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Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin?

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  • Photos: Bushmeat catch; bushmeat market, Nathalie Vanvliet
  • Transcript

    • 1. Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin? Robert Nasi, Alain Billand, Manuel Guariguata Yaoundé, 22/05/2013
    • 2.  Timber • RIL and beyond…  + Biodiversity • Use ecology, life history, consider wildlife…  + Non Timber Forest Products • Trade-offs but possible  + Ecosystem services • Trade-offs but possible; appears in certification schemes (HCV); serious accountability issues…  + Carbone • Several risks, trade-offs and issues  …Against threats? • Climate change, invasive species, land conversion….
    • 3. The “Compatibility Continuum” Inactive Active Coincident Timber management tools mitigates damage to other uses (roads, skid trails, timber inventorying) Timber extraction benefits other values (logging gaps, directional felling) Explicitly manage for both timber and NTFP values
    • 4. Modes of Interaction  Independent (spatially segregated, or when there is no conflict of use for tree species with NTFP value)  Competitive—e.g., extraction of tree species with both NTFP value for different stakeholders or exclusion of a given group of stakeholders  Complementary—e.g., logging enhances growth/regeneration of NTFP (all else being equal)
    • 5. Main Issues  Many tropical tree species have both timber and non-timber values that accrue to different stakeholders  Current certification schemes diverge for timber and NTFPs  Forestry education and training biased towards timber  Legal and regulatory frameworks dictated separately for timber and NTFPs  Best harvesting practices/management protocols for NTFPs have little validation
    • 6. Multiple-uses in the Congo Basin
    • 7. 75,446 17,664 Production Wood energy (x000 m³) 3,200 1,315 190 Wood 1,070 OFAC, State of Forests 2010
    • 8. Other goods Piper guineensis Carpolobia lutea, Carpolobia albea Baillonella toxisperma Kigelia africana Cinchona spp. Beekeeping: honey Rauvolfia vomitoria Tetrapleura tetraptera Garcinia lucida Beekeeping: bee wax Garcinia kola Cola acuminata Ratan Cola nitida Voacanga africana Ricinodendron heudelotii Pausinystalia johimbe Dacryodes edulis Raphia spp. Bushmeat Prunus africana Acacia senegal, Acacia polyacantha Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingia wombulu Gnetum africanum, Gnetum… Fuelwood (wood, charcoal and chips) Fish (catfish and other species) 78.9 5,911 11,868 18,000 31,500 61,105 94,803 124,489 171,175 244,420 249,938 269,083 284,013 430,639 585,586 730,325 847,182 989,504 1,574,661 2,799,330 2,874,928 4,040,000 8,089,580 12,197,503 378,641,309 613,600,000 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1,000,000,000 $ Source: OFAC, State of Forests 2010
    • 9. Timber, management and biodiversity
    • 10. Land use km2 “Ordinary lands” 448,801 Logging concessions 595.381 Community forests ≈ 11.000 Protected areas 444,973 Source: Nasi et al, 2011 Source: Mégevand, 2013
    • 11. Selective logging in the Congo Basin  Timber remains the sole managed commodity  Highly selective, few individuals (less than 2) of few commercial species (less than 5) represent more than 75% of the volume harvested (less than 10m3/ha)  Rotation cycles of about 25-30 years; Minimum cutting diameter rules; No post-harvest silviculture  The area under proper management and certification is increasing Nasi et al. 2006; OFAC, State of Forest 2008, 2010
    • 12. Impact of certification on harvest intensity Certified concessions have a significantly reduced harvesting intensity Cerutti et al. 2011
    • 13. Harvesting intensity and residual stands Area impacted (%) 30 20 Nasi & Forni, 2006 10 0 Rsq = 0.9427 0 1 2 3 Number of trees harvested/ha 4 5
    • 14. Pro-biodiversity activities in logging concessions Graphique symétrique More Biodiversity (axes F1 et F2 : 54.36 %) - activities Actions concrètes + Sust. Mangt Plan under way Basic Aménagement en cours 1.5 Only certified concessions show significant activities in favor of biodiversity ++ intentions, Limit ed results Pas encore de résultats Activities limited to legal requirement Limited results 1 2 23 More problems expressed F2 (10.12 %) 20 3 4 International 5 0 No methods - Ni les méthodes No capacities - Ni les capacités Limited activities actuellement 7 Indépendant 9 - Malgré quelques actions -0.5 14 11 Groupe Certifié 13 Vise la and Motivated --CEOcertification Souhaite maintenir some staffses efforts - > 30 essences Long term exploitéees efforts Effective field activities Non aménagé 22 No Plan -1 10 1 26 Billand et al. 2009 Certified 8 With Plan Aménagé 21 + Difficultés rencontrées 12 6 0.5 ++ -1.5 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 F1 (44.24 %) 0.5 1 1.5
    • 15. Bushmeat hunting in Congo Basin  Estimates of the value of the bushmeat trade range from US$42 to US$205 million per year in West-Central Africa.  Current harvest in Central Africa alone may well be in excess of 5 million tons annually, could represent more than 20 million ha deforested for pasture!  30 to 80% of the protein intake of many rural populations
    • 16. Why a landscape approach?  High mobility of wildlife (migration, dispersal, extensive territories…)  Conserving Protected areas alone, will not be enough to conserve large sized/highly mobile species with huge ranges (e.g. Elephants) or locally rare plant species  The contribution of production forests to biodiversity conservation is increasingly recognized (e.g. North Congo where gorilla densities are higher in logging concessions than in the neighbouring NP)
    • 17. Protected areas and logging concessions : surprisingly close neighbors OFAC, State of Forest 2008
    • 18. Parks, Concessions, Hunting areas : where are flagship species ? Some surprising assessments National Parks Logging Concessions Hunting areas Number of ape nests/km2 OFAC, State of Forest 2008
    • 19. New land-use types  Combine several land use  types (e.g. logging concession, protected area, CBFM…) in one land-use management unit that would become an: Integrated production/conservation landscape
    • 20. Environmental services Urban, social space Local incomes Certified logging concession Protected Area Mixed area : protected area and conservation enterprise Community forest Municipal forest Agroindustry Hunting, Gathering, Informal sectors Taxes, fiscal revenues Sustain rural population Billand & Nasi 2006
    • 21. Basic rules  Realize the economic potential of the    conservation side Manage informal sectors like hunting, fishing or NTFP extraction for local livelihoods Use part of the income generated by the industrial production side for the conservation area for reciprocal benefits Foster certification (not limited to timber considerations)
    • 22. Enabling conditions  Starting funds are needed to cover initial transaction costs  The willingness of the production sector to engage into certification or other biodiversity friendly practices  The willingness of the conservation community to collaborate, share experiences and support the private sector in integrating conservation concerns in management practices  A proactive political support (creating specific landuse units with specific instances for decision making) or, at least, neutral (no undue interference from the State).
    • 23. Set of key attributes  Complexity  Proximity  Authenticity  Redundancy  Continuity  Resilience  Heterogeneity  Uniqueness Gustafsson, Laumonier, Nasi 2009
    • 24. Management principles  Maintain landscape heterogeneity  Maintain large structurally complex patches of       natural vegetation Create buffers around sensitive areas Maintain or create corridors and stepping stones Use appropriate disturbance regimes in management Maintain functional diversity Manage for keystone species Consider endemic, rare and threatened species
    • 25. The Congo Basin has identified 12 Landscapes designed for shared production and conservation management of forests Actors (public, private sectors) are aware about the necessity to improve collaboration for concerted or integrated management But experiences at field level remain limited Source : Carpe
    • 26. Some implications for tropical forestry research
    • 27. “Our major disciplines have long ago ceased to be effective as separate, have in fact searched for ways of coming together…but are restrained by institutional resistance and lack of vision” (Ron Burnett 2005)
    • 28. New disciplines “CONSILIENCE: the methods and assumptions of any field of study should be consistent with the known and accepted facts in other disciplines” E.J. Wilson. Social Sciences Anthropology Economy Policy Sociology … Transdisciplinary Sciences Landscape ecology Ecological economy Political ecology Land use change Human ecology Biological Sciences Botany Ecology Genetics Zoology …
    • 29. Some final comments  Search for a globally accepted definition of sustainable      forest management is pointless Management should be defined by societal demands Outcomes and results should be monitored based on agreed objectives for management; unrealistic, unachievable or vague targets are of little use Good management can never be attained through bureaucratic procedures alone. Best practices require able and motivated managers are available on site to address concerns on a day-to-day basis: capacity building and training are keys! Sound judgment remains the foundation of good management. Data can inform this judgment, but is not an end in itself
    • 30. Research /Science  Search for universally agreed definitions is pointless   (forests or sustainability) Strive for continuous improvement to better outcomes when the “best” is unachievable Scale research appropriately to the research question  Classical forest science has peaked!  Grainger (2009) calls for a “new global forest science’”  Burley (2004) believes that forest science can be “restored” with “new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate the work of biophysical scientists and socioeconomic researchers”