MAKING FORESTRY RESEARCH WORK :
BRIDGING SCIENCE, PRACTICE and POLICY
Robert Nasi
INAFOR Conference, 5-7/12/2011, IPB Bogo...
The policy change
process
‘The whole life of policy is
a chaos of purposes and
accidents. It is not at all a
matter of the...
The gap between
knowledge and
practice
‘Constraints to successful
management of sustainable
forest management over
the yea...
A (never ending)
silviculture story

THINKING beyond the canopy
The Indonesian silvicultural
systems
• Indonesian Selective Cutting System (Tebang Pilih
Indonesia – TPI): 1972
• Indonesi...
TPI and TPTI
• TPI abandoned for TPTI without real assessment and lowland
forest disappeared
• TPTI: still prominent but
•...
Scientific recommendations

Sist et al. 2003

THINKING beyond the canopy
SILIN/TPTII
• Diameter felling limit
reduced to 40cm
• Line planting of 200
seedlings/ha
• Rotation cycle down to 25
yr.
•...
How to foster
adoption and
implementation
of good
research based
practices and
policies?

THINKING beyond the canopy
Uptake / Adoption Curves
Research shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’
has adopted an innovation, the whole ...
Publications

Number of downloads /yr
Publications
Title
Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options
Hutan pasca pemanenan: melindungi satwa liar dala...
Quantifying
impact

RESEARCH TEAM

Understanding
process

Consultation

Partnership

Ownership

Changing levels of stakeho...
Outreach and uptake efforts that
have little or no effect
Educational materials (distribution of
recommendations for chan...
Interventions of variable
effectiveness
 Audit and feedback (or any summary of




performance)
The use of local opinio...
Consistently effective outreach
efforts.







Educational outreach ‘visits’
‘Social’ media (blogs, twitter, faceboo...
Impact on scientific publication

THINKING beyond the canopy
THINKING beyond the canopy
Conclusions
• Passive dissemination of information is generally
•
•
•

ineffective
Best practice for dissemination and pro...
www.cifor.org

THINKING beyond the canopy
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Making Forestry Research work: bridging Science, Practice and Policy

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  • Photo: Pandanus – Bangka Island – R. NasiWomen collecting Piliostigmareticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo: Intsia – Yamdena Island, Tanimbar – R. NasiWomen collecting Piliostigmareticulatum pods for animal feed.
  • Photo:Tanimbar;R. Nasi
  • Making Forestry Research work: bridging Science, Practice and Policy

    1. 1. MAKING FORESTRY RESEARCH WORK : BRIDGING SCIENCE, PRACTICE and POLICY Robert Nasi INAFOR Conference, 5-7/12/2011, IPB Bogor THINKING beyond the canopy
    2. 2. The policy change process ‘The whole life of policy is a chaos of purposes and accidents. It is not at all a matter of the rational implementation of the socalled decisions through selected strategies.’ Clay and Schaffer (1984). THINKING beyond the canopy
    3. 3. The gap between knowledge and practice ‘Constraints to successful management of sustainable forest management over the years largely relate to the adoption of recommendations - not the generation of ‘best practice’. Dawkins & Phillip (1998). THINKING beyond the canopy
    4. 4. A (never ending) silviculture story THINKING beyond the canopy
    5. 5. The Indonesian silvicultural systems • Indonesian Selective Cutting System (Tebang Pilih Indonesia – TPI): 1972 • Indonesian Selective Cutting and Replanting System (Tebang Pilih Tanam Indonesia – TPTI): 1989 • Selective Cutting and Strip Planting System (Tebang Pilih Tanam Jalur – TPTJ): 1995 • Intensified silviculture’ (SILIN) or Intensified Selective Cutting and Replanting System (Tebang Pilih Tanam Intensif Indonesia-TPTII): 2005 • Silvicultural Multi-system (Multisistem Silvikultur)…. THINKING beyond the canopy
    6. 6. TPI and TPTI • TPI abandoned for TPTI without real assessment and lowland forest disappeared • TPTI: still prominent but • • • • • • Indiscriminate (all production forests; all population structure) Growth assumptions are too optimistic (most species <1cm/yr) No control of logging intensity (RIL ineffective if >8 trees/ha) Discrepancy between concession duration (20yr)/cutting cycle (35yr)/rotation (70yr) Expensive ($10-15/m3) Line planting is not really successful (concession, maintenance)  As a result the condition of the logged-over stands is not as good as could be expected Appanah 1998; Yasman, 1998; Sist et al. 2003 THINKING beyond the canopy
    7. 7. Scientific recommendations Sist et al. 2003 THINKING beyond the canopy
    8. 8. SILIN/TPTII • Diameter felling limit reduced to 40cm • Line planting of 200 seedlings/ha • Rotation cycle down to 25 yr. • Concession given for periods of 55 to 70 yr • Growth assumption of planted trees 2cm/yr • Extensive stand perturbation • Minimum fructification diameter generally> 40cm • First growth estimates only 7 to 13% of planted trees reach 2cm/yr • Costs $15 to 40/m3 • Still complex prescriptions • Authorize cutting in loggedover area Priyadi et al. 2011  Seems to go against all the previous recommendations THINKING beyond the canopy
    9. 9. How to foster adoption and implementation of good research based practices and policies? THINKING beyond the canopy
    10. 10. Uptake / Adoption Curves Research shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’ has adopted an innovation, the whole process becomes selfsustaining. ONLY THEN DO ‘GOOD PRODUCTS SELL THEMSELVES’ Late Majority Early Majority Number of users Pioneers Early Adopters Cumulative Laggards Frequency Time
    11. 11. Publications Number of downloads /yr
    12. 12. Publications Title Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options Hutan pasca pemanenan: melindungi satwa liar dalam kegiatan hutan produksi di Kalimantan Moving ahead with REDD: issues, options and implications Dari desa ke desa: dinamika gender dan pengelolaan kekayaan alam Belajar dari Bungo: mengelola sumberdaya alam di era desentralisasi Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts Plantulas de 60 especies forestales de Bolivia: guia Ilustrada Panduan singkat cara pembuatan arang kayu: alternatif pemanfaatan limbah kayu oleh masyarakat Atlas industri mebel kayu di Jepara, Indonesia Partisipasi masyarakat dalam pembuatan kebijakan daerah di kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi: ketidakpastian, tantangan, dan harapan Menuju kesejahteraan dalam masyarakat hutan: buku panduan untuk pemerintah daerah Riquezas da floresta: frutas, plantas medicinais e artesanato na América Latina Download (2005 - 2011) 46,793 38,947 29,252 28,974 22,992 22,350 22,035 21,875 20,014 19,712 19,160 18,623 THINKING beyond the canopy
    13. 13. Quantifying impact RESEARCH TEAM Understanding process Consultation Partnership Ownership Changing levels of stakeholder involvement during successful innovation and uptake processes KEY STAKEHOLDERS Development Start-up Douthwaite 2001 Adaptation Application / expansion THINKING beyond the canopy
    14. 14. Outreach and uptake efforts that have little or no effect Educational materials (distribution of recommendations for changed practice; including practical guidelines, audiovisual materials, and electronic publications) Didactic educational meetings (lectures like this one!!) Pile of 855 guidelines in general practices in the Cambridge and Huntingdon Health Authority “The mass of paper we collected represents a large amount of information, but it is in an unmanageable form that does little to aid decision making” Spilsbury & Nasi 2004
    15. 15. Interventions of variable effectiveness  Audit and feedback (or any summary of   performance) The use of local opinion leaders (practitioners identified by their colleagues as influential) Local consensus processes (inclusion of participating practitioners in discussions problem focus & appropriateness of solutions) UNFF 4, Brazzaville 2004 THINKING beyond the canopy
    16. 16. Consistently effective outreach efforts.      Educational outreach ‘visits’ ‘Social’ media (blogs, twitter, facebook, website). Repeated reminders (manual or computerized). Multifaceted interventions a combination that includes two or more of the following: ‘audit’ and feedback, reminders, local consensus processes, or marketing). Interactive educational meetings (participation of intended users in workshops that include discussion or practice). UNFF 4, Brazzaville 2004 THINKING beyond the canopy
    17. 17. Impact on scientific publication THINKING beyond the canopy
    18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopy
    19. 19. Conclusions • Passive dissemination of information is generally • • • ineffective Best practice for dissemination and promoting effective diffusion is well known but seldom implemented by research institutions Applied and strategic research institutions must reward success in uptake / adoption not just count publications Further empirical studies on the relative effectiveness and efficiency of different dissemination and uptake strategies is required – build this into the research process THINKING beyond the canopy
    20. 20. www.cifor.org THINKING beyond the canopy

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