'Interpretazione del Territorio (CeSTIT) Our task is quality. ISO definition, models: Loci, 7Loci, quality evaluation Roberto Peretta UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers Lecture #1. Wednesday, November 12, 2013
  2. 2. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i What are we talking about? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The academia Quality evaluation Evaluation models: simple vs. robust Quality Q li as a standard, and Boolean fi ld d d d l fields The 7Loci “Quality is the totality of characteristics of an entity that b i h bear on i its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs” (ISO 8402) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. ITfor Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 01.01 .:. UniBg 44111 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta 2
  3. 3. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The academia about digital and tourism Several academics (scholars and researchers), who deal with our specific field of digital communication in tourism, have long belonged to the Ifitt Ifitt, the International Federation for Information Technologies in Travel and Tourism, established in 1997. The Ifitt holds conferences, seminars, workshops, and conferences seminars workshops courses related to tourism and technology, and has set up national Chapters in some countries – Norway, Finland, Switzerland, and Italy among them. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 3
  4. 4. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Practical skills vs. research You can easily learn how to use (well… relatively easily…)  a word processor like MS Word  a mobile phone like an iPhone  an in-car navigator like Tom-Tom. You ll You'll only have to make them work Period work. Period. But if you want to study your word processor, your iPhone or your Tom-Tom, if you want to know how they work, p practice is not enough. g You'll have to read, understand, investigate, compare theories, and measure, in a word, you'll have to research. you ll UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 4
  5. 5. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Academical topics Topics at the last Ifitt congress in Innsbruck, 2013, were  Social Media  Electronic Marketing  Websites and Search Engine Optimization  Technology Adoption and Diffusion  Online Communities  Tourism Management and Decision Support  Mobile Technology and Services  Recommender Systems in Tourism  E-Intermediaries and Networks in Tourism  Customer Research  User Generated Content UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 5
  6. 6. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Quality evaluation Members of the Ifitt have contributed to the definition of a tourism website evaluation model, currently used to assess  whether a tourism website “meets the standard”,  if it should be improved,  which are its weak points points,  how these weak points can be overcome, taking into consideration all the involved actors (technicians, creatives, content providers, owners, managers, community managers, tourism operators, users...). ) Not by chance, this evaluation model is based on a standard proposed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 6
  7. 7. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i A simple evaluation model We can use any of different evaluation models, especially if we’re in a hurry... This is a really simple model... Let’s try now with a slightly more comprehensive one. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 7
  8. 8. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i A slightly stronger evaluation model Is this website easy to find out? True/False Do I like it? Are i A pieces of i f f information easy to find? i fi d? Is it easy to “navigate”? True/False True/False T /F l True/False Does it offer a newsletter? True/False Can you send an email message to it? True/False In case, does it answer? , True/False / In case, does it answer efficiently? True/False Can you reserve or buy tourism services? True/False Is this website privately run? True/False Is it run by a public office? True/False UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 8
  9. 9. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Standards Come on! A solid cornerstone is needed: a standard. Ok... But, what’s a standard? UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 9
  10. 10. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The ISO Think of different electric plugs in different countries, of electric tension (voltage), or octanes in gasoline, or … of the http, the html. http html  International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use use, worldwide.  The most prominent organisation is the International Organization for Standardization, or ISO.  International standards is one way of overcoming technical barriers in international commerce caused by y differences among technical regulations and standards developed independently and separately by each nation, national standards organisation, or company. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 10
  11. 11. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i De iure and de facto standards Some technology standards that are particularly relevant for our lectures – like the html, WAP, or Bluetooth – are official standards, internationally recognized standards recognized. (WAP was even the result of a joint, previously planned effort among several companies, like Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Microsoft, Oracle, Vodafone Motorola Microsoft Oracle Vodafone, and Telefónica). Telefónica) We can consider those standards as de iure standards. Sometimes, however, standards exist de facto, although no official agreement has been reached about them. This is, for instance, the case of the portable document format, or pdf, developed by Adobe Systems Inc. , p , p y y Another de facto standard, for multimedia distribution on the Web, is the Flash platform, now owned by Adobe, but originally developed by Macromedia. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 11
  12. 12. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The ISO definition Does a quality standard exist? Yes, it does. Think for instance of ISO quality certifications: they certify management systems, about the ability to enhance customer satisfaction in supplier-customer relationships, relationships and controlling production processes. processes Here’s he ISO definition of quality. “Quality is the totality of characteristics of an entity y that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs”. (ISO 8402) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 12
  13. 13. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Approaching our meta-model Let’s go back to our question about websites quality. While doing so, we are starting to approach a meta-model so meta model proposed by the Università di Trento (Mariangela Franch, Luisa Mich), which your lecturer strongly recommends. This meta model is based on the ISO definition of quality meta-model quality, and the way in which our brain structures concepts. (During our introduction, we already borrowed from Donald A. Norman a definition of conceptual models as the underlying belief structures held by people about how y g yp p something works.) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 13
  14. 14. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i About website quality If we apply the ISO definition “Quality is the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs” (ISO 8402), to our question about websites quality, we find that  the “entity” is the website; entity  the “stated and implied needs” are the many different requirements demanded by all the different website stakeholders (technicians, creatives, content providers, owners, managers, community managers, users...);  what the evaluation should state is whether the characteristics of the website “satisfy” the above requirements, or they don’t. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 14
  15. 15. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Boolean fields So the fundamental question is: does a website “satisfy” the relevant requirements demanded by its stakeholders? Or it does not? It’s a set of “yes or no” choices – no doubt. Opinions aren’t relevant, here. Only “yes or no options are yes no” are. judged vs. measured, yes/no boolean fields. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 15
  16. 16. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Requirements and methodology But which are the requirements? How to find out the requirements? Is there any model any methodology, to do so? model, methodology UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 16
  17. 17. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The 7Loci The loci, and website evaluation 1. Identity 2. Content 3. Services 4. Individuation 5. 5 Management 6. Usability 7. Feasibility UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. ITfor Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 01.01 .:. UniBg 44111 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta 17
  18. 18. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The Method of Loci The loci, from the classical rhetoric.        QVIS? QVID? CVR? VBI? QVANDO? QVOMODO? QVIBUS AVXILIIS? UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 18
  19. 19. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The Method of Loci, and English journalism The loci, from the classical rhetoric, vs. the Five Ws, or the basic questions of English journalism.        QVIS? (Who?) QVID? (What?) CVR? (Why?) VBI? (Where?) QVANDO? (When?) QVOMODO? (How?) QVIBUS AVXILIIS? (By what means?) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 19
  20. 20. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i The Method of Loci, and website evaluation The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q), based on the classical rhetoric loci and the Five Ws of English journalism, here with a naming that may be used for websites websites.        QVIS? (Who?) Identity QVID? (What?) Content CVR? (Why?) Services VBI? (Where?) Individuation QVANDO? (When?) Maintenance QVOMODO? (How?) Usability Q QVIBUS AVXILIIS? ( y what means?) Feasibility (By ) y Let’s go deeper now, and try to apply this meta-model to build a model to evaluate DMO websites specifically. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 20
  21. 21. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Identity The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 1. QVIS? (Who?) Identity  Website identity: logo, brand, environment  Destination identity?  Destination “story”?  brand, logo, layout, image, different targets UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 21
  22. 22. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Content The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 2. QVID? (What?) Content  Descriptions?  Pictures?  Multimedia?  Downloads?  Audio guides?  Local tourist services?  how to state managers needs, quality evaluation of text g ,q y content UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 22
  23. 23. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Services The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 3. CVR? (Why?) Services  “Where is this tourism destination located?”  “Which sort of experience are tourists going to enjoy in Which this destination?”  “Is this destination expensive?”  Meteo?  Reservations? (e-commerce)  proprietary vs. linked content p p y  e-commerce, CMSs, OTAs and the affiliate system  security, encryption  privacy, copyright, Creative Commons, cartography UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 23
  24. 24. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Individuation The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 4. VBI? (Where?) Individuation  Search engines? (positioning: networks among websites)  Communication with users? (e-mail, or personal networks)  Communication among users? (forums, “Web 2.0” – currently, the social networks, too)  Communication among tourism operators? ( y g p (dynamic business networks, perhaps Intranets)  social networks, web reputation UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 24
  25. 25. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Management The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 5. QVANDO? (When?) Management  Is the website regularly updated? No need to go deeper about this point point... code and links UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 25
  26. 26. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Usability The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 6. QVOMODO? (How?) Usability  A navigation menu?  An internal search engine?  A site map?  Languages?  404 – File not found?  download time, hardware & software compliance UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 26
  27. 27. Quality is our task, the 7Loci li i k h i Feasibility The 7loci meta-model (formerly 2QCV3Q) adopted to build an evaluation model for DMO websites 7. QVIBUS AVXILIIS? (By what means?) Feasibility  Resources?  Managers? Responsibilities?  Future developments?  Business models? UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #1 27

×