Generating and communicating science
information to support policy and
decision-making in forestry
The policy change
process
‘The whole life of policy is
a chaos of purposes and
accidents. It is not at all a
matter of the...
The gap between
knowledge and
practice
‘Constraints to successful
management of sustainable
forest management over
the yea...
Who needs to know?
Policy knowledge . . . is not effective if retained in the
hands of the producer.

Policy makers . . . ...
Research for change…
Uptake / Adoption Curves
Research shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’
has adopted an innovation, the whole ...
The Impact Pathway model
Inputs
(e.g. finance, staff, equipment,
systems, etc…)

Outputs
(e.g. publication, training,
data...
In fact it is probably more like this…
KASA: knowledge, attitudes,
skills, aspirations

From http://boru.pbworks.com/w/pag...
From Outputs to Impacts
Impact Pathway
The bushmeat issue
Keynote to CBD
(2001)
Liaison group
on NTFP

Bushmeat CBD
priority at COP 9
(2008)

Supp...
Impact Pathway: inputs to outputs
Inputs: CRP6
5 components
15 research themes
+ Gender, Capacity building,
Sentinel lands...
Research outputs
 Overall, the production
of science outputs is not
a major issue
but
 Publication results can
be improv...
Research outputs: New (?) Thinking
 Original scientific pieces

10000

Number of citations

1000

H factor:
D. Tilman
N. ...
Impact Pathway: outputs to outcomes
Inputs: CRP6
5 components
15 research themes
+ Gender, Capacity building,
Sentinel lan...
Outputs to outcomes
 We are generally able

to claim a few
significant outcomes
per year
but
 This is a painful
exercise...
Outputs to outcomes: “Forcing”
Opportunities








Project for change
Write for “impact”
Do not over-commit
Plan M...
Impact Pathway: outcomes to
impacts
Inputs: CRP6
5 components
15 research themes
+ Gender, Capacity building,
Sentinel lan...
Outcomes to impacts: ouch!
 Quantification of impact





is difficult; all the more
for policy research
Attribution i...
Outcomes to impacts: Some Hints

 Specific research
linking outcomes to
impacts

•
•

Systematic reviews
Long-term monito...
How to foster
adoption and
implementation
of good
research based
practices and
policies?
Outreach and uptake efforts that
have little or no effect
Educational materials (distribution of
recommendations for chan...
Interventions of variable
effectiveness
 Audit and feedback (or any summary of




performance)
The use of local opinio...
Consistently effective outreach
efforts.







Educational outreach „visits‟
„Social‟ media (blogs, twitter, faceboo...
Publications and impact?
Publications

Number of downloads /yr
Publications
Title
Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options
Hutan pasca pemanenan: melindungi satwa liar dala...
Impact on scientific publication
Web-based outreach
New Blog

4,000,000

3,374,799

3,500,000

3,000,000

2,500,000

2,000,000

1,500,000

Social Media

Pa...
Journalist workshops

• 2011: 2 media workshops in Indonesia trained 37
journalists (Bali & Central Kalimantan)

• 2012: 3...
Conclusions
• Passive dissemination of information is generally
•
•
•

ineffective
Best practice for dissemination and pro...
www.cifor.org/crp6

THINKING beyond the canopy
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  • ONE OF OUR CHALLENGES as a research organisation is to bridge the gap between research, policy and practice through effective communication. AND SO OUR GOAL with the Global Comparative Study on REDD has been to build a knowledge-sharing community for forest and climate change stakeholders.TO DO THAT means finding new and better ways to share the latest research findings.
  • Photo: Pandanus – Bangka Island – R. NasiWomen collecting Piliostigmareticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo: Intsia – Yamdena Island, Tanimbar – R. NasiWomen collecting Piliostigmareticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo:Tanimbar;R. Nasi
  • Shanley and Lopez 2009Spilsbury and Kaimowitz 2000
  • We re-designed and re-launched our website at the end of 2010. When we did that we studied dozens of the world’s most powerful sites, copying their best functions and tools33% increase in web visits to the main site in 2011We monitor 11 indicators, to see where readers come from, what they read, how long they spend, what they download. The number of page views of any website is a critical indicator of how interesting readers find your site, the more pages they read the more they like, the longer they stay, and the more often they return.
  • 2011: 2 media workshops in Indonesia trained 37 journalists2012: 3 media workshops in Vietnam training 40 journalists + 12 editors – Workshops planned in Peru and Papua
  • Generating and communicating science information to support policy and decision-making in forestry

    1. 1. Generating and communicating science information to support policy and decision-making in forestry
    2. 2. The policy change process ‘The whole life of policy is a chaos of purposes and accidents. It is not at all a matter of the rational implementation of the socalled decisions through selected strategies.’ Clay and Schaffer (1984).
    3. 3. The gap between knowledge and practice ‘Constraints to successful management of sustainable forest management over the years largely relate to the adoption of recommendations - not the generation of ‘best practice’. Dawkins & Phillip (1998).
    4. 4. Who needs to know? Policy knowledge . . . is not effective if retained in the hands of the producer. Policy makers . . . do not generally go about seeking knowledge to assist them in understanding every decision they must make. Policy knowledge . . . must be expressed, communicated, channeled, explained or otherwise distributed to policymakers if it is to affect policy decisions' (Webber 1991).
    5. 5. Research for change…
    6. 6. Uptake / Adoption Curves Research shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’ has adopted an innovation, the whole process becomes selfsustaining. ONLY THEN DO ‘GOOD PRODUCTS SELL THEMSELVES’ Late Majority Early Majority Number of users Pioneers Early Adopters Cumulative Laggards Frequency Time
    7. 7. The Impact Pathway model Inputs (e.g. finance, staff, equipment, systems, etc…) Outputs (e.g. publication, training, databases) Impacts Outcomes (e.g. forests and tree resources are better managed) (e.g. reduced deforestation and degradation) SRF 4 system-level outcomes
    8. 8. In fact it is probably more like this… KASA: knowledge, attitudes, skills, aspirations From http://boru.pbworks.com/w/page/13774906/Learning-Selection-Change-Model
    9. 9. From Outputs to Impacts
    10. 10. Impact Pathway The bushmeat issue Keynote to CBD (2001) Liaison group on NTFP Bushmeat CBD priority at COP 9 (2008) Support from African Parties Scientific work: PhDs, review, papers, etc. (2002-2008) Liaison group on bushmeat (2009) Recommendation to SBSTTA (2010) Scientific work with actors (2009-2011) Tools, guidelines (2012, OT) Improved, more sustainable practices (2012-) COP 10 Decision (2010) Policy changes (2011-2012)
    11. 11. Impact Pathway: inputs to outputs Inputs: CRP6 5 components 15 research themes + Gender, Capacity building, Sentinel landscapes Original research and capacity building with research partners Outputs (e.g. publication, training, databases) Outcomes (e.g. forests and tree resources are better managed) Impacts (e.g. reduced deforestation and degradation) SRF 4 system-level outcomes
    12. 12. Research outputs  Overall, the production of science outputs is not a major issue but  Publication results can be improved in terms of quality and quantity  Other types of outputs (e.g. capacity building, gender) are not yet adequately considered and/or recorded THINKING beyond the canopy
    13. 13. Research outputs: New (?) Thinking  Original scientific pieces 10000 Number of citations 1000 H factor: D. Tilman N. Stern B. Lomborg 51 19 09 100 in reputable journals with good research partners  Syntheses pieces channeled through “big” players (e.g. WB)  Communication strategy in place before publishing • 10 1 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 Stern Lomborg Tilman “Derived” products for nonscience users (policy briefs, blogs, etc.)  New incentive structures for rewarding outputs THINKING beyond the canopy
    14. 14. Impact Pathway: outputs to outcomes Inputs: CRP6 5 components 15 research themes + Gender, Capacity building, Sentinel landscapes Original research with partners Outcomes Outputs (e.g. publication, training, datab ases) (e.g. forests and tree resources are better managed) Impacts (e.g. reduced deforestation and degradation) Synthesis research and outreach SRF 4 system-level outcomes
    15. 15. Outputs to outcomes  We are generally able to claim a few significant outcomes per year but  This is a painful exercise  Few of these outcomes are real IPGs  Supporting evidence is somewhat scant and/or attribution disputable  Why? • Improper project design • Passive expectations of • • • • outcomes Inappropriate communication or outreach Lag time between outputs and adoption Change in donor or societal interests “It simply didn‟t work…” THINKING beyond the canopy
    16. 16. Outputs to outcomes: “Forcing” Opportunities       Project for change Write for “impact” Do not over-commit Plan M&E properly “Force” recognition Work with the right partners (research partners for research; development partners for outcomes…)  Use PIPA methods (http://boru.pbworks.com/w/pa ge/13774889/Background) Improved certification schemes - FSC, UNEP, CIFOR; GEF funded Brazil, Mexico, Cameroon Preparation phase 2002-2004 - - Several stakeholder workshops Agreement on what needs to change (e.g. SLIMF certification standards) Selection of right partners (CIFOR: backstopping research; FSC-IC: develop approve standards; country partners and certification bodies: develop and test new standards) Implementation 2005-2009 - Production of several outputs - Database for monitoring aspects of HCVF and biodiversity in FSC certified forests FSC step-by-step guide - Good practice guide to meeting FSC certification requirements for biodiversity and HCV Forests in SLIMF Guide to markets for forest products and services for smallholders FSC guide to certification for smallholders National SLIMF standards for Mexico, Brazil and Cameroon - - Outcome 2010: endorsement of the new SLIMFs standards for the 3 countries by FSC THINKING beyond the canopy
    17. 17. Impact Pathway: outcomes to impacts Inputs: CRP6 5 components 15 research themes + Gender, Capacity building, Sentinel landscapes Original research with partners Outputs (e.g. publication, training, datab ases) Synthesis research and outreach Outcomes (e.g. forests and tree resources are better managed) Impacts (e.g. reduced deforestation and degradation) ??? SRF 4 system-level outcomes
    18. 18. Outcomes to impacts: ouch!  Quantification of impact    is difficult; all the more for policy research Attribution is generally multiple and non documented Causality links between outcomes and impacts are weak or unclear Lack of proper methods to assess NRM and policy research impacts “The evidence of impacts of CGIAR research on new or improved management practices and on natural resource management is insignificant.” (Science Council, 2006) THINKING beyond the canopy
    19. 19. Outcomes to impacts: Some Hints  Specific research linking outcomes to impacts • • Systematic reviews Long-term monitoring experiments (Sentinel Landscapes)  New monitoring &  evaluation methods Impact evaluation as integral part of project design  Outcomes as impacts  on a different scale Carefully disaggregate impact: • • Via adoption of specific outputs by farmers Via institutional innovation or policyinfluence  Increase our capacity in research about impact of research THINKING beyond the canopy
    20. 20. How to foster adoption and implementation of good research based practices and policies?
    21. 21. Outreach and uptake efforts that have little or no effect Educational materials (distribution of recommendations for changed practice; including practical guidelines, audiovisual materials, and electronic publications) Didactic educational meetings (lectures like this one!!) Pile of 855 guidelines in general practices in the Cambridge and Huntingdon Health Authority : “The mass of paper we collected represents a large amount of information, but it is in an unmanageable form that does little to aid decision making”
    22. 22. Interventions of variable effectiveness  Audit and feedback (or any summary of   performance) The use of local opinion leaders (practitioners identified by their colleagues as influential) Local consensus processes (inclusion of participating practitioners in discussions problem focus & appropriateness of solutions)
    23. 23. Consistently effective outreach efforts.      Educational outreach „visits‟ „Social‟ media (blogs, twitter, facebook, website). Repeated reminders (manual or computerized). Multifaceted interventions a combination that includes two or more of the following: „audit‟ and feedback, reminders, local consensus processes, or marketing). Interactive educational meetings (participation of intended users in workshops that include discussion or practice). UNFF 4, Brazzaville 2004
    24. 24. Publications and impact?
    25. 25. Publications Number of downloads /yr
    26. 26. Publications Title Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options Hutan pasca pemanenan: melindungi satwa liar dalam kegiatan hutan produksi di Kalimantan Moving ahead with REDD: issues, options and implications Dari desa ke desa: dinamika gender dan pengelolaan kekayaan alam Belajar dari Bungo: mengelola sumberdaya alam di era desentralisasi Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts Plantulas de 60 especies forestales de Bolivia: guia Ilustrada Panduan singkat cara pembuatan arang kayu: alternatif pemanfaatan limbah kayu oleh masyarakat Atlas industri mebel kayu di Jepara, Indonesia Partisipasi masyarakat dalam pembuatan kebijakan daerah di kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi: ketidakpastian, tantangan, dan harapan Menuju kesejahteraan dalam masyarakat hutan: buku panduan untuk pemerintah daerah Riquezas da floresta: frutas, plantas medicinais e artesanato na América Latina Download (2005 - 2011) 46,793 38,947 29,252 28,974 22,992 22,350 22,035 21,875 20,014 19,712 19,160 18,623
    27. 27. Impact on scientific publication
    28. 28. Web-based outreach New Blog 4,000,000 3,374,799 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 Social Media Page views 1,000,000 500,000 0 754,017 Launch of new CIFOR website 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 Quarter
    29. 29. Journalist workshops • 2011: 2 media workshops in Indonesia trained 37 journalists (Bali & Central Kalimantan) • 2012: 3 media workshops in Vietnam training 40 journalists + 12 editors – Workshops planned in Peru and Papua
    30. 30. Conclusions • Passive dissemination of information is generally • • • ineffective Best practice for dissemination and promoting effective diffusion is well known but seldom implemented by research institutions Applied and strategic research institutions must reward success in uptake / adoption not just count publications Further empirical studies on the relative effectiveness and efficiency of different dissemination and uptake strategies is required – build this into the research process
    31. 31. www.cifor.org/crp6 THINKING beyond the canopy
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