Impact of corridor design and
management in a large-scale
industrial tropical plantation
landscape
Conference on Biodivers...
Plantation Forests in Indonesia?


Forested area: 113 million ha (land area: 191 million ha,
Sumatra 19 million ha)
Indon...
Corridors?




How well are the present corridors maintaining
biodiversity?
How the management of the matrix surrounding
corridors ...
102°E

Riau, Sumatra
0°

Tesso Nilo

Kerumutan

Bukit Rimbang
Baling

recently cleared areas
opened forest
closed forest
g...
Sampling methods


3 Plantation sectors






Structural parameters (connectivity to natural
forest/KPPN, distance, ag...
Legend

E16 E15
E16 E15
E16 E15

E16 E15
E16
E16 E15
YEAR PLANTED E15

Buffer zone

Scrub clearing inprogress
Jalurpatah

...
Sector (ha)

Teso
Baserah East

Teso
West

(27 580) (18 946)

(20 391)

12

26

16

Planted indigenous plywood

0

0

15

...
Structural parameters

Baserah

Teso East

Teso West

Crown Closure

16% >30%

88% >30%

100% >30%

Corridor Width

81% <5...
Primates




Present in 30 % of cells
8 species ( (Hylobates agilis, H. lar, H. klosii, H.

syndactilus, Macaca fascicul...
The most common
primate species in
Sumatran lowland Plantation
forest (Ecology of Sumatra)
corridors KPPN

Tesso Nilo

Ria...
Insects
1119

1200

10 7 1

10 2 8

983

1000

877

800

700

685

600

449

420

400
200

12

40

Der mapt er a

Di t yop...
KPPN



Protected area inside plantation
KPPN1Trees
KPPN1 Poles
KPPN1 Saplings
KPPN1 Seedlings
Corridor Poles
Corridor Trees
Corridor Saplings

140

120

Species a...
Tree

Pole

Sapling

Seedling

corridor

H’/cell

2.8

2.7

3

2.7

KPPN

H’/cell

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.6

corridor

N/ha

127...
IV, corridor seedlings

IV, corridor saplings

30

IV, corridor poles

30

25

20

IV 15

40

20
IV 15

20

10

10

5

10
...
The potential for tropical forest
plantations to contribute to
biodiversity conservation?


Biodiversity loss associated ...
What role for plantation forestry in
maintaining biodiversity?
Landscape level management


Implies consideration of long
term viability of corridors –
within a comprehensive
landscape...


Landscape
heterogeneity
Road system
layout
 Disturbance
 Prevention of
illegal logging
 Hunting..

Complexity, corridor
length and width
versus edge effect..
Corridors - “living deads”-type of
fragments and only sinks for

populations?
Work conducted by CIFOR (P. Koponen, R.
Nasi, J. Poulsen, M. Buitenzorgi, W.
Rusmantoro) in collaboration with the
Researc...
Impact of corridor design and management in a large-scale industrial tropical plantation landscape
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Impact of corridor design and management in a large-scale industrial tropical plantation landscape

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  • Tropical plantations are rapidly expanding as a source of industrial wood. In Indonesia, such plantations are generally made of large mono-specific blocks interspersed with natural forest remnants (corridors).
    By 2050 the World will need an additional 66-101 million ha of forest plantations (54-81 millions for wood energy). Plantations are best suited to provide large quantity of uniform material (industrial wood, pulp wood) that is in increasing demand. The area of tropical natural forests that can be economically or legally logged is going to decline drastically
  • 1) Plantations, as currently managed, may directly contribute to fragmentary processes on a landscape level, by reducing the inter-connectivity of natural/native vegetation patches. Habitats that maintain connectivity across landscape are commonly called biological corridors. They represent an option for balancing the goals of sustainable production on plantations with maintenance of biodiversity.
    2) Corridors of the study area were mainly riparian forests, left untouched when surrounding logged/over forest was clear-cut for plantation stands.
    3) The extant and value of these forest remnants vary as laws and regulations are somewhat unclear and/or left to the interpretation of the plantation company. In Kampar Kabupaten (district) the required riparian buffer width depends on river width, in Pelalawan Kabupaten it depends on branching. Current government regulations (REF) stipulates that 15-20% of any concession has to be set aside as corridors and conservation areas, especially in riparian areas. Also slopes over 40% must be conserved – but slope length has not been specified.
    The extant of conserved natural forest was between 12 to 26 % of a sector area. RAPPs interpretation of regulations has been that
    rivers less than 3m wide need no riparian buffer,
    Rivers more than 3 m wide need at least 25 m on each bank (nearly all corridors in RAPP concession fall into this category)
    more than 50m wide rivers need 250m corridor including actual river.
  • Given current rates of environmental transformation and increasing dependency on plantation forestry, further scientific inquiry into the potential environmental, ecological benefits provided by corridors is needed.
    1)As the goal of protected areas has been to cover 10% of national land area (but varies from country to country), how to predict the biological responses to fragmentation across the landscape in &quot;the other 90%&quot; of terrestrial land area.
    2)to develop better plantation management strategies and regulations at the landscape scale for improved biodiversity conservation, while maintaining economic profitability of the plantations.
  • Concession (or study) areas in Riau, in close proximity of Tesso nilo forest reserve.
  • One RAPP concession sector, Baserah– All sectors are mosaics of
    Acacia mangium stands from age 0 – 77 months (average 31),
    KPPN (germplasm conservation areas) and
    Riparian forest corridors
    dense road network. (1-6 roads in each cell, with average 3 roads/cell)
    Soils are well drained, forests are lowland rain forests, all sectors are converted from natural/secondary forests, which had been selectively logged especially from Dipterocarp species prior to plantation development.
  • Year 2000. Landscape is composed of mainly acacia mangium stands and inoperable area (land, which has villages or land which villagers has claimed for themselves)
    Young regeneration forests, home gardens, fallows=belukar
    By law, 10% of the concession area should be left as tanaman ungulan (fallows, home gardens) for local people for livelihood.
  • Majority of corridors are narrow (less than 50m wide), have medium crown closure, are dominated by medium river, with 2-5 m wide (49%),
    (51%) Most corridors were connected, through other corridors, to either conservation areas (KPPN) or remaining natural forest areas outside sector boundaries (like the Teso-Nilo forest).
    Corridors of the Baserah sector were shorter, more open reflecting less environmental sensitive management prior to 1997.
    Corridor width, length, crown closure and proportion of the cell set aside as corridor were highly positively correlated: the longest were generally the widest, had the highest crown closure and were found in cells with a high proportion of land set aside.
    Majority (over 60%) had some sort of disturbance, generally illegal logging activities, intersected by roads and silted (had water ponding).
    Canopy closure was lower in not-logged than in logged-over corridors. This result can be explained by two main reasons i) some corridors were not logged because originally very poorly stocked and with a degraded canopy, ii) logging gaps are quickly colonized by low, dense canopy pioneer species like Macaranga spp, thus increasing the canopy closure.
  • 8 species, 1. survey: 84 individuals, 2.: 87 inds in corridors and 88 inds in KPPN
    EC:Presbytis melalophos Banded leaf monkey:
    Typical density for it – 26 individuals / km2 in Sumatran lowland forest, group size approx. 13, normally 2 groups per km2

    EC:Macaca fascicularis – Long tailed macaque, 30 individuals/km2, group size 15, normally 2 groups per km2
    Kebun karet: 0,8 ind/ha
    Di sepadan Sungai Onangan: 3,3 ind/ha
    long/tailed macaques are more or less restricted to riverine forests, figures thus for riverbank km2 in Ecology of Sumatra – was found also in plantations
    Comparison of the 30 cells where primate presence was recorded (pooled surveys) and of the 45 cells with connected corridors but no primate recorded show that most cell characteristics (proportion set aside, corridor width, complexity, number and length of roads, corridor quality) are not significantly different between the two groups. For significantly different characteristics, results are somewhat counterintuitive: cells with primates have wider rivers but a more open canopy and shorter corridors.
  • Nycticebus coucang and Tarsier bancanus NOCTURNAL.
    Primates species richness and abundance was in line with studies from Tesso nilo area.
    Elephants visit the borders of Teso East, which also has mineral lick sites for animals.
  • 12 orders, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Odonata the most abundant
    Decrease in no of orders &amp; individuals perpendicular to the river  no matter how wide the river or corridor
    In Amazon , insect abundance and diversity usually increase in the understory near edges, propably because of increased understory plant density and productivity
    PESTS?
  • KPPN (germplasm conservation area) area was not completely undisturbed - consisting of nurseries, roads.. But it still was a larger natural forest area inside the sector.
  • Tesso Nilo, much more diverse with
    IF species accumulation curve per trees – comparable?
  • Similarity with KPPN???
    Overall value in the whole system of corridors not in one or two
  • Most “important” tree species in 4 classes (IVI) = A species having a high importance value occurs with high density, occupies more space (especially poles and trees), and is distributed relatively more uniformly compared to species with a lower importance value
    1) Most species with high IV in KPPN, had also high IV in green belts. 16 - 18 species in trees and poles with IV &gt; 5, 15 species in Tiga puluh hills.
    Macaranga sp., a pioneer species, while found in most areas except new plantation at the sapling level, was found only in old plantations and KPPN are at the seedling level, and only in old plantations at pole level. Macaranga sp. is an indicator species of disturbance and was found only in old plantations.

    Trees
    In all plantation types, Medang, Jambu-jambu, Kelat were the dominant tree species, with Medang being the most dominant.
    Kempas, a protected species growing mainly close to rivers and other riparian areas, was not found even at the seedling, sapling and pole level.
    Basal area = the basal area (m2) of individuals of a particular species as a proportion of the total basal areas of all species.
    Relative density = number of individuals of particular species as a proportion of the total basal areas of all species.
    Relative dominance = the combined basal area of a single species as a proportion of the basal area of all species.
    Relative frequency = the frequency of a given species as a proportion of the sum of frequencies for all species.
    Important Value Index (IVI) = the sum of relative density, relative dominance, and relative frequency. An exception, for seedling the Important Value Index is calculated using formula = sum of relative density and relative frequency.
    GRAPH ?
    food sources of those vegetation species with highest importance value at seedling, sapling, pole and tree levels.
  • 1) It is not possible to preserve all forests to parks and reserves so obviously it is important what happens to the residual 90% of the forest estate. Many species will only be conserved within a matrix of protected and managed forests.
    2) Natural forest corridors may, if appropriately managed and designed, be used to mitigate the negative impact of large scale industrial plantations on biodiversity by providing some degree of landscape inter-connectivity of remaining natural forest patches/areas.
  • 1) Overall, the real potential for affecting future plantation landscapes is to provide incentives for better landscape/spatial design and management of those areas which are set aside from production for corridors and conservation areas.
    There is generally very little scope for affecting within-stand management regimes and techniques.
    2) From a biodiversity and conservation biology standpoint Plantation landscapes should be designed so that on the one hand, the landscapes are penetrable and permeable for those biodiversity components which are of conservation concern in the area under consideration, and on the other hand, impenetrable and impermeable for pests, weeds, and invasives. Second,although this presentation has mainly had ecological point of view, we can’t forget that from a human/social standpoint, the priority must be to design plantation and manage landscapes in a way that minimizes the adverse impacts on the local people and communities living in and around these areas.
    2)According to several studies forest fragments loose species after isolation = phenomenon called as species relaxation (Laurance, S Cp3)
    Connectivity for the primates was crucial, and even very narrow coridors stretching out from the border of natural forest into the plantation are important for pollinators
  • Ideally they would consist of various types of habitat, not just riparian forests – for this we should maybe accept that some of the riparian forests are lost. –
  • Prevention of illegal logging – many means for this by using gates in roads, limited road network system..company commitment as responsible wood buyer..
    Road system layout should be developed thinking its effect on hydrology (picture of water ponding), connectivity..
    -----------------------
    First, leases on natural (selectively, logged-over) areas classified as HTI (i.e., for plantation development), are short, currently approximately 20 years. This could be considered as too short a period for the companies to fully commit to longterm (beyond the twenty years) planning. Furthermore, there are currently no longterm plans for the HTI areas after the current leases expire, and current lease-holders has no guarantee that their lease can be extended beyond the current lease period. This uncertainty is a further impetus for maximizing short-term incomes at the expense of longterm sustainable management. And hence corridors have been considered as pure constraints to maximizing short-term earnings.
  • Diversity in line with KPPN and natural forest, but:
    How many endemic species do we have there compared to natural forest or KPPN?
    How should we compromise/take into account these in order to preserve f. ex. interior old growth forest species? On average, forest fragments exhibit markedly elevated dynamics, apparently as a result of increased windthrow and microclimatic changes near forest edges. Mean mortality, damage and turnover rates are much higher within edges. What type of biodiversity do we want to maintain?
    There is evidence that ecosystem disturbance often leads to species or population changes, but not necessarily loss in “biodiversity”; Who has the right to decide what biodiversity needs to be kept?
    Endemism might be low although the biodiversity is high!
    Should regulations prefer wider, maybe more viable corridors in stead of possible sinks, narrow corridors, which though could better act as connecting links between fragments.
    And the final question: ..
  • Besides benefits (providing habitat, aiding ecosystem processes such as pollinating, maintaining water quality by shading streams, redusing the nutrient inflow..) corridors may act as population sinks (dead end, reduce reproduction)
  • Impact of corridor design and management in a large-scale industrial tropical plantation landscape

    1. 1. Impact of corridor design and management in a large-scale industrial tropical plantation landscape Conference on Biodiversity and Conservation Biology in Plantation Forests, 27th – 29th April 2005
    2. 2. Plantation Forests in Indonesia?  Forested area: 113 million ha (land area: 191 million ha, Sumatra 19 million ha) Indonesian forests (million ha)  From total: conservation, 23 production, 40 conversion, 50  (GOI/FAO 1996) 1.4 million ha industrial pulp wood plantation forest at the end of 2001  50 % established on land cleared of natural forest  Companies plan to establish new plantations in Riau (Sumatra) on peat, logged-over natural forest..
    3. 3. Corridors?
    4. 4.   How well are the present corridors maintaining biodiversity? How the management of the matrix surrounding corridors influences their viability? Effectiveness of wildlife corridors in tropical fast wood plantations for conserving biodiversity is largely unknown.  Field-based experiments to test knowledge gaps difficult  Integrating studies of animal movement, species dispersal in matrix conditions needed GOAL  simulation/model for varying corridor conditions in landscape matrix  to aid develop better plantation management strategies & better, clearer regulations  Null - hypothesis: patterns of distribution are independent of connectivity, width, distance to natural forest area, crown closure and age of neighbouring plantation stands 
    5. 5. 102°E Riau, Sumatra 0° Tesso Nilo Kerumutan Bukit Rimbang Baling recently cleared areas opened forest closed forest grass, shrub short-term crops mixed tree garden rice fields oil palm plantation rubber plantation acacia plantation settlements water bodies Baserah Teso East, Teso West Bukit Tigapuluh
    6. 6. Sampling methods  3 Plantation sectors    Structural parameters (connectivity to natural forest/KPPN, distance, age of surrounding plantation, crown closure, disturbance..) Vegetation – 32 cells in one sector, Baserah   Grid of 100 ha square cells total of 282 plots in transect lines in corridors - sampled area of 0.12 ha, 0.72 ha, 2.9 ha and 11.5 ha for seedlings, saplings, poles and trees, respectively Insects and mammals – line transects in three sectors, in 80 and 100 cells respectively perpendicular to river and riparian forests
    7. 7. Legend E16 E15 E16 E15 E16 E15 E16 E15 E16 E16 E15 YEAR PLANTED E15 Buffer zone Scrub clearing inprogress Jalurpatah Planted area burnt s Loga Trans Camp/office/barrack/nursery 0° 10' S Logged,claimed by masy. Logged,unplantable Scrub dry Planted in 1992 Slope >40 Planted in 1993 MTH dry Canal Deep peat >3m F61 F60 F61 F60 F61 F60 F61 F60 F61 F60 F61 F60 F84 F84 F84 F62 F62 F62 F84 F84 F84 F62 F62 F62 F83 F83 F83 F83 F83 F83 0° 15' S F59 F59 F59 F59 F59 F59 MTH unloggable Planted Acacia sp Enclave MTH wet Planted non Acacia sp Greenbelt Nursery TPK/TPN KKPA MTH F57 F57 F57 F57 F57 F57 MTH low volume Teratak  Scrub wetAir Hitam Openland Trial/reaserch Planted in 1994 Pulauin Planted in 1995 Pulaulan Planted in 1996   Benai Planted in 1997 Ujung tanjung Planted in 1998 Seberakum Planted in 1999 Logged over KKPA logged over Overlap w/ company Sentajo Banja F58 F58 F58 F56 F56 F56 F58 F58 F58 F56 F56 F56 Banja F55 F55 F55 Planted in 2000 F55 F55 F55 Problem area KPPN Overlap w/ garden F53 F53 F53 Muaro F53 F53 F53 F52 F52 F52  Kopah F52 F52 F52 F54 F54 F54 F54 F54 F54 F51 F51 F51 F51 F51 F82 F82 F82 F51 F82 F82 F82 F50 F48 F44 F50 F48 F44 F50 F48 F44 F50 F48 F44 F50 F48 F44 F50 F48 F44 F49 F49 F49 F49 F49 F49 F47 F47 F47 F47 F47 F47  Hulu Teso F43 F43 F43 F81 F81 F81 F45 F43 F42 F45 F43 F42 F45 F43 F42 F46 F46 F46 F46 F46 F46 F41 F41 F41 F41 F41 F41 F36 F37 F36 F37 F36 F37 F01 F01 F01 F36 F37 F36 F37 F36 F37 F40 F40 F40 F02F01 F02F01 F02F01 A01 A01 A01 F40 F40 F40 F02 F02 F02 A01 A01 A01 A02 A02 A02 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 A02 A03 A02 A03 A02 A03 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 F80 F39 F38 F34 F35 F21 A03 A03 A03 F22 F22 F22 A30 A30 A30 F05 F03 F05 F03 F05 F03 A04 A04 A04 F22 A30 A30 A30 F05 F03 F05 F03 F05 F03 A04 A04 A04 L23F22F20 L23F22F20 L23 F20 L23 F20 L23 F20 L23 F20 F19 F19 F19 F19 F19 F19 F33 F33 F33 F24 A05 A05 A05 F06 F04 F06 F04 F06 F04 A22 A23 A22 A23 A22 A23 F33 F33 F33 F24 F24 A05 A05 A05 F29 F24 F29 F24 F29 F24 F06 F04 F06 F04 F06 F04 A22 A23 A06 A22 A23 A06 A22 A23 A06 B01 B06 B01 B06 B01 B06 F29 F29 F79 F79 F79 F32 F32 F32 F29 B01 B06 B01 B06 B01 B06 F79 F79 F79 F32 F32 F32 A06 A07 A06 A07 A06 A07 F18 F15 F10 F08 F07 F15 F10 F08 F07 A07 F25  F18 F15 F10 F08 F07 F25  F18 F15 F10 F08  F07 F25 F18 F15 F10 F08 F07 F15 F10 F08 F07 A07 A07   F25 F25 F25 Situgal F31 F31 F31 F26 F26 F26  F28 F28 F28 F31 F31 F31 F28 F28 F28 F30 F26 F30 F26 F30 F26 F14 F14 F14 B02 B02 B02 B07 B07 B07 F09 F09 F09 A24A25 A08 A09 A24A25 A08 A09 A24A25 A08 A09 F30 Tenado F17 F30 F30 F14 F14 F14 B02 B02 B02 B07 B07 B07 F17 F17 F09 F09 F09 A24A25 A08 A09 A24A25 A08 A09 A24A25 A08 A09 S. F17 F17 F17 Lubuk KebunA32 F11 F11 F11 A32 A32  Kualanangan F11 F12 F11 F12 F11 F12 A32 A32 A32 F16 F16 F16 A10 A11 A10 A11 A10 A11 F16 F13 F16 F13 F16 F13 A10 A11 B03 A10 A11 B03 A10 A11 B03 F27 F12 F12 F12 F27 F27 A12 A12 A12 B14 B14 B14 F27 A27 A27 A27 F13 F13 F13 A12 A12 A12 B03 B08 B03 B08 B03 B08 B14 B14 B14 F63 F63 F63 A26 A27 A26 A27 A26 A29 B08 A29 C14 C14 F63 F63 F63 A26 A27 A26 A29 A26 A29 B08 B08 F65 F66 F65 F66 F65 F66 C13 A29 A29 C14 C14 C11C13 C11C13 C11 C14 F65 F66 F65 F66 F65 F66 C13 A13 A13 A13 C11C13 C11C13 C11 C14 A13 A13 A13 F85 F85 F85 B15 B B16 B16 F78 F78 F78 B04 B04 B04 B11 B15B16 B11B15B16 B11B15 16 F85 F85 F85 B15 B15 B16 C12 C12 C12 F78 F78 F78 B04 B11 B11 B11 A14 A14 B04 A14 B04 C06 C06 C06 C12 C12 C12 A28 A28 A28 A14 A14 A14 C06 C06 C06 F64 F64 F64 A28 A28 A28 F67 F67 F67 C01 C01 C01 F64 F64 F64  B09B10  B09B10 F71 F71 F71 F67 F67 F67 B09 10 B13 B09 B12 B B12 B10 B13 F71 F71 F71 B10 B13 B12 B09 B12 B17 C01 B09 B12 B17 C01 B10 B13 B17 C01 B12 B17 C16 C16 C16 B13B17 B13B17 A34 A15 A34 A15 A34 A15 B05 B05 B05 C16 F70 F70 F70 A34 A15 A18B05 A34 A15 A18B05 A34 A15 A18B05 C02 C07 C15C16 C02 C07 C15C16 C02 C07 C15 F70 F70 F70 F72 F72 F72 C02 C07 C15 C02 C07 C15 C02 C07 C15 F72 F72 F72 A18 A18 A18  Logastanahdarat F68 F68 F68   F68 F68 F68 C03 C03 C03 A20 D13 B18 A20 D13 B18 C08 C17 G09G10 C08 C17 G09G10 C08 C17 G09G10 C03 C09 C03 C09 C03 ati D01 A16 D01 A16 D01 A16 A20 D13 B18 A20 D13 B18 C08 C17 G09G10 C08 C17 G09G10 C08 C17 G09G10 D01 A16A17 D01 A16A17 A20 D13 B18 D01 A16A17 A20 D13 B18 F74F75 F74F75 F74F75 C04 C04 C09 C04 C09 C09 hm F74F75 F74F75 F74F75 C04 C04 C09 C04 ja A17A19 A17A19 A17A19 G03 G04 Ga C10 G03 G04 C10 G03 G04 C10 G03 G04 A19A21 D14 A19 A19 G03 G04 A21 A21 D14 C10 G03 G04G08 S. S.A D14 A21 A21 A21 D14 C05 C10 C05 C10 G08 G08 G11 irhit C05 C05 C05 G08 G08 G08 G11 D02 D05 D02 D05 G11 G11  Rambahan D02 D05  D14  D14 C05 am D02 D05 D02 D05 D02 D05 G11 G11 F69 F69 F69 F69 F69 F69 D08 D08 D08 G02 G05 G02 G05 G02 G05 G05 D08 D08 D08 D15 D15 D15 F76 F76 F76 E01 G02 G05 E01 G02 G05 E01 G02 D15 G13 G13 G13 F76 F76 F76 E01 E01 E01 G13 G13 G13 F73 F73 F73 D06 D06 D06 G06 G07 G12 G06 G07 G12 G06 G07 G12 F77 F73 F73 F73 G06 G07 G12 G06 G07 G12 G06 G07 G12 F77 F77 F77 D03 D04 D06 D03 D04 D06 D03 D04 D06 D03 D04 D03 D04 D03 D04 E10 E15 E10 E15 E10 E15 D09 D16 D09 D16 D09 D16 E02  G01 E02 G01 E02 G01 G18 G18 G18 E10 E15 E10 E15 E10 E15 D07 D07 D07 G19 G19 G19 D09 D16 D09 D16 D09 D16 E02  G01 E02 G01 E02 G01 G18 G18 G18 D07 D07 D07 G19 G19 G19 G14 G14 G14 G15 G15 G15 G20 G14 G14 G14 G15 G15 G15 G20 G20 G20 E07 E07 E07 E03 E03 E03 E07 E07 E07 D19 D19 D19 Teratakrendah D19 D19 D19 D10 D17 E03 E06 D10 D17 E03 E06 D10 D17 E03 E06 E06 G17 G17 G17 D10 D17 D10 D17 D10 D17 E06 E06 G17 G21 G17 G21 G17 G21 D18 D11 D18 D11 D18 D11 E12 E12 E12 G26 G26 G26 D18 D11D12 D18 D11D12 D18 D11 G21 G21 G26 G26 D12 E04 E04 E04 E08 E12 G16 E08 E12 G16 E08 E12 G16 G16 G21 G25 G25 D12 D12 D12 E04 E04 E04 E08 E08 E08 G16 G16  G25G26  G25 G25 G25 G22 G24 G22 G24 G22 G24 G22 G24  Sikijang E05 E05 E05 E09 E13 E16 E09 E13 E16 G22 G24 E09 E13 E16 G22 G24 E05 E05 E05 E09 E13 E16 E09 E13 E16 E09 E13 E16 E19 E19   E19G23 G23 E19G23 E19 E19 Perhentianluas G23 G23 G27 G28G27 G28 E17 E17 E17 G23 G29 G28G27 G28 G29 G28 G29 G28 E14 E17 E14 E17 E14 E17 Teratak Baru G29 G29 G29 E14 E14 E14  S.Kuning ngsat Hulu a Tr 0° 20' S ns ta Pe i    0 0° 25' S 5 Kilometers Sigaruntang  10  Jaya Beringinjaya Pangean  Dusun Tuo E26 E26 E26 E26 E26 E26 G33 G33 G33 G33 G34 E18 E20 E22G30 E18 E20 E22G30 E18 E20 E22G30 E18 E20 E22G30 G32G33G34 E18 E20 E22G30 G32G33G34 E18 E20 E22G30 G32 G34 G34 G32 G32 G32 G34 E23 E23 E23 E21 E23 E21 E23 G31G35 E21 E23 G31G35 E21 E21 E21 G31 G35 G36 G36 G31G35 G36 G31G35 G36 G31 G35 G36 G36 E24 E24 E24 E24 E24 E24 G37 G37 G37 G37 G37 G37 G38 G38 G38 G38 G38 G38 Sungai Rambai
    8. 8. Sector (ha) Teso Baserah East Teso West (27 580) (18 946) (20 391) 12 26 16 Planted indigenous plywood 0 0 15 Belukar (fallows) 6 5 1 Planted Acacia mangium 44 56 47 Inoperable 37 12 19 3 2 2 100 (%) 100 (%) 100 (%) Conserved natural forest Infrastructure Total (%)
    9. 9. Structural parameters Baserah Teso East Teso West Crown Closure 16% >30% 88% >30% 100% >30% Corridor Width 81% <50m 56% <50m 44% <50m River Width 50% 2-5m 46% 2-5m 50% 2-5m 22% >400m 75% >400m 75% >400m Distance from Natural Forest through green belt (km) 2.30 2.07 2.03 Distance from Natural Forest (bird’s distance) (km) 1.69 1.31 1.62 Number of Roads 2.42 3.35 3.45 Length of Roads (km) 2.30 2.09 2.40 Illegal logging 60% 70% 80% Siltation 5% 10% 7.5% Linkage with KPPN 53% 25% 0% Linkage with Natural Forest 84% 94% 100% Corridor Length
    10. 10. Primates   Present in 30 % of cells 8 species ( (Hylobates agilis, H. lar, H. klosii, H. syndactilus, Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Presbytis femoralis, P. melalophos and one unidentified species of Presbytis)   One species ( M. fascicularis) in plots without corridors, none without connection to natural forest/KPPN   Most common Presbytis melalophos (food generalist) and Macaca fascicularis However: a significant proportion (45%) of connected corridors had no primates No explanation from cell structural characteristics for primate presence/absence records … cells with primates had wider rivers but more open canopy and shorter corridors.
    11. 11. The most common primate species in Sumatran lowland Plantation forest (Ecology of Sumatra) corridors KPPN Tesso Nilo Riau Province Forest Department survey in June 1992 Tesso Nilo (Gillison, WWF) in 2001 Pongo pygmaeus Tarsier bancanus Hylobates agilis x Hylobates lar x Hylobates syndactylus x x x x Presbytis cristata Presbytis thomasi Presbytis melalophos x Presbytis femoralis x Macaca fascicularis x x x x Macaca nemestrina x x x x Nycticebus coucang Hylobates klosii, Presbytis sp. x x
    12. 12. Insects 1119 1200 10 7 1 10 2 8 983 1000 877 800 700 685 600 449 420 400 200 12 40 Der mapt er a Di t yopt er a c 18 0 Col opt er a e Di t er a p Hemi t er a p Homopt er a Hymen opt er a I sopt er a Lepi opt er a d Neur opt er a Odon at a Insect orders O r de r 600 Ortho Odo 500 Neuro Lepi 400 Isop 300 Hyme Homo 200 Hemi Dipte 100 Dicty 0 Derma 025 R 25 -5 0 50 R -7 75 5R -1 0 10 0R 01 12 25R 515 15 0R 02 20 00R 025 25 0R 030 0R  More abundant and rich insect fauna within disturbed corridors Decrease in number of orders and individuals away from river N (total)  Or t hopt er a Transect Coleo
    13. 13. KPPN  Protected area inside plantation
    14. 14. KPPN1Trees KPPN1 Poles KPPN1 Saplings KPPN1 Seedlings Corridor Poles Corridor Trees Corridor Saplings 140 120 Species accumulation 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241 253 265 277 289 301 313 325 337 349 Individuals in random order    KPPN: 134 tree species in 1.4 ha Corridors: 275 tree species in 11.5 ha Tesso Nilo:   Heavily logged forest: >900 vascular plant species/0,18 ha Partially logged forest: 61-112 tree species/0.02 ha
    15. 15. Tree Pole Sapling Seedling corridor H’/cell 2.8 2.7 3 2.7 KPPN H’/cell 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.6 corridor N/ha 127 530 7200 55114 KPPN N/ha 174 511 4714 24339 corridor Species/cell 23 22 38 30 KPPN Species/cell 25 21 25 31 All values are mean values based on equal sampling effort Jaccard similarity trees  poles large variation between cells saplings seedlings max 0.66 0.82 0.61 0.70 min 0.03 0.00 0.07 0.04 mean 0.25 0.23 0.25 0.26
    16. 16. IV, corridor seedlings IV, corridor saplings 30 IV, corridor poles 30 25 20 IV 15 40 20 IV 15 20 10 10 5 10 5 5 0 IV, KPPN seedlings 0 Species rank IV, KPPN saplings 30 Species rank IV, KPPN poles Species rank 0 IV, KPPN trees 30 20 25 25 20 20 IV 15 IV 15 10 10 5 5 15 IV 15 IV 10 10 5 5 0 0 Species rank Species rank 30 20  0 25 25  25 IV 30 IV 15 10 30 50 25 20 IV, corridor trees 60 Species rank 0 Species rank 0 Dominant species with highest IV similar in KPPN and corridors Primate density correlated positively in corridors with cumulative IV of those plant species known generally as the most important food sources Species rank
    17. 17. The potential for tropical forest plantations to contribute to biodiversity conservation?  Biodiversity loss associated with plantation development through  Conversion of natural forests  Fast rotation time and shading of Acacia mangium indigenous tree species will not survive in the plantation  Corridors the most potential means maintaining biodiversity
    18. 18. What role for plantation forestry in maintaining biodiversity?
    19. 19. Landscape level management  Implies consideration of long term viability of corridors – within a comprehensive landscape level plan, implemented and monitored stressing issues such as  Connectivity  Linkage to KPPN and/or natural forest
    20. 20.  Landscape heterogeneity
    21. 21. Road system layout  Disturbance  Prevention of illegal logging  Hunting.. 
    22. 22. Complexity, corridor length and width versus edge effect..
    23. 23. Corridors - “living deads”-type of fragments and only sinks for populations?
    24. 24. Work conducted by CIFOR (P. Koponen, R. Nasi, J. Poulsen, M. Buitenzorgi, W. Rusmantoro) in collaboration with the Research and Development Division, Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper company

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