If people are left neglected without proper nutrition, over a period of time their behavior can be affected. People who do not receive good nutrition can tend to withdraw, be underachievers, and cannot be completely happy individuals (Argosy University, 2010).
A lack of nutrition not only affects the body’s function, but also the mind’s functioning. If not properly given the right nutrients over a period of time, people can act very irrationally (Argosy University, 2011).
People in poor environments that are not properly nourished have difficulty in coping with their environment (Argosy University, 2011).
Nutritional problems are often linked to environmental disadvantage and the possibility exists for long-term developmental effects. Prevention of nutritional disorders holds the greatest promise for eradicating behavioral and developmental problems (Lozoff, B. (1989).
686 males and female were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. The consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed (Benton & Brock, 2010). The strength of this article is in its comparison with mood and nutrition, the fact that people were more receptive when they were nourished.
The association between long-term developmental effects on cognitive ability and the nutritional status of children has been well documented. Beyond the consideration of protein deficiency in brain/behavior development however, nutritional factors never occur in isolation from the social and cultural impediments that make up poverty. Children need the sensory richness of their basic home environment during their earliest years. Although both comprehensive medical care and nutritional enrichment can ensure an adequate physical development, they alone do not attribute to intellectual development. The addition of a stimulating educational environment is necessary to dramatically improve intellectual development. The earlier such programs are instituted in the development of the child, the greater the possibility of enhanced cognitive development (Boivin & Giordani, 1996). The strength of this article is the association between developmental effects on cognitive ability and the nutritional status of children.
Aggressive and depressive disorders may be exacerbated by nutritional deficiencies in omega-3 fatty acids (Blasbalg, Ferguson, & Hibbeln, 2006). Early developmental deficiencies in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may lower serotonin levels at critical periods of neurodevelopment. Residual developmental deficits may be manifest as dysregulation of sympathetic responses to stress including decreased heart rate variability and hypertension, which in turn have been linked to behavioral dysregulation. Ensuring optimal intakes of omega-3 fatty acids during early development and adulthood shows considerable promise in preventing aggression and hostility (Blasbalg, et al, 2006). The strength of this article is that early developmental deficiencies may lower levels of neurodevelopment.
Comparison with the health behavior of psychiatric patients and the general population was compared with the health behavior of a representative sample of 7200 persons from the German population. The conclusion was that poor health behavior is widespread in patients with all major psychiatric diagnoses and it is necessary to have interventions in order to reduce risk behavior and strengthen health preventive lifestyles (Becker, Frasch, Kilian, Krüger, & Schmid, 2006). The strength of this article is the comparison of health relevant behavior and disorders.
Childhood health and cognitive development correlated with health and socioeconomic status. Birth weight affects cognitive performance later in childhood (Welsch & Zimmer, 2010). The strength of this article is a link between socioeconomic status and child health.
Obesity is a condition of heterogeneous etiology that is harmful for most individuals. Obesity is related to mental disorder and many of the medications used to treat psychiatric illness. It is important to monitor patients with antidepressants and alternative approaches in helping patients struggling with behavior (Marcus & Wildes, 2009). The strength of this article is the evidence stating that obesity is related to a mental disorder and many of the medications used to treat psychiatric illness.
It was found that people eat larger amounts of hedonic foods (buttered popcorn and M&M's) when they are in a sad mood than when they are in a happy mood and that this effect happens when nutritional information is not present. In contrast, people tended to eat larger amounts of a less hedonic product (raisins) when they were in a happy mood than when they were in a sad mood (Garg, Inman, & Wansink, 2007). The strength of this article states that when people are sad they tend to eat larger amounts of hedonic foods.
To develop an effective preventive intervention for behavior, a cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze the relationship between past lifestyle, social activity, and depressive behavior among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. Physical exercise, dietary education, and the promotion of social activities were recommended for the prevention of depressive behavior symptoms (Aihara, Aoyama, Atsuko, Minai, & Shimanouchi, 2011). The strength of this article relates to the intake of well-balanced meals and milk products with the absence of depressive behavior.
Women are dissatisfied with their bodies because of the influence by the media images of thin women. Fewer researchers have focused on the role of peer influences and peer competition on female body dissatisfaction. Furthermore, the relation between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders (not getting the proper nutrition) is often not implied in the media. such competition affects body dissatisfaction with behavior (Ferguson & Winegard, 2011). The strength of this article is the link between behavior and lack of proper nutrition.
Improvement of daily dietary behaviors is forming an intention to change one's nutrition. People must not harbor self-doubts. If they lack self-efficacy, intentions are not well translated into nutrition behavior through planning (Kreausukon, Remme, Reuter, Richert, Schwarzer, & Wiedemann, 2010). The strength of this article is the relation of nutrition and behaviors.
In conclusion, lack of nutrition can cause a change in behavior which would influence performance (Kreausukon, et al, 2010). The strength of this article is the relation of negative behavior with a lack of nutrition.
Aihara, Y., Aoyama, Atsuko, Minai, J., & Shimanouchi, S. (2011). Depressive symptoms and past lifestyle among Japanese elderly people, Community Mental Health Journal (2011-04- 0147:2, 186, ISSN: 00103853 , Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Argosy University (2011). PSY492XE: Advanced General Psychology, Module Online Lectures, Retrieved from: http:// www.myeclassonline.com
Argosy University (2010). An Overview of Psychology: Its Past and Present, Your Future. Publisher: Pearson Custom, ISBN: 978-0-558-30918-3
Becker, T., Frasch, K., Kilian, R., Krüger, K., & Schmid, S. (2006). Health behavior in psychiatric in-patients compared with a German general population sample, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 10114:4, 242(7), Publication Type: Academic Journal 2243002 , Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Benton, D. & Brock, H. (2010). Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal. (Dec. 2010). | 2010-12-0155:3, | 436 | ISSN: 0195-6663 | Retrieved from Argosy University PsycINFO Database
Blasbalg, T., Ferguson, T., & Hibbeln, J. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: Opportunities for intervention, International Review of Psychiatry, 2006, 0418:2, 107(12) ISSN: 09540261, Publication Type: Academic Journal Language: English AN: 20855339 DOI: 0.1080/09540260600582967, Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Boivin, M., & Giordani, B. (1996). Economic advantage and the cognitive ability of rural children in Zaire , Academic Journal of Psychology , 1996-01130:1, 95(13), ISSN: 00223980 , Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Ferguson, C., & Winegard, B. (2011). Who is the fairest one of all? How evolution guides peer and media influences on female body dissatisfaction . Review of General Psychology, 2011-03-0115:1, 11, ISSN: 1089-2680, Retrieved from Argosy University PsycINFO database
Garg, N., Inman, J., & Wansink, B. (2007). Project HEALTH: Stages of secondary sexual characteristics and nutrition related correlates . The Influence of Incidental Effect on Consumers' Food Intake, Publication Type: Academic Journal of Marketing, 2007-0171:1, 194(13), ISSN: 00222429 , Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Kreausukon, P., Remme, L., Reuter, T., Richert, J., Schwarzer, R., & Wiedemann, A. (2010). Translating intentions into nutrition behaviors, International Journal of Psychology (2010). Publication Type: Academic Journal ISSN: 00207594 , Retrieved from Argosy University PsycINFO database
Lozoff, B. (1989). Nutrition and behavior | 1989-02-0144:2 | 231 | ISSN: 0003-066X | Retrieved from Argosy University PsycINFO Database
Marcus, M., & Wildes, J. (2009). Obesity: Is it a mental disorder? International Journal of Eating 2009 -1242:8, 739(15), ISSN: 02763478, American Psychiatric Association, Publication Type: Academic Journal: 45232188, DOI: 10.1002/eat.20725, Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database
Welsch, D., & Zimmer, D. (2010). The effect of health and poverty on early childhood cognitive development. Atlantic Economic Journal, 2010-0338:1,37(13) ISSN: 01974254 Publication Type: Academic Journal Language: English AN: 48157055 DOI: 10.1007/s11293-009-9198-2 , Retrieved from Argosy University EBSCO database