English as a world language
is a native speaker?
Is it important?
What is an error and what
is a difference?
KACHRU’S “CIRCLES” THEORY
being in the
Studies suggest that there were (in 2001) an
375 million users of English in Inner-Circle
societies (English as a 1st language)
375 million in Outer-Circle societies
(English as a 2nd language)
750-1,000 million in the Expanding Circle
(English as a Foreign language)
The spread of English
From the United Kingdom to countries where native English
speakers have settled down in large numbers (Kachru’s Inner
Circle countries, 1992): Australia, Canada, New Zealand,
South Africa, and the United States as a first language for
As a second language (Kachru’s Outer Circle, 1992): Examples
- Hong Kong, India, Singapore
Or a foreign language (Kachru’s Expanding Circle, 1992):
Examples - Germany, Hungary, Poland, China, and Japan
Reasons for the spread
These were countries formerly colonised by the British
- e.g. India, Singapore, Malta etc.
- English as a language gained importance in the administration of
English served an official purpose within the country in law,
education and government.
( David Crystal on Global English)
– a different
Kachru, B. (1986). The Alchemy of English: The
Spread, Functions, and Models of Non-native
Englishes. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kandiah, T (1998), ‘Why New Englishes?’ in J A
Foley, et al. (eds.), English in New Cultural
Contexts: Reflections from Singapore (Singapore:
Oxford University Press), pp. 1–40.
McArthur, T.(2001). "World English and World
Englishes: Trends, tensions, varieties, and
standards", Language Teaching Vol. 34: 1.