Psy300 developmental psychology - m1 a4 - roberta simpkin
1 FinalRunning head: Final Project – Week 1 Roberta Simpkin PSY300 – M1:A4 Developmental Psychology Argosy University Professor: Dr. Jane Hamilton November 2, 2009
2 Final In order to understand what is needed to support the maximized physical,cognitive, and socioemotional development of people across their life cycles, we willexamine two very different case studies, (Argosy, 2009). The first case is Charles and we will look at how his life has evolved over theperiod of his lifetime. Well examine not only his physical development and the medicalaspects associated with each stage of his development, but also the preventive strategiesfor guaranteeing optimal physical growth and health. We will look at his cognitivedevelopment, which focuses on the changes in the intellectual functioning of a humanbeing through the different stages of development. We’ll also look at the strategies forencouraging the growth and expansion of intellectual reasoning, memory, andeducational or academic functioning at each stage of his human life span, (Argosy, 2009). From a socioemotional perspective, we’ll see the emotional development,personality formation, moral development, and social relationships throughout his lifespan. In addition, there will be a focus on the impact of the social and familyenvironments on Charles’ individual development. The cultural perspective will help usunderstand the impact of culture on each stage of development, (Argosy, 2009). Charles was not loved from the time he was born. His mother got pregnant andfelt she had to marry Charles’ father. She always resented Charles. As a result, Charlesgrew up feeling unwanted. His feelings were justified. His feelings were the result of hismothers ranting and raving when under the influence of alcohol. Charles was born
3 Finalpremature and had low birth weight. He often suffered with fever. His parents resentedCharles weakened medical condition, (Argosy, 2009). It is extremely important for a mother-to-be to obtain good prenatal care so thatthe baby is born healthy. There are several things that a new mother-to-be should do inorder to reduce risks for herself and her baby, (Argosy, 2009): • getting properly immunized • obtaining early and regular prenatal checkups • eating a nutritionally balanced diet • making sure her prenatal weight gain is sufficient • stopping smoking, drinking and the use of illicit drugs • limiting her caffeine consumption Since Charles was born premature and with low birth weight, it is likely thatCharles’ mother may not have bothered to obtain good quality prenatal care, since shewas upset being pregnant, (Argosy, 2009). In addition, she probably didn’t bother to getany prenatal tests that are available to assess for fetal abnormalities, (Argosy, 2009).With most parents, the time surrounding the birth of their child is an overwhelminglyexciting and awe-inspiring event, (Argosy, 2009). This was not the case with Charles’birth.
4 Final Research supports the notion of nutrition programs for infants, which will supplythe needed nutrients for proper physical, cognitive, and emotional development growth,(Argosy, 2009). Charles’ weakened medical condition may have been due to the fact thatCharles’ immunizations may not have been important to Charles’ mother. From infancythrough 16 years of age, all children should be immunized against diphtheria, polio,measles, mumps, and rubella, (Argosy, 2009). Gross and fine motor skill development is rapid during infancy. Infants learnthese skills through muscle control, which is often the result of prodding and guidancefrom their parents. But in the case with Charles, his parents may not have taken the timeto allow Charles to learn these skills, (Argosy, 2009). Along with physical growth, there is also significant cognitive development ininfants. Infancy is referred to as the sensor motor stage. At this stage, they learn toorganize and coordinate sensations with physical movements, (Argosy, 2009). Charlesnever had anyone teach him organization and coordination. Most psychologists believe that infants construct a sense of self by developingtheir independence and establishing their individualism from others. Research into therealm of attachment has further helped psychologists understand the socioemotionaldevelopment of infants. It helps clarify how emotional bonding and attachment with aloving caregiver supports an infant’s need to be “his or her own person”, (Argosy, 2009).
5 Final The term attachment refers to a close emotional bond between the infant and thecaregiver. In addition, attachment involves not merely the presence of emotionalcloseness, but also a sense of security and comfort in the presence of the attachmentfigure. In other words, when you are attached, you feel, or you hope to feel, a specialsense of security and comfort in the presence of the attachment figure, and in turn feelsafe exploring the environment. Charles did not have this attachment, this closeemotional bond with either of his parents. Charles did not have that special sense ofsecurity, (Argosy, 2009). Now Charles in his 70s, is under psychiatric care at a state-run medical center,and has been diagnosed as suffering from severe schizophrenia, (Argosy, 2009).Schizophrenia is a psychiatric mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in theperception or expression of reality. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in youngadulthood. The disorder is thought to mainly affect cognition, but it also usuallycontributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. Studies suggest thatgenetics, early environment, neurobiology, psychological, and social processes areimportant contributory factors. Some recreational and prescription drugs appear to causeor worsen symptoms, (Webster’s Dictionary).
6 Charles grew up fending for himself because his mother started drinking heavily.He got himself absorbed into street gangs at different times in his life, some which wereinvolved in extortion and the sale of drugs. I feel that Charles’ present condition is Finaldirectly related to his upbringing; the fact that he never felt wanted or loved, the fact thathe was virtually ignored, and he never formed a close emotional bond as an infant,(Argosy, 2009). His cognitive development, which focuses on the changes in theintellectual functioning of a human being never went through the different stages ofdevelopment, (Argosy, 2009). The history of Charles’ life is sad – a case study indevelopmental dysfunction, (Argosy, 2009). Our second case study is Paul and we’ll look at how his life evolved over theperiod of his lifetime. Well examine his physical development and the medical aspectsassociated with each stage of his development, the preventive strategies for guaranteeingoptimal physical growth and health, and his cognitive development, (Argosy, 2009).Paul’s parents thought he was a blessed child. His mother often said, before his birth, thatshe had a vision of God sending a basket full of sparkling stars her way and blessing her.Pauls father said Paul was the most robust of all his children, (Argosy, 2009). Paul was the last child of his family. He had three brothers and a sister. His fatherwas a hardworking farmer and his mother was a housewife. Most of Paul’s childhoodwas spent on a farm, where he walked two miles daily to go to school and spent the restof his time helping his mother at home or his father on the farm. Money was scarce and
7was just enough to provide for essentials and basic amenities. However, his parents werealways cheerful and loving towards their children. They were faithful, consistent, andsupportive members of the church. Every Sunday morning included services at churchfollowed by a hearty family lunch that close relatives or family friends sometimes Finalattended. Paul’s love for all things related to academics made him a good student and hewas the pride of the school, the community, and his family. For Paul, books alwaysopened a wonderful world of fantasy and discovery. His thirst for knowledge made himgraduate with top honors and move to the state university on a scholarship, (Argosy,2009). Paul had a close emotional bond with his family as an infant and this gave him asense of security and comfort that continued his whole life, (Argosy, 2009). Paul’smother undoubtedly was getting properly immunized, obtained early and regular prenatalcheckups, and ate a nutritionally balanced diet, (Argosy, 2009). Paul’s physical,cognitive, and emotional growth was all fulfilled, (Argosy, 2009). Paul is now in his late 70s and is actively involved in community welfareprograms. He is a distinguished academician and is a well-known name in internationalcircles. After graduating as a Physics major, he took up research at the same university.He met and married Nancy, a fellow researcher, and is the proud father of a son who hasgone on to be the CEO of a top software organization. He is a loving husband and father.Paul lives with his wife in a modest home in a small town. He is involved in the welfare
8of the close-knit community. The history of Paul’s life is a happy one - a case study inpositive lifespan development, (Argosy, 2009).
9Final ReferencesArgosy University. (2009). PSY300: Developmental Psychology, Module 1, Cognitive Developmental Issues, Retrieved October 31, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.comArgosy University. (2009). PSY300: Developmental Psychology, Module 1, Course Overview, Retrieved October 31, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.comArgosy University. (2009). PSY300: Developmental Psychology, Module 1, Physical Developmental Issues, Retrieved October 31, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.comArgosy University. (2009). PSY300: Developmental Psychology, Module 1, Pregnancy and Birth, Retrieved October 31, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.comArgosy University. (2009). PSY300: Developmental Psychology, Module 1, Socioemotional Developmental Issues, Retrieved October 31, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.comWebster’s Dictionary