There are many other genres.
Quick, forward motion
High key lighting – everything lit up evenly
Action shooting & angles
Use of multiple quick camera angles
Quick, faced paced thematic editing, often matched to
a thumping soundtrack
Use of lighting to emphasise the characters’ emotions, such
as silhouette lighting (a type of low key lighting)
Shots should add to the feelings and moods of the
Use of low and high camera angles (low for powerful
subject, high for weak subjects);
Use of lots of close-ups to emphasise the characters’
In the editing process, the filmmakers will draw out the
length of a scene beyond its real length so that the
audience can contemplate the characters’ feelings.
Use of shadows to hide the villain, by lighting specific areas within the
frame, rather than the whole frame.
Shaky shots, crooked angles and lots of fast cuts to create an atmosphere of
Lead room – the filmmakers frame the subject with space in front of their head so
that we expect the baddie to come out them from in front – but then the baddie
emerges from behind, surprising the audience.
The element of surprise is created by not showing the antagonist – only showing
fragments or flashes of them, to further create an atmosphere of fear
Thematic editing – quick cutting to the beat of a soundtrack to carry the story
Audio is very important to create the tense atmosphere.
You will be allowed to take in an A4 double
sided, handwritten cheat sheet. You can use this
PowerPoint to help you prepare it.
What is genre?
Fictional films are usually categorized according to their
setting, theme topic and mood. The setting is the
environment where the story and action takes place. The
theme or topic refers to the issues or concepts that the
film revolves around. The mood is the emotional tone of
the film. An additional way of categorizing film genres is
by the target audience.
Camera – the range of camera shots, angles and
movements we’ve studied throughout the year
Sound – refers to dialogue, the film’s soundtrack or
score, sound effects. Can be divided into diagetic and
Lighting – three point lighting; high key and low key
lighting; expressionistic, naturalistic and high contrast
Editing – the various transitions which are employed to
manipulate time and space within the filmic world.
Extreme Long Shot: An establishing shot taken from far
Long Shot: A life size image that shows a full shot and the
Medium Shot: A shot from the knees or waist up; used
for dialogue scenes
Close-Up: Shows little background and shows either a
face or a detail. This allows us to see a character's
expression or a small detail up close
Extreme Close-Up: A shot that magnifies beyond what the
eye would experience in reality
Bird's-Eye View: A scene shot from overhead at an extreme
High Angle: A shot elevated above the action
Eye Level: A shot positioned in a natural position as though a
human were seeing the scene
Low Angle: A shot in which the background is the sky or
ceiling; the figure on the screen dominates the image.
Oblique/Canted Angle: A tilted shot, usually with a
Pan: Camera moves horizontally (left-right/right-left) on a
Tilt: Camera moves vertically (up-down/down-up) on a
Tracking: Camera physically moves, following the
Zoom: The camera lens changes quickly from a long shot
to a close-up, or from a close-up to a long shot
Fade in/fade out: Shot fades in from black or white, or out to
black or white. This one often signals the beginning and end
of a scene or the passing of time.
Cross-dissolve: The next shot overlays the previous shot.
Provides a seamless transition between shots.
Cut: The most basic and common transition. Shot simply
‘cuts’ from one shot to the next.
Wipe: Next shot enters from one side of the frame and the
previous shot exits from the other side of the frame. George
Lucas used lots of them in the original Star Wars movies.
Three point lighting - a common lighting technique that uses three
lighting instruments for each person or object photographed: a key
light, a fill light, and a back light
High key lighting - illumination that creates comparatively little contrast
between the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly
transparent and brightened by fill light.
Low key lighting - illumination that creates strong contrast between light
and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light
Expressionistic lighting - using very dramatic, artificial lighting patterns to
express character psychology-usually in a studio
Naturalistic lighting - derive from a natural source or setting like the sun, or
a candle in the room.
High contrast lighting - style of lighting emphasizing harsh shafts and
dramatic streaks of lights and darks. Often used in thrillers or melodramas
Elements of sound
Diegeticsound - sound that is logically heard during a
scene, including dialogue, music and sound effects
corresponding to what we see on screen.
Non diegeticsound - sounds/music that characters can't hear;
sounds that don't actually occur in the world of the film. Is not
seen, heard, imagined, or thought by a character. Example:
Dialogue - the lines spoken by characters in drama or fiction
Film score - music written and composed specifically for a film
scene; usually done after shooting and editing has been
Sound effects - audio effects other than music or speech that are
enhanced or artificially created and added in post-production
Cut - The most common type of transition in which one scene ends
and a new one immediately begins.
Fade in/out - starts from black screen then gradually appears, or
starts with screen and gradually dissolves
cross dissolve - this transition involves a gradual change from the first
clip to the second. The first clip changes from 100% opacity to 0%
opacity while the second clip simultaneously changes from 0% to
100% over the same time period. If one of the clips is a slug, this
transition has the effect of creating a fade in / out.
Wipe - an optical effect in which one shot appears to "wipe" the
preceding one from the screen.
Jump cut -an elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a
single shot. Either the figures seem to change instantly against a
constant background, or the background changes instantly while the
figures remain constant.