5th Grade Resource Unit: US History 1801-1860

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  • 1. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Continuity and Change of the United States in the Nineteenth Century A Social Studies Resource Unit for K-6 Students Submitted as Partial Requirement for CRIN E05 or EDUC 405 Elementary and Middle Social Studies Curriculum and Instruction Professor Gail McEachron The College of William and Mary Fall 2011Prepared By: Rob Schupbach (rlschupbach.wmwikis.net), Ebony Cornitcher, Holly Stainback (hnstainback.wmwikis.net), and Annie MacKimmie (akmackimmie.wmwikis.net) Historical Narrative: All………………………………………………2 Lesson One: Annie MacKimmie…………………………………….10 Lesson Two: Rob Schupbach………………………………………..15 Lesson Three: Ebony Cornitcher ……………………………….….19 Lesson Four: Holly Stainback…………………………………...…..24 Artifact One: Rob Schupbach ………………………………..……..31 Artifact Two: Holly Stainback………………………………………35 Artifact Three: Annie MacKimmie…………………………………39 Artifact Four: Ebony Cornitcher…………………………………...42 Assessments: All……………………………………………………..45 References…………………………………………………………….47 Appendix…………………………………………………………...…50 Expenses………………………………………………………………54 1
  • 2. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Continuity and Change of the United States in the Nineteenth Century A Social Studies Resource Unit for K-6 StudentsIntroduction This teaching unit explores the expansion, reform, and turmoil that dominated during thegrowth of the young United States of America during the years 1800 to 1861. Many significantchanges and noteworthy events occurred in the United State during the first half of theNineteenth century. This time period is filled with conflict and struggle as America begins tofind its place in the world. Often overlooked in the United States history curriculum, thesignificance of this time period is the westward expansion, the reforms that were made that leadup to the United States Civil War, and the effects of the Industrial Revolution. A thoroughunderstanding of this time period also includes the exploring the pioneering spirit of Americans.An influx of immigrants, struggles to uphold the ideals laid forth in the U.S. Constitution, andfast evolving technology are also highlighted throughout this unit. This teaching unit is farreaching in scope and includes an examination of marginalized groups, such as NativeAmericans, African-Americans, and women. This teaching unit addresses the Virginia Stands ofLearning USI.1, USI.2, and USI.8, with a main focus on the expansion and reform during thefirst sixty years of the Nineteenth century. A complete list of Virginia Standards of Learning, andnational NCSS and NCHS standards that are focused on in this unit can be found in Appendix A.Key Ideas and Events Between 1803 and 1853, the size of the United States tripled due to purchasing land andwarfare (Klobuchar, 2006). In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought a large parcel of landfrom the French. This was known as the Louisiana Purchase. With the purchase of this land, theUnited States would be extended to include all territory from Canada all the way south to the 2
  • 3. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackGulf of Mexico, and from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains. In 1804,President Jefferson sent a team of explorers to explore the newly acquired land. This team waslead by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. The expedition began in May 1804 in St. Louis,Missouri. In November 1805, the team reached the Pacific Ocean. Along the way, the teamdrew maps, formed relationships with the Native American groups they encountered, and madescientific observations. The Lewis and Clark expedition was important for several reasons. Theteam gathered valuable scientific knowledge, documented the land and resources, and set thestage for the westward settlement that was to come (Klobuchar, 2006). The Louisiana Purchasedoubled the size of the United States and allowed the U.S. to become a world power (Jaffe,2002). Settlers moved west for many reasons. Some wanted to own their own land and startfresh in an untamed land with lots of open space. Others wanted to start farms and create a betterlife for themselves (Klobuchar, 2006). Others wanted to strike it rich during the gold rush(Monroe, 2002). Some, like the Native Americans, were forcibly removed (Salas, 2003). Yetothers, including the Mormons, were in search of religious freedom (Isaacs, 1998). As the United States expanded, settlers demanded more and more land. However, theland was occupied by Native Americans. In May 1830, Congressed passed the Indian RemovalAct. This new law required all Native Americans, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek,Chickasaw, and Seminole, to move west onto a parcel of land called the Indian Territory in orderto make room for the settlers. The Indian Territory is now present day Oklahoma. Many of theNative Americans left, but the Cherokee refused to leave. In October 1838, the Cherokee weregathered up and forcibly removed. They arrived in the Indian Territory in March 1839. Thisforced removal was extremely hard on the Native Americans. They were not properly equipped 3
  • 4. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainbackfor their 1,000 mile journey through the snow. They did not have proper clothing, shelter, orfood. Thousands of Native Americans died on the journey, which became known as the Trail ofTears (Salas, 2003). As the U.S. spread westward, the desire for land became insatiable. Settlers had noproblem forcing Native American off their land, a result of pure greed. An idea emerged thatconvinced people that this greed was tolerable: “Manifest Destiny”. This idea, put forth in 1845by John L. O’Sullivan, said that it was our God-given right and duty to take the land and do withit as we wished. This idea spread like wildfire and became the mindset of most Americans(Hakim, 1994). America was in need of faster and more efficient ways of transportation as its populationincreased. In 1807, Robert Fulton invented the steamboat, which could carry goods as well aspassengers. In 1816, DeWitt Clinton began building the Erie Canal. It opened eight years later,providing a waterway connection from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, as well asproviding transportation for goods and passengers. In 1830, Peter Cooper built the steamlocomotive. It could carry large loads over large distances, travel much faster than canal boatsand steamboats, and tracks could be built anywhere and used anytime. By 1850, railroads wereAmerica’s most important means of transportation, and by 1860, America ceased using canalsfor transporting large amounts of goods (Isaacs, 1998). Technology also bolstered the economy.In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to solve the problem of removing a large amount ofcotton seeds in a short amount of time. Unintentionally, this invention encouraged slavery. Withthe invention of the cotton gin, people saw that money could be made. Everyone wanted to plantlarge amounts of cotton and needed slaves to plant and harvest the new cash crop. This 4
  • 5. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainbackinvention bolstered the economy, turned the South into a land of cotton, and thus kept the Southrural (Hakim, 1993). Starting in 1803, British ships began seizing U.S. seamen from U.S. ships and impressingthem into the British Royal Navy. As settlers moved west, they began facing problems withBritain inland as well. Native Americans, angry at being forced off their lands, made allies withthe British in Canada, who supplied them with rifles to use against the Americans. In June 0f1812, when the U.S. could stand it no more, war was declared on Great Britain, starting the Warof 1812. Despite the name, the war lasted until February of 1815. The U.S. victory wasimportant; it forced Great Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation andachieved real independence for our country. It also paved the way for the U.S. to become amajor nation and leading world power (Childress, 2004). The area that was to become Texas was under the control of Mexico. As settlers movedwest, they wanted to settle in this territory. Mexico allowed some settlers to come and settlethere, but more and more began to pour into the area. Upset, Mexico posed taxes andimmigration policies onto the American settlers. The settlers did not like this and wished Texasto become part of the U.S. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the ruler of Mexico, lead his army toSan Antonio, where a group of American rebels had taken refuge in the Alamo, a fortifiedmission. In March, 1836, the Mexican army had wiped out the rebels at the Alamo. Texanleaders issued the Texas Declaration of Independence during the fight at the Alamo. Inretaliation for the massacre at the Alamo, U.S. General Sam Houston confronted Santa Anna’stroops near present day Houston, Texas, and was victorious. Texas won its independence fromMexico in April 1836. It existed as the Republic of Texas until December of 1845, when it wasadmitted to the Union as the 28th state (Fradin, 2007). 5
  • 6. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Both the U.S. and Great Britain Claimed the Oregon Territory. In a treaty signed in1846, the two nations decided to split the territory on the 49th parallel; Great Britain wouldreceive the land above the parallel, while the U.S. received the land below the parallel. Oregonbecame the 33rd state in 1859 (Hakim, 1994). The area that was to become California was alsounder the control of Mexico. The U.S. wanted access to the Pacific Ocean and offered to buyCalifornia from Mexico in 1845. Mexico refused, and angered by loosing Texas that sameyear, lashed out at the U.S., attacking the U.S. army in Texas. The U.S. declared war on Mexicoin May of 1846, starting the Mexican War. The next year the U.S. army entered Mexico City,and a peace treaty was signed in February, 1848. As a result of the treaty, the U.S. boughtCalifornia, which became the 31st state in September of 1850 (Monroe, 2002). In January 1848, gold was discovered in California by a carpenter named JamesMarshall. The word began to spread slowly, but as more and more gold was discovered, peoplestarted to believe what they were hearing. It took nearly a year for word of the discovery toreach the world and for people to start believing the supposed rumors, but slowly but surely“gold fever” had spread across the nation. By this time, it was much too late in the season fortravel, and travelers had to wait until spring. And in the spring of ’49, the California gold rushbegan (Monroe, 2002). Tens of thousands of prospectors flocked to California, each hoping tomake it rich. Between 1848 and 1850, only two years, California’s population jumped from15,000 to 100,000 (Isaacs, 1998). By 1856, most of the gold had been mined and the gold rushended (Monroe, 2002).Men, Women, Youth & Children In 1803, Lewis and Clark were the first explorers to go westward and discover theunknown land that settlers always wondered about ("1800s-1830s: Indian Wars,” 2008). A 6
  • 7. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackNative American woman named Sacajawea, had an influential role in their exploration. Legendhas it that she was a guide to the explorers and helped guide them to the Pacific Ocean. However,some also say that she was less of a guide and more of a wise counselor along the journey. Eitherway, Lewis and Clark would not have been able to make it across the country without the help ofthis one woman and her bravery during their voyage. She was only brought along because herhusband joined the team as a guide and Sacajawea accompanied the men because they believedshe could be a translator to other Native Americans along the way ("Sacajawea”). During the War of 1812, a Cherokee man named Sequoyah fought alongside of AndrewJackson and played a key role in the communication of the troops. The Cherokee soldiers couldnot write letters home because the Cherokee language lacked a written language. Sequoyahworked to create a written language for the Cherokee Nation and it became its official languageas well as the “the first written language of Native Americans in North America” ("Era 4”). Native Americans were seen as a disruption to the Westward Expansion that the UnitedStates saw as their destiny. There were five Native American tribes that were considered to becivilized enough to stay on the land and remain in communication with the settlers. These fivetribes were: the Cherokees, the Creeks, the Choctaws, the Chickasaws, and the Seminoles andlived in the areas of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Some of the tribestried to bargain with the settlers by adopting, “Anglo-American practices such as large-scalefarming, Western education, and slave-holding” ("Indian removal,”). In 1830, President AndrewJackson ordered all Native Americans off land east of the Mississippi to move westward so thatthe land could be open for settlers to open new cotton plantations. The Cherokee nation calledtheir journey to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma the “Trail of Tears” because more than a quarterof the 15, 000 Native Americans died along the way ("Indian removal,”). 7
  • 8. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback John L’ O Sullivan coined the term Manifest Destiny which is the belief that it isAmerica’s right to expand and conquer the land that predestined for the country by God.However, Native Americans live by a different belief system that completed conflicted with thisidea of Manifest Destiny. Native Americans do not believe in ownership of land because it is anatural entity. They believe that the land is here to help one sustain and live but, only as a help tothe people; land is not meant to be conquered. The beliefs of the Native Americans were not seenas important to Americans and the idea of manifest destiny was the spear head to the growth ofthe nation ("Ideas and Movements”). African Americans were also dealing with discrimination and prejudice during the timeof the Westward Expansion because of the debate over whether or not the new territories wouldbe free or slave states. Dred Scott is one man who brought about legislation dealing with theslavery in the west. Dred Scott, “a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the freeterritory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to theSupreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom” ("Africans in America" ). In 1857, thecase against Dred Scott declared the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional makingslavery legal in all territories of the country including the west. This was a big court decisionbecause it stated that blacks were not citizens and therefore, had no rights in America ("DredScotts Fight”).Closing and Legacy Looking at the continuity and change of the United States in the Nineteenth Centurygives 5th grade students the opportunity to explore and relive history. In addition, students will beable to construct their own, new understanding of different cultures especially the NativeAmericans and the “Trail of Tears”. The students will learn about key figures from all different 8
  • 9. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainbackbackgrounds and cultures such as Lewis and Clark and Sacajawea. In addition, students willlearn how the heroic endeavors of our past fought for our country and have forever shaped ournation. Until this lesson many students will probably have never heard or understood our nationshistory in regards to western expansion and our relations to Native Americans. This unit willprompt class discussion, in depth thinking, and a deeper understanding and appreciation forwhere our country is today. Also this unit will reveal that America has made mistakes and poordecisions, but through studying history our country can learn from our mistakes and moveforward. By learning about the past disputes and expansion, students will be grasp a deeperunderstanding of the American history. Through this unit students will attain an enriched andculturally developed view and understanding of America’s past, present, and future. 9
  • 10. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackLesson # 1: Mapping and Charting The Lewis and Clark ExpeditionPrepared by Annie MacKimmieAudience: 3rd Grade, whole group, 20 studentsStandards: History and Social Science Standards of Learning in Virginia 3.5 The student will develop map skills by: b) using the equator and prime meridian to identify the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Hemispheres; e) locating specific places, using a simple letter-number grid system.Materials/Time/Space: pencils, colored pencils, tape, 4 pieces of computer paper, projector, access to theinternet, 1 globe, picture of the World (available at http://www.worldpress.org/map.cfm), overheadprojector slide entitled The Louisiana Purchase-1803 (available in Lewis & Clark (2003).), 20 copies ofChart and Mapping Guided Practice, 20 copies of Mapping The Lewis and Clark Expedition, Lewis &Clark (Hazen, W.A. (2003).); One hour of instructional time; typical classroom space; typical class size(20 students)Lesson Description:Anticipatory Set:Briefly introduce Lewis and Clark (see content). Ask the students if they remember the cardinaldirections. Review the cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west (see content). Write north, south,east, and west on the four pieces of computer paper and tape them to the appropriate corresponding walls.For this game, call out a cardinal direction and have the students run to that specific side of the classroom.Play the cardinal direction game.Objectives and Purpose:1. Students will be introduced to Lewis and Clark and their Expedition across America.2. Given an alphanumeric chart, students will be able chart the Lewis and Clark Expedition.3. Given a world map, students will be able to identify the equator and the prime meridian.Input/Modeling:Project the World Atlas map (available at http://www.worldpress.org/map.cfm) onto the board. Label thecardinal directions and explain the equator and prime meridian. Explain and define the concept ofalphanumeric grid system (see content). As well as demonstrating this on the board, pass the globe aroundto each student so they can see the equator, prime meridian, and grid on the globe. Finally, give anoverview to the students about the remainder of the lesson of mapping.Checking for Understanding:Project a map of the world onto the board (world map available at http://www.worldpress.org /map.cfm).Break the students into five groups. Ask the students if they can identify the equator and prime meridian.Walk around to each group and check their understanding.Guided Practice: 10
  • 11. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackPass out Charting and Mapping Guided Practice worksheet to each student. Explain the directions andthe specific alphanumeric grid. Explain and demonstrate the process of finding a location given thealphanumeric grid system. Then, demonstrate finding a letter using the alphanumeric coordinates. Relatethe guided practice back to locating places on a map. Show the first two problems on the projector andthen ask the students to attempt to complete the remainder of the worksheet in pairs. As the students workon the guided practice, walk around to be available to help students and answer questions.Independent Practice:Give Mapping The Lewis and Clark Expedition worksheet out to each student. Clearly explain thedirections to the students. Remind students that this is an independent activity and that they will haveample amount of time to complete it, so do not rush.Closing:Once the students have completed the worksheet, collect them and go over the correct answers. Using theprojector to demonstrate the mapping coordinate locations with the alphanumeric grid system activity andsuccessfully map the expedition. Project the overhead entitled, The Louisiana Purchase-1803 (see Lewis& Clark text). This overhead accurately maps the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Briefly explain the vastaccomplishment this trek was for America. Inform students we will continue to explore this topic. Finally,pass out a 4x6 index card to each student. Place the multiple-choice question on the projector. Have thestudents answer the multiple choice question and write at least three sentences about what they learnedand what they liked or did not like about the map skills activity.Assessment:Formative Evaluation: Walk around classroom during the guided and independent practice mappingactivities to check for understanding and participationSummative Evaluation: Check and grade the Mapping The Lewis and Clark Expedition worksheet, andindex card exit slip. The three sentences are not grades and only for teacher reference. Provide a gradeand feedback to the students as soon as possible.Background Information/ Content: In 1803, Thomas Jefferson appointed Lewis and Clark to lead an expedition to explore the west.Jefferson sent the expedition in hopes of finding the Pacific Ocean. After a trying, exhausting, cold, andexciting year and a half, the Lewis and Clark Expedition finally found the Pacific Ocean. This journeyand exploration is a huge mark in United States history. The cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west. North is aligned with the North Pole andsouth is aligned in relation to the South Pole. The terms east and west are derived from Latin terns runperpendicular to north and south. The equator is an imaginary line drawn horizontally between the Northand South Pole. The prime meridian is a vertical, imaginary line that connects the North and South Poleand passes through Greenwich, England and many other cities and countries. The world is on a gridsystem that enables people to locate specific places on a map. These coordinates are used to determineexact geographic locations. The grid map is a similar to a big, extended tic-tac-toe board and consists ofmany horizontal and vertical lines. The alphanumeric grid will use letters and numbers to chart the Lewisand Clark Expedition. 11
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  • 13. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback13
  • 14. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackMultiple Choice Question:1. The equator is a horizontal imaginary line that divides the world into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres b horizontal imaginary line that divides the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres c vertical imaginary line that divides the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres d vertical imaginary line that divides the world into the Northern and Southern HemispheresAnswer: a. horizontal imaginary line that divides the world into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres 14
  • 15. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackLesson Plan #2: “O say!”: Can you see and hear “The Star-Spangled Banner”?Prepared by: Rob Schupbach Grade Level: 1stTime: 1 hour Space: Whole Group (25 students)Materials Required: Computer, video projector, 25 copies of the lyrics to “The Star-SpangledBanner,” a large print of A View of the Bombardment of Fort McHenry by J. Bower, anAmerican flag, a 1915 recording of “The Star-Spangled Banner” as sung by Margaret WoodrowWilson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Star-spangled_banner_002.ogg), YouTube video ofWhitney Houston singing the National Anthem (http://youtu.be/wupsPg5H6aE), YouTube videoof karaoke version of “The Star-Spangled Banner” (http://youtu.be/z8Rf7beku_4), 25 sheets ofblank, white computer paper, colored pencils, crayonsStandards: (see Appendix A for a complete summary)Virginia Standards of Learning1.11 The student will recognize the symbols and traditional practices that honor and fosterpatriotism in the United StateNational Council for the Social Studies Standards2. Time, Continuity, and Change: Studying the past makes it possible for us to understandthe human story across time.Objectives:1. After viewing the painting A View of the Bombardment of Fort McHenry by J. Bower,students will interpret the artist’s purpose and articulate their personal reaction to the work.2. Given the lyrics to “The Star-Spangled Banner” and watching several versions of theperformance of our National Anthem, students will draw a picture of the Battle at Fort McHenry.Resources:National Endowment of the Humanities. (2010). O, say, can you see what The Star-Spangled Banner means? Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson- plan/oh-say-can-you-see-what-star-spangled-banner-meansSmithsonian Museum. (n.d.). The Star-Spangled Banner: the flag that inspired the national anthem. Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://americanhistory.si.edu/starspangledbanner/Wikipedia. (n.d.). The Star-Spangled Banner. Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star-Spangled_BannerIntroduction:Tell the students that they are going to be looking at the work of an artist who was at the Battleof Fort McHenry during the War of 1812. Explain that at this battle the British set their sights onBaltimore, Maryland, a vital seaport. British warships began firing bombs and rockets on FortMcHenry, which protected the city’s harbor. The bombardment continued for twenty-five hourswhile the nation awaited news of Baltimore’s fate. Ask the students what they think the name ofthe painting is. Ask “how does this make you feel?” Ask “why do you think he painted this?”Explain to students that during the attack on Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key wrote the lyrics towhat would become the lyrics to our national anthem. Ask students if they know what a nationalanthem is.Content Focus:Play recording of “The Star-Spangled Banner” as sung by Margaret Woodrow Wilson andWhitney Houston. Hand-out copies of the lyrics to “The Star-Spangled Banner.”Objective Level: Ask the following questions when guiding a discussion of “The Star-SpangledBanner” 15
  • 16. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback 1. What instruments do you think are used in the song? 2. What words would you use to describe the music? 3. Did the song have the same mood the whole time?Reflective Level 1. How does the song make you feel? 2. Does one singer of the song make you feel differently from the other?Interpretive Level (Read lyrics from “The Star-Spangled Banner”) 1. What do you think this song means? 2. Where have you heard this song before? 3. Why do you think they play it at events?Decisional Level 1. Is there anything in the classroom that corresponds to the song? (after adequate amount of wait time, point to the American flag). 2. What are you going to do the next time you hear the national anthem?AssignmentTell students that they are going to draw an original piece of art that depicts the Battle of FortMcHenry. Tell students to include an American flag in their drawings. Students can use coloredpencils and crayons. While students are working, play “The Star-Spangled Banner” their ownpiece of art for inspiration.Closure:Lead the class in a discussion about the different types of art they saw today. Ask why they thinkthe Battle of Fort McHenry was able to inspire both the painting and the lyrics to the nationalanthem. Ask students if they can think of any other famous event that inspired art and/or music.Invite the entire class to sing along with a karaoke version of “The Star-Spangled Banner.”Assessment:Formative:Students will be informally assessed throughout the duration of the lesson. Studentunderstanding should be judged based on willingness to respond to questions and the ability tomake inferences about the national anthem.Summative:Student’s drawing will be assessed based on the inclusion of an American flag in their artwork.Addition evaluation will be multiple choice exit card.Multiple Choice Question: Who wrote the words to “The Star-Spangled Banner”? a. Wilson Scott Francis b. Robert Francis Lockhart c. Francis Scott KeyBackground Information:On September 14, 1814, U.S. soldiers at Baltimore’s Fort McHenry raised a huge American flagto celebrate a crucial victory over British forces during the War of 1812. The sight of those“broad stripes and bright stars” inspired Francis Scott Key to write a song that eventually becamethe United States national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Key’s words gave newsignificance to a national symbol and started a tradition through which generations of Americanshave invested the flag with their own meanings and memories. 16
  • 17. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackA View of the Bombardment of Fort McHenry, by J. Bower, 1816 17
  • 18. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback “The Star-Spangled Banner”O say! can you see by the dawn’s early light,What so proudly we hail’d at the twilight’s last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro’ the perilous fight,O’er the ramparts we watch’d, were so gallantly streaming!And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof thro’ the night that our flag was still there.O say, does that Star-Spangled Banner yet waveO’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?On the shore, dimly seen thro’ the mists of the deep,Where the foe’s haughty host in dread silence reposes,What is that which the breeze, o’er the towering steep,As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam,In full glory reflected now shines in the stream;’Tis the Star-Spangled Banner, O long may it waveO’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!And where is that band who so vauntingly sworeThat the havoc of war and the battle’s confusionA home and a country should leave us no more?Their blood has wash’d out their foul footsteps’ pollution.No refuge could save the hireling and slaveFrom the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave;And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph doth waveO’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!O thus be it ever when freemen shall standBetween their loved homes and the war’s desolation!Blest with vict’ry and peace, may the heav’n-rescued landPraise the Pow’r that hath made and preserved us a nation.Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,And this be our motto: “In God is our trust.”And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall waveO’er the land of the free and the home of the brave! 18
  • 19. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackLesson #3—The Trail of TearsAudience: 5th Grade, ~20 studentsLesson Preparer: Ebony CornitcherStandards:HistoryVUS.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events from the last decade of theeighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century byb) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansionand its impact on the American Indians;Objective: 1) Students will be able to simulate the experience of Native Americans during the Trail of Tears through the creation of a personal diary/journal. 2) Students will be able to explain the reasons for Andrew Jackson’s decision to remove the Native Americans.Materials/Space/Time: - cooled coffee, black sheets of computer paper (enough for each student to have 1-2 sheets), a medium size container, brown paper bags (about 5), blow dryer (if possible) - enough space for the student to work at his or her desk and a separate table to prepare the journals - 1 hourLesson Description:Introduction: Ask the students to close their eyes and read aloud the story located in the Contentsection. Before reading the story, ask the students to think about how the story makes them feeland if they think it is fair. The story deals with a young boy and his family being removed fromhis house by soldiers. After the story is read, ask the students to give their reactions includingfeelings and emotions. Write these feelings and emotions on the board. Ask the students if this isan example of good citizenship.Content Focus: Transition into the historical event of the Indian Removal Act from PresidentAndrew Jackson’s point of view. Explain to the students the economical reasons why AndrewJackson made his decision and ask the students if they agree with his decision (Content). Watcha brief video (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/weshallremain/the_films/episode_3_trailer onlyshow the 7th segment) to introduce the Cherokee Native Americans and the Trail of Tears. Tellthe students that they will put themselves in the shoes of Native Americans by writing a journal.The students will pretend to be a Native American being removed from his or her home and mustwrite a journal about his or her experience and feelings. Remind the student of how they felttoward the story read at the beginning of class and point to the emotions written on the board. 19
  • 20. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackRead an example of a journal entry to the students (in Content) then give them the handout withinstructions to do their own. The paper should be “aged” before writing.Closure: If time allows, have students transfer their drafts to the dried sheets of paper that theyhave aged after the draft has been approved by the teacher.Assessment:Formative - Students’ participation during the introduction andSummative - Students should write at least two journal entries or one long journal entry and willbe assessed on their inclusion of facts about the Trail of Tears as well as their ability toempathize with the character they are portraying.Background Information/Content:Introduction story: You are sitting in your room when you hear a hard knock at the door. When your parentsopen the door, a group of men enter and say that you must leave your home. If you refuse, youwill be dragged out anyway. It is freezing cold but, you and your family grab what you can andleave your home with no clear destination. (Open eyes). How does this make you feel? Andrew Jackson was elected into office in 1828. This election is very prominent becauseit produced the divide of political parties we have today; the Democrats and the Republicans.Jackson received a lot of support from the country because people could relate to him. Hispolitical platform was based on the fact that he helped fight the Native Americans in previousbattles. Andrew Jackson, along with many other Americans, wanted the removal of NativeAmericans. Since the discovery of new land, explorers wanted to move westward and settledown with their families and gold miners wanted the opportunity to dig for gold in hopes ofbecoming rich. The only thing stopping them was the habitation of the Native Americans.“In 1830 the Congress of the United States passed the ‘Indian Removal Act.’...President Jacksonquickly signed the bill into law. The Cherokees attempted to fight removal legally by challengingthe removal laws in the Supreme Court and by establishing an independent Cherokee Nation.”These efforts were eventually not recognized and in, “1838 – Seven thousand federaltroops…were dispatched to the Cherokee Nation. Without warning, the troops broke down doorsand drug people away to stockades. Those that moved too slowly were prodded with bayonets.In October, the Cherokees were herded into wooden stockades with no food, water, blankets, orsanitation. Most of them were barefoot and had no coats or blankets, yet they were forced tocross rivers in sub-zero weather.” 20
  • 21. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackExample of journal entry: "I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at thebayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I sawthem loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward thewest....On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow stormwith freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey onMarch the 26th 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was atrail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have knownas many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold andexposure..." Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellans Company, 2ndRegiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838-39 21
  • 22. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Biographical JournalHow to Make a Diary/JournalStep 1: Fold your paper in half.Step 2: Place paper in coffee until it is completely covered.Step 3: Fold and stack the dry pages after they have dried.Step 4: Cover the outside of the pages with a brown paper bag that is a little bigger than the otherpaper.Step 5: Hole punch the paper (including the brown paper bag) and bind together with string.Step 6: Adjust the size, by cutting the pages again. Make sure the pages are about the same size. For this assignment, you are going to be a Native American of the Cherokee tribe. Writeat least two journal entries first person point of view of a character of your choice. You will writeabout your experience during your journey of the Trail of Tears. This is your personal diary somake sure you write as though you are the person.Things to think about:-Who are you traveling with?-What have you brought with you?-How do you feel as you travel?-What is the date?After your draft has been approved by the teacher, you will be able to write your entry onto yourfinal sheet of aged journal paper. 22
  • 23. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackMultiple Choice QuestionWhat is the document that forced Native Americans to move further west in 1830?A. the Trail of TearsB. the Indian Removal ActC. the Treaty of GhentD. the Indian Westward Expansion ActAnswer:B. the Indian Removal Act 23
  • 24. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackLesson #4- On the “Trail of Tears” Prepared by Holly StainbackPurpose: Students will understand through conducting research that conflicts regarding land useand personal rights persist in modern Virginia between Native American tribes and thestate/national government.Grade Level/Time/Space: 6th Grade, 4 one-hour sessions, whole group and individual (about 20students)VA SOL Standards: USI.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographicalanalysis and responsible citizenship, including the ability to a.) identify and interpret primary andsecondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States historyto 1865, d.) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; evaluate and discussissues orally and in writing, i.) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, includingthe consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nationsresponded to positive and negative incentives.NCSS Standards: 1. Culture Through experience, observation, and reflection, students willidentify elements of culture as well as similarities and differences among cultural groups acrosstime and place. 2. Time, Continuity, and Change Studying the past makes it possible for us tounderstand the human story across time. Knowledge and understanding of the past enable us toanalyze the causes and consequences of events and developments, and to place these in thecontext of the institutions, values and beliefs of the periods in which they took place.Objectives: 1. Given a primary source document and background information, students willgenerate questions, hypotheses, and conduct research pertaining to the Trail of Tears. 2. Studentwill share their research findings with the class through an oral presentation.Resources: Excerpts from “John Burnett’s Story of the Trail of Tears” (Enclosed), Websitedatabases : Cherokee Nation website and The Native American Rights Fund website (seebibliography), map of the Trail of Tears (see bibliography), copies of the Indian Removal Act1830 and The Indian Civil Rights Act (see bibliography), books about the Trail of Tears (seebibliography), Internet-equipped computers for student use, Guided research worksheet(enclosed).Procedure: Introduction: (Day 1) Catalyst: Read aloud the excerpt from John Burnett’s Story of theTrail of Tears, his account of his actions and observations during the removal of Cherokees.Divide students into groups of 4-5 to discuss this information, and generate questions. In wholegroup, model formation of research questions with students, asking for groups to volunteer theirbest questions. Distribute guided research worksheets. Student-generated questions: Individually,students will choose their best research questions and make a hypothesis . Allow students to begintheir research. Content Focus: (Day 1-3) Independent research time. Put books and printed articlesin a central location. Students may also use the bookmarked websites on the computer. Studentsmust consult at least 3 different kinds of sources. For each source, they will document theresource information on the guided research worksheet . At the end of Day 2, ask the students forinput as to what other kinds of information they think they need to continue their research . Havethese materials ready for the next day. Closure: (Day 4) Student presentations- students willpresent their research findings to the class. Students will not read a prepared written response,but will instead explain their question, highlight any unusual sources or findings, and sharefurther questions that they found during their research. A brief discussion after each presentation 24
  • 25. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainbackto clarify student opinions and questions will occur. Collect each student’s research question andanswer and publish them in a study guide document to be distributed to the entire class.Evaluation/Assessment: Formative: Student engagement in discussion, effort during researchprocess. Summative: Complete research worksheet using three different sources; oral presentationthorough, concise, and shows understanding of research processEssay Question: What was the Indian Removal Act of 1830? (2 points). Which Presidentapproved this Act? (1 point). Describe the “Trail of Tears” (3 points). Give one reason whyNative Americans died on the Trail of Tears (1 point). Name 3 of the 5 “Civilized Tribes” (3points). Name 2 things you learned through your research (2 points). Total: 12 pointsBackground Information: As the United States expanded, settlers demanded more and moreland. However, the land was occupied by Native Americans. In May 1830, Congressed passedthe Indian Removal Act. This new law required all Native Americans, including Cherokee,Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole, to move west onto a parcel of land called the IndianTerritory in order to make room for the settlers. The Indian Territory is now present dayOklahoma. Many of the Native Americans left, but the Cherokee refused to leave. In October1838, the Cherokee were gathered up and forcibly removed. They arrived in the Indian Territoryin March 1839. This forced removal was extremely hard on the Native Americans. They werenot properly equipped for their 1,000 mile journey through the snow. They did not have properclothing, shelter, or food. Thousands of Native Americans died on the journey, which becameknown as the Trail of Tears (Salas, 2003). Native Americans were seen as a disruption to the Westward Expansion that the UnitedStates saw as their destiny. There were five Native American tribes that were considered to becivilized enough to stay on the land and remain in communication with the settlers. These fivetribes were: the Cherokees, the Creeks, the Choctaws, the Chickasaws, and the Seminoles andlived in the areas of Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Some of the tribestried to bargain with the settlers by adopting, “Anglo-American practices such as large-scalefarming, Western education, and slave-holding” ("Indian removal,”). In 1830, President AndrewJackson ordered all Native Americans off land east of the Mississippi to move westward so thatthe land could be open for settlers to open new cotton plantations. The Cherokee nation calledtheir journey to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma the “Trail of Tears” because more than a quarterof the 15, 000 Native Americans died along the way ("Indian removal,”). John L’ O Sullivan coined the term Manifest Destiny which is the belief that it isAmerica’s right to expand and conquer the land that predestined for the country by God.However, Native Americans live by a different belief system that completed conflicted with thisidea of Manifest Destiny. Native Americans do not believe in ownership of land because it is anatural entity. They believe that the land is here to help one sustain and live but, only as a help tothe people; land is not meant to be conquered. The beliefs of the Native Americans were not seenas important to Americans and the idea of manifest destiny was the spear head to the growth ofthe nation ("Ideas and Movements”). 25
  • 26. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackBibliography:About North Georgia. (2006). Map of the Trail of Tears. Retrieved from http://ngeorgia.com/history/trailoftearsmap.htmlBurnett, John. (1890). John Burnett’s Story of the Trail of Tears. Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/History/TrailofTears/24502/Information.aspxEhle, John. (1988). Trail of tears: The rise and fall of the cherokee nation. New York, NY: Anchor Press.Ideas and movements, ca 1840s. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.u-s- history.com/pages/h337.htmlIndian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (25 U.S.C. §§ 1301-03). Retrieved from http://www.tribal- institute.org/lists/icra1968.htmIndian removal. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.htmlIndian Removal Act of 1830. Retrieved from http://academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/native10.htmSalas, Laura Purdie. (2003). The trail of tears, 1838. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books.The Cherokee Nation. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.orgThe Native American Rights Fund. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.narf.org 26
  • 27. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackExcerpts from “John Burnett’s Story of the Trail of Tears”“The removal of Cherokee Indians from their lifelong homes in the year of 1838 found me ayoung man in the prime of life and a Private soldier in the American Army. Being acquaintedwith many of the Indians and able to fluently speak their language, I was sent as interpreter intothe Smoky Mountain Country in May, 1838, and witnessed the execution of the most brutalorder in the History of American Warfare. I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and draggedfrom their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of adrizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred andforty-five wagons and started toward the west. One can never forget the sadness and solemnity ofthat morning. Chief John Ross led in prayer and when the bugle sounded and the wagons startedrolling many of the children rose to their feet and waved their little hands good-by to theirmountain homes, knowing they were leaving them forever. Many of these helpless people didnot have blankets and many of them had been driven from home barefooted…The long painful journey to the west ended March 26th, 1839, with four-thousand silent gravesreaching from the foothills of the Smoky Mountains to what is known as Indian territory in theWest. And covetousness on the part of the white race was the cause of all that the Cherokees hadto suffer...The doom of the Cherokee was sealed. Washington, D.C., had decreed that they mustbe driven West and their lands given to the white man, and in May 1838, an army of 4000regulars, and 3000 volunteer soldiers under command of General Winfield Scott, marched intothe Indian country and wrote the blackest chapter on the pages of American history… Murder ismurder, and somebody must answer. Somebody must explain the streams of blood that flowed inthe Indian country in the summer of 1838. Somebody must explain the 4000 silent graves thatmark the trail of the Cherokees to their exile. I wish I could forget it all, but the picture of 645wagons lumbering over the frozen ground with their cargo of suffering humanity still lingers inmy memory. Let the historian of a future day tell the sad story with its sighs, its tears and dyinggroans. Let the great Judge of all the earth weigh our actions and reward us according to ourwork.” Burnett, John. (1890). John Burnett’s Story of the Trail of Tears. Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/History/TrailofTears/24502/Information.aspx 27
  • 28. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Name:Questions You Have About The Trail of Tears1.)2.)3.)Question You Want To Research:Hypothesis:3 Sources Consulted Include resource information (title, author, publication information and/or URL)Source 1:Source 2:Source 3:Three Facts Learned From Your Search1.)2.)3.)Additional Questions Gained From Your Research1.)2.)Time Devoted to Research Day 1 __________ Day 2______________ Day 3_______________ 28
  • 29. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Name: Holly StainbackQuestions You Have About The Trail of Tears1.) Why did the Cherokee have to leave?2.) How many miles long is the Trail of Tears?3.) Did anyone else have to leave or just the Cherokee?Question You Want To Research: Why did the Cherokee have to leave?Hypothesis: The Cherokee had to leave because the white man wanted their land.3 Sources Consulted Include resource information (title, author, publication information and/or URL)Source 1: Salas, Laura Purdie. (2003). The trail of tears, 1838. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books.Source 2: The Cherokee Nation. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.orgSource 3: Indian Removal Act of 1830. Retrieved from http://academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/native10.htmThree Facts Learned From Your Search1.) Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830.2.) The Cherokee weren’t the only ones who had to leave; the Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminoletribes had to leave, too.3.) The U.S. government wanted to trade land in the West for the land the Native Americans wereoccupying.Additional Questions Gained From Your Research1.) Have Native Americans anywhere else been rounded up and forcibly removed from their lands?2.) Can we do this to Native Americans today?Time Devoted to Research Day 1 ____30 mins__ Day 2 ___60 mins___ Day 3___60 mins___ 29
  • 30. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback RubricStudent Performance Below Expectations Meets Expectations Exceeds Expectations Use of Sources Student uses less than Student uses at least 3 Student uses more 3 different sources different sources than different sourcesResearch Question Student does not Student generates one Student generates and Hypothesis generate a research question to research more than one question and does not and makes one question to research make a hypothesis hypothesis and makes more than one hypothesis Oral Presentation Student does not give Student gives an oral Student gives an oral an oral presentation presentation that presentation that explains their explains their question, highlights question, highlights any unusual sources any unusual sources or findings, and shares or findings, shares further questions that further questions that they found during they found during their research their research, and prepares a written responseContent Knowledge Student is not able to Student is able to Student is able to describe the Indian describe the Indian describe the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Removal Act of 1830, Removal Act of 1830 the Trail of Tears, or the Trail of Tears, and and the Trail of Tears name 3 of the 5 name 3 of the 5 in great detail, and “civilized tribes” “civilized tribes” can name more than 3 of the 5 “civilized tribes” 30
  • 31. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Artifact #1: Visual Artifact ~ Primary Prepared by Rob Schupbach Key Objective: Given a discussion of the California Gold Rush of 1849, students will identify the key places involved. Given gold mining pans, students will perform a placer mine for gold from a small trough.Background Information: Thousands of gold seekers rushed to California in 1849 in the hopesof striking it rich. Gold seekers, mostly men, streamed in from across America and around theworld. In the first four years of the gold rush, California’s population rose from 20,000 to almost225,000. Early miners panned for gold with pans. This technique was called placer mining, atechnique first used in ancient Rome. Californias rapid and dramatic change during the GoldRush was especially evident in San Francisco. (Davis, 81).The Gold Rush also contributed to thegrowth and establishment of Sacramento, Stockton, Los Angeles, San Diego and a myriad ofsmall mining towns.Student Activities:Whole Group: As a class, the students will discuss what the Gold Rush of 1849 was about andwhere it took place. The students will also discuss how the miners panned for gold and theequipment that they used. Gold mining pans will be passed around to the class for each student totouch and observe.Small Group: In small groups of no more than four, students will take turns using miner’s pans topan for gold from a small trough. After each group has panned for gold, the students will siftthrough the gold. Groups will identify the “real gold” from the “fool’s gold,” which will bemarked with a tiny F. As a group, the students will determine the amounts of “real gold” versus“fool’s gold.”Independent: Students will individually examine a map of 1849 California. Using their textbooksand atlases as a guide, students will label the map with the following cities: San Francisco,Sacramento, and San Diego.Assessment: What U.S. state did the Gold Rush of 1849 take place? A. San Francisco B. North Dakota C. South Dakota D. California 31
  • 32. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Artifact #1: Visual Artifact ~ Intermediate Prepared by Rob Schupbach Key Objective: Given a discussion of the California Gold Rush of 1849, students will identify the key places involved. Given gold mining pans, students will perform a placer mine for gold from a small trough.Background Information: Thousands of gold seekers rushed to California in 1849 in the hopesof striking it rich. Gold seekers, mostly men, streamed in from across America and around theworld. In the first four years of the gold rush, California’s population rose from 20,000 to almost225,000. Early miners panned for gold with pans. This technique was called placer mining, atechnique first used in ancient Rome. Californias rapid and dramatic change during the GoldRush was especially evident in San Francisco. (Davis, 81).The Gold Rush also contributed to thegrowth and establishment of Sacramento, Stockton, Los Angeles, San Diego and a myriad ofsmall mining towns.Student Activities:Whole Group: As a class, the students will discuss what the Gold Rush of 1849 was about andwhere it took place. The teacher will discuss with the students to impact the Gold Rush of 1849had on California’s population and economy. The students will also discuss how the minerspanned for gold and the equipment that they used. Gold mining pans will be passed around to theclass for each student to touch and observe.Small Group: In small groups of no more than four, students will take turns using miner’s pans topan for gold from a small trough. After each group has panned for gold, the students will siftthrough the gold. Groups will identify the “real gold” from the “fool’s gold,” which will bemarked with a tiny F. As a group, the students will determine the amounts of “real gold” versus“fool’s gold.” Amounts will be shared with the whole class for comparison.Independent: Students will individually examine a map of 1849 California. Using theirtextbooks and atlases as a guide, students will label the map with the following cities: SanFrancisco, Sacramento, San Diego, Stockton, and Los Angeles.Assessment: Where was panning for gold, or placer mining, first used? A. ancient Greece B. ancient Romania C. ancient Rome D. California 32
  • 33. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackSamples of Gold Mining Pans 33
  • 34. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback34
  • 35. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackArtifact #2: Published Document ~ PrimaryPrepared by Holly StainbackKey Objective: Given a discussion of the Louisiana Purchase, students identify the countriesand figures involved. Given a blank template, students create their own stamp that represents anevent or person in their life that they feel is worthy of commemoration.Background Information: In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought a large parcel of landfrom the French. This was known as the Louisiana Purchase (Klobuchar, 2006). RobertLivingston, James Monroe, and the Marquis de Barbé-Marbois signed the document that wouldtransfer ownership of the land in Paris, France (LSM, 2009). With the purchase of this land, theUnited States would be extended to include all territory from Canada all the way south to theGulf of Mexico, and from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains (Klobuchar, 2006).Student Activities:Whole Group: As a class, we discuss what the Louisiana Purchase was, the countries involved,and the important figures who took part in it. On the class map of the world, students find theUnited States and France.Small Group: In groups of 3 or 4, students examine the postage stamp that commemorates the150th anniversary of the signing of the Louisiana Purchase and identify several aspects from thestamp. Students are asked to identify the name of one person pictured on the stamp, identify ifthe stamp is from the U.S. or from France, and identify where and in what year the documentwas signed.Independent: Students receive a postage stamp template and are asked to draw and color theirown stamp that represents an event or person in their life that they feel is worthy ofcommemoration. After completion, the stamps are placed in a class “stamp collection” book.Assessment: Which country sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S.? A.) Mexico B.) France C.) Canada D.) England 35
  • 36. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackArtifact #2: Published Document ~ IntermediatePrepared by Holly StainbackKey Objective: Given a discussion, students identify the implications of and the figuresinvolved in the Louisiana Purchase. Given a blank template, students create their own stamp thatrepresents the Louisiana Purchase.Background Information: In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought a large parcel of landfrom the French, known as the Louisiana Purchase (Klobuchar, 2006). Robert Livingston, JamesMonroe, and the Marquis de Barbé-Marbois signed the document that would transfer ownershipof the land in Paris, France (LSM, 2009). With this purchase, the United States would beextended to include all territory from Canada all the way south to the Gulf of Mexico, and fromthe Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains (Klobuchar, 2006). The Louisiana Purchasedoubled the size of the United States and allowed the U.S. to become a world power (Jaffe,2002).Student Activities:Whole Group: As a class, we discuss what the Louisiana Purchase was and the importance of theLouisiana Purchase, referring to the resulting increase in size of our country and the implicationsof this increase. We also discuss the important figures associated with the Louisiana Purchase.Small Group: In groups of 3 or 4, students examine the postage stamp that commemorates the150th anniversary of the signing of the Louisiana Purchase and are asked to identify the figuresportrayed, identify the setting of the portrait, and figure out what “sesquicentennial” means. Wealso discuss the art forms used to produce the stamp.Independent: Students receive a postage stamp template and are asked to create their own stamprepresenting the Louisiana Purchase using any art form they wish (ex. ink and stamp, draw/color,paint, etc). After completion, the stamps are placed in a class “stamp collection” book.Assessment: Which of the following people did not physically sign the Louisiana Purchase? A.) James Monroe B.) Thomas Jefferson C.) Robert Livingston D.) Marquis de Barbé-Marbois 36
  • 37. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback37
  • 38. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback38
  • 39. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Artifact #3 : Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Unpublished Document – Primary Activity)--Prepared by Annie MacKimmiePrior to this activity, students would be introduced to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Thestudents would have an overview of the journey and understand the purpose and goal for theexpedition.Background Information: Lewis and Clark were appointed by President Jefferson to lead anexpedition west and hopefully find the Pacific Ocean. They began their journey in May 1804, inSt Louis Missouri. In late October 1804, The Lewis and Clark Expedition built a fort named FortMandan in order to prepare and survive their first winter on the excursion. During their firstwinter at Fort Mandan, the team had good relations with the Indian tribes and began to trade theirgoods and skills for food in order to survive the frigid winter. Through Lewis and Clark’sunedited journals we are able to understand and read an accurate documentation of the travelsand journeys.Student Activities:Whole Group: As a whole group, read through the first page of Chapter VI of Lewis and Clark’sjournal. Discuss the ideas of the weather and hardships and hardships the team encountered. Re-read the last paragraph of the text. Ask the students if they understand the text. If they do,precede by explaining the importance of trading between the team and the Indian tribes. If thestudents cannot comprehend the text, explain the last paragraph and talk about the idea oftrading. Ask the students why Lewis and Clark traded with the Indians. If the discussion does notnaturally flow, ask prompting questions to lead the conversation. Break students into two groups.Give each student in group one three index cards with pictures of food on them. Give eachstudent in the second group three index cards with various pictures of weapons, shelter, andanimals. Have the two groups trade the index cards in order to get the two groups a variety andmix of food, weapons, shelter, and animals.Small Group: In small groups of three to four students, discuss the game and what they learnedabout trading. Students create their own, personal journals using cardboard for the bindings andpaper for the inside. Teachers will model this project and help the students if needed.Independent: Draw a picture illustrating Lewis and Clarke’s trading with the Mandan Indians.Write the date at the top right-hand corner of the paper to mark the first entry of the studentjournal.Assessment: 1. The Lewis and Clarke Expedition traded their goods and skills with the Indians to get: a. shelter b. weapons c. corn d. animals 39
  • 40. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Artifact #3 : Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Unpublished Document – Intermediate Activity)--Prepared by Annie MacKimmiePrior to this activity, students would be introduced to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Thestudents would have an overview of the journey and understand the purpose and goal for theexpedition.Background Information: Lewis and Clark were appointed by President Jefferson to lead anexpedition west and hopefully find the Pacific Ocean. They began their journey in May 1804, inSt Louis Missouri. In late October 1804, The Lewis and Clark Expedition built a fort named FortMandan in order to prepare and survive their first winter on the excursion. During their firstwinter at Fort Mandan, the team had good relations with the Indian tribes and began to trade theirgoods and skills for food in order to survive the frigid winter. Through Lewis and Clark’sunedited journals we are able to understand and read an accurate documentation of the travelsand journeys.Student Activities:Whole Group: As a whole group, read through the first page of Chapter VI of Lewis and Clark’sjournal. Discuss the ideas of the weather and hardships the team encountered. Re-read the lastparagraph of the text. Ask the students if they understand the text. If they do, precede byexplaining the importance of trading between the team and the Indian tribes. If the studentscannot comprehend the text, explain the last paragraph and talk about the idea of trading. Ask thestudents why Lewis and Clark traded with the Indians. If the discussion does not naturally flow,ask prompting questions to lead the conversation. Break students into two groups. Give eachstudent in group one three index cards with pictures of food on them. Give each student in thesecond group three index cards with various pictures of weapons, shelter, and animals. Have thetwo trade the index cards in order to get the two groups a variety and mix of food, weapons,shelter, and animals.Small Group: In small groups of three to four students, read through the excerpt from the Lewisand Clark Journal. As a group, write a summary of the journal entry in your own words. Sincethe journal was written in the early 1800s, some of the vocabulary can be hard to comprehend.Finally, in the small groups, students create their own, personal journals using cardboard for thebindings and paper for the inside.Independent: As the first entry in the personal journals, students write a paragraph what theylearned about trading during Lewis and Clark’s journey. If they would like, students can linktrading in their lives today. Write the date at the top right-hand corner of the paper to mark thefirst entry of the student journal.Intermediate Assessment: 1. At Fort Mandan the Lewis and Clark Expedition traded: a. Their corn for the Indian’s tools b. Their blacksmith mending skills for the Indian’s corn c. Their shelter for the Indian’s clothing d. Their horses for the Indian’s weapons 40
  • 41. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback41
  • 42. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackArtifact #4: Interview with Dayton DuncanPrimary Level (K-3)Background: The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) created a four-hour documentary called“Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery,” using interviews of key scholars whoare well researched on the expedition of these two men. “The film attained the second-highestratings (following The Civil War) in the history of PBS and won a Western Heritage award fromthe National Cowboy Hall of Fame, a Spur Award from the Western Writers of America, and aCINE Golden Eagle, as well as many other honors.” One of the interviews is with DaytonDuncan, the “writer and co-producer of ‘Lewis and Clark’ and co-author of the film’s companionbook.” He is also the author of Out West: An American Journey along the Lewis and Clark Trail,“in which he retraced the historic expedition route.”Whole group: A brief introduction to the Lewis and Clark trip westward will be given then, theclass will read the first part of Dayton Duncan’s interview and discuss the purpose of Lewis andClark’s expedition as well as how these men were chosen to take this journey. The class will alsodiscuss how the men prepared for the trip including what they took with them.Small group: Students will work in groups of 3-4 and go through the middle part of theinterview given to them in order to discover what kinds of animals and new land Lewis andClark found on their journey. Students will have access to resources in order to look up anyanimals or places they may not be familiar with. Answers will be shared at the end and studentswill express how they would feel if they had to explore an unknown land.Independent: The students will write a 3-5 sentence paragraph describing how they wouldprepare for a trip if they had to take this journey. What kinds of tools would they include? Whowould they bring with them? What are the three most important possessions that they could notleave behind? Students should draw illustrations of the things they bring with them as well. 42
  • 43. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackIntermediate Level (4-6)Background: The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) created a four-hour documentary called“Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery,” using interviews of key scholars whoare well researched on the expedition of these two men. “The film attained the second-highestratings (following The Civil War) in the history of PBS and won a Western Heritage award fromthe National Cowboy Hall of Fame, a Spur Award from the Western Writers of America, and aCINE Golden Eagle, as well as many other honors.” One of the interviews is with DaytonDuncan, the “writer and co-producer of ‘Lewis and Clark’ and co-author of the film’s companionbook.” He is also the author of Out West: An American Journey along the Lewis and Clark Trail,“in which he retraced the historic expedition route.”Whole group: A brief introduction to the Lewis and Clark trip westward will be given then, theclass will read the first part of Dayton Duncan’s interview and discuss the purpose of Lewis andClark’s expedition as well as how these men were chosen to take this journey.Small group: Students will work in pairs in order to retrace the Lewis and Clark expedition asDayton Duncan has done. Students will be given a student atlas book as well as access to theinternet and books, in which they can find the landmarks given in the interview and map out theexpedition. Each pair will create a map and share with the entire class at the end of the period.Independent: Students will write a 4-paragraph essay addressing the contributions of NativeAmericans and other minority groups during the Lewis and Clark expedition. Students shouldspecifically write about York, the African American slave, and Sacajawea, the Native Americanwoman who were both very influential in the success of the trip. 43
  • 44. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackMultiple Choice QuestionsPrimary: 1. Fill in the blank: The two men sent by President ______ who took an expedition westward were ______. A. Thomas Jefferson; York and Sacajawea B. Thomas Jefferson; Lewis and Clark C. Benjamin Franklin; Lewis and Clark D. Benjamin Franklin; York and SacajaweaIntermediate: 2. Who was the Native American woman who assisted the group along the Lewis and Clark expedition? A. Sacajawea B. York C. Charbonneau D. Lemhi 44
  • 45. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Name__________________________ Pre-Post TestRead each question below and circle the best answer:1. The equator is: a. a horizontal imaginary line that divides the world into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres b. a horizontal imaginary line that divides the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres b. a vertical imaginary line that divides the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres c. a vertical imaginary line that divides the world into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres2. Who wrote the words to “The Star-Spangled Banner”? d. Wilson Scott Francis e. Robert Francis Lockhart f. Francis Scott Key g. Abraham Lincoln3. What U.S. state did the Gold Rush of 1849 take place? a. San Francisco b. North Dakota c. South Dakota d. California4. Which country sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S.? a. Mexico b. France c. Canada d. England5. The Lewis and Clarke Expedition traded their goods and skills with the Indians to get: a. shelter a. weapons b. corn c. animals6. Fill in the blank: The two men sent by President ____________ who took an expedition westward were ___________. a. Thomas Jefferson; York and Sacajawea b. Thomas Jefferson; Lewis and Clark c. Benjamin Franklin; Lewis and Clark d. Benjamin Franklin; York and Sacajawea 45
  • 46. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Name__________________________ Intermediate Pre-Post Test Assessment #2Read each question below and circle the best answer:1. What is the document that forced Native Americans to move further west in 1830? A. the Trail of Tears B. the Indian Removal Act C. the Treaty of Ghent D. the Indian Westward Expansion Act2. Where was panning for gold, or placer mining, first used? A. ancient Greece B. ancient Romania C. ancient Rome D. California3. Which of the following people did not physically sign the Louisiana Purchase? A. James Monroe B. Thomas Jefferson C. Robert Livingston D. Marquis de Barbé-Marbois4. At Fort Mandan the Lewis and Clarke Expedition traded A. Their corn for the Indian’s tools B. Their blacksmith mending skills for the Indian’s corn C. Their shelter for the Indian’s clothing D. Their horses for the Indian’s weapons5. Who was the Native American woman who assisted the group along the Lewis and Clark expedition? A. Sacajawea B. York C. Charbonneau D. LemhiAnswer the question below in essay form. Respond in complete sentences.6. What was the Indian Removal Act of 1830? (2 points). Which President approved this Act? (1 point). Describe the “Trail of Tears” (3 points). Give one reason why Native Americans died on the Trail of Tears (1 point). Name 3 of the 5 “Civilized Tribes” (3 points). Name 2 things you learned through your research (2 points). Total: 12 points 46
  • 47. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback References1800s-1830s: Indian wars, westward expansion. (2008, May 05). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24714487/ns/us_news-gut_check/t/s-s-indian-wars- westward-expansionAfricans in America. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4narr4.htmlChildress, Diana. (2004). The war of 1812. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications.Davis, K. C. (2003). Dont know much about history: Everything you need to know about American history but never learned (1st ed.). New York: HarperCollins.Dred Scott’s fight for freedom 1846 - 1857. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.htmlDowney, M.T. (2006). Contemporary’s American history 1: Annotated teacher’s edition. Chicago: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill.Era 4: expansion and reform, 1801-1860. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.teachamericanhistory.org/file/Manual%20Final%20Era%204.pdfFradin, Dennis Brindell. (2007). The alamo. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.Goldpanningsite.com. (n.d.) California gold rush history. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.goldpanningsite.com/gold-rush/california-gold-rush.phpHakim, Joy. (1994). Liberty for all?. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Hakim, Joy. (1993). The new nation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Hazen, W.A. (2003). Lewis and clark. St. Louis, MO: Milliken Publishing Company.Herbert, J. (2000). Lewis and clark for kids. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press.Ideas and movements, ca 1840s. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.u-s- history.com/pages/h337.htmlIndian removal. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.htmlIsaacs, Sally Senzell. (1998). America in the time of lewis and clark: 1801 to 1850. Des Plaines, IL: Heinemann Library.Jaffe, Elizabeth D. (2002). The louisiana purchase. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books.Klobuchar, Lisa. (2006). The history and activities of the wagon trail. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library. 47
  • 48. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackLouisiana State Museum. The Louisiana Purchase. (2009). Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab4.htmMonroe, Judy. (2002). The California gold rush. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books.National Center for History in the Schools. (1996). United States history content standards for grades 5 -12. Retrieved from http://www.nchs.ucla.edu/Standards/National Council for the Social Studies. (1994). National curriculum standards for social studies. Retrieved from http://www.socialstudies.org/standards/curriculumNational Endowment of the Humanities. (2010). O, say, can you see what The Star-Spangled Banner means? Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson- plan/oh-say-can-you-see-what-star-spangled-banner-meansNorton, M. B. (1990). A people & a nation : A history of the United States (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Oakland Museum of California. (1998). Gold rush! California’s untold stories. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://museumca.org/goldrush/PBS KIDS GO. (2004). WayBack: gold rush. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://pbskids.org/wayback/goldrush/goldfever.htmlPBS. About Dayton Duncan (2010). Retrieved November 3, 2011, http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/about/daytonduncan.htmlPBS. Interviews. (2009). Retrieved November 1, 2011, http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/idx_int.htmlPBS. Interviews: Dayton Duncan Interview. (2006). Retrieved November 1, 2011, http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/duncan.htmlSacajawea. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nwa/sacajawea.htmlSalas, Laura Purdie. (2003). The trail of tears, 1838. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books.Smithsonian Museum. (n.d.). The Star-Spangled Banner: the flag that inspired the national anthem. Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://americanhistory.si.edu/starspangledbanner/Stamp Template Printout. (2010). Retrieved October 16, 201,1 from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/papercrafts/stamp/stamptemplate.shtml 48
  • 49. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackUS Postal Service. Louisiana Purchase Commemorative Postage Stamp. (1953). Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Louisana_Purchase_1953_Issue-3c.jpgVirginia Department of Education. (2010). The standards & SOL-Based instructional resources. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/index.shtmlWisconsin Historical Society. (2011). American journeys: print original journals of the lewis and clark expedition, 1804-1806. Retrieved from http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj- 100a/print/index.aspWikipedia. (n.d.). The Star-Spangled Banner. Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star-Spangled_BannerWorldpress.org. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.worldpress.org/map.cfm 49
  • 50. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Appendix ANational Center for History in the Schools United States History Content Standards for Grades 5 -12 Era 4 Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) Standard 1: United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans Standard 2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions Standard 3: The extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800 Standard 4: The sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum periodHistory and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools Skills USI.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysisand responsible citizenship, including the ability to a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1865; b) make connections between the past and the present; c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1865; d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; e) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing; f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events; g) distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude; h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents; i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to positive and negative incentives. Geography USI.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to a) locate the seven continents and five oceans; 50
  • 51. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback b) locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range; c) locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico; d) recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs. Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861 USI.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by a) describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, b) with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the c) acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California; d) identifying the geographic and economic factors that influenced the westward movement of settlers; e) describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and the steam locomotive, on life in America; f) identifying the main ideas of the abolitionist and women’s suffrage movements.National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Standards 1. Culture  Human beings create, learn, share, and adapt to culture.  Cultures are dynamic and change over time.  Through experience, observation, and reflection, students will identify elements of culture as well as similarities and differences among cultural groups across time and place. 2. Time, Continuity, and Change  Studying the past makes it possible for us to understand the human story across time.  Knowledge and understanding of the past enable us to analyze the causes and consequences of events and developments, and to place these in the context of the institutions, values and beliefs of the periods in which they took place.  Knowing how to read, reconstruct and interpret the past allows us to answer questions such as: How do we learn about the past? How can we evaluate the usefulness and degree of reliability of different historical sources? What are the roots of our social, political and economic systems? What are our personal roots and how can they be viewed as part of human history? Why is the past important to us today? How has the world changed and how might it change in future? How do perspectives about the past differ, and to what extent do these differences inform contemporary ideas and actions?  Children in early grades learn to locate themselves in time and space. 51
  • 52. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback Through a more formal study of history, students in the middle grades continue to expand their understanding of the past and are increasingly able to apply the research methods associated with historical inquiry.3. People, Places, and Environments The study of people, places, and environments enables us to understand the relationship between human populations and the physical world. During their studies, learners develop an understanding of spatial perspectives, and examine changes in the relationship between peoples, places and environments. Today’s social, cultural, economic and civic issues demand that students apply knowledge, skills, and understandings as they address questions such as: Why do people decide to live where they do or move to other places? Why is location important? How do people interact with the environment and what are some of the consequences of those interactions? What physical and other characteristics lead to the creation of regions? How do maps, globes, geographic tools and geospatial technologies contribute to the understanding of people, places, and environments?5. Individuals, Groups, and Institutions Institutions are the formal and informal political, economic, and social organizations that help us carry out, organize, and manage our daily affairs. It is important that students know how institutions are formed, what controls and influences them, how they control and influence individuals and culture, and how institutions can be maintained or changed. Students identify those institutions that they encounter.6. Power, Authority, and Governance The development of civic competence requires an understanding of the foundations of political thought, and the historical development of various structures of power, authority, and governance. It also requires knowledge of the evolving functions of these structures in contemporary U.S. society, as well as in other parts of the world.7. Production, Distribution, and Consumption People have wants that often exceed the limited resources available to them. In exploring this theme, students confront such questions as: What factors influence decision-making on issues of the production, distribution and consumption of goods? What are the best ways to deal with market failures? How does interdependence brought on by globalization impact local economies and social systems?8. Science, Technology, and Society Science, and its practical application, technology, have had a major influence on social and cultural change, and on the ways people interact with the world. There are many questions about the role that science and technology play in our lives and in our cultures. What can we learn from the past about how new technologies result in broader social change, some of which is unanticipated? Is new technology always better than that which it replaces? How can we cope with the ever-increasing pace of change, perhaps even the concern that technology might get out of control? How can we manage technology so that the greatest numbers of people benefit? How can we preserve fundamental values and beliefs in a world that is rapidly becoming one technology-linked village? How do science and technology affect our sense of self and morality? How are disparate cultures, geographically separated but impacted by global events, brought together by the technology that informs us about events, and offered hope 52
  • 53. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, Stainback by the science that may alleviate global problems (e.g., the spread of AIDS)? How can gaps in access to benefits of science and technology be bridged? Young children learn how science and technologies influence beliefs, knowledge, and their daily lives.10. Civic Ideals and Practices An understanding of civic ideals and practices is critical to full participation in society and is an essential component of education for citizenship, which is the central purpose of social studies. All people have a stake in examining civic ideals and practices across time and in different societies. Through an understanding of both ideals and practices, it becomes possible to identify gaps between them, and study efforts to close the gaps in our democratic republic and worldwide. 53
  • 54. Cornitcher, MacKimmie, Schupbach, StainbackExpensesThere were no expenses for this project. 54