Perceptions while working  with Koreans’ English    (It’s not just Konglish)        Robert J. Dickey  KOTESOL Daejeon-Chun...
Roadmap1. Introduction2. The Literature3. Survey of Teachers4. Analysis5. Conclusions & the future                        ...
Role(s) of English in Korea   Course of study   Preparation for overseas travel or study    • Does destination matter? ...
Teachers’ Perceptions Qualifications and Background  • Time in Korea / Asia / Abroad  • Time in Teaching (EFL, Asia)  • E...
Learners’ Perceptions Age Experience with English  • Formal education  • Informal learning / use Self-monitoring  • Err...
Defining Konglish Literature doesn’t agree Teachers don’t agree Koreans don’t agree          How do we deal with it    ...
“Growing a Language?” Suppose  • Languages are born, evolve, decay, die  • Vulgarization is natural (Latin, etc.) Stages...
Users’ & Teachers’ Perceptions When does the local variety become valid for various purposes?  • Local business & enterta...
Literature From scholarly research to books to  blogs, snippets/photos from local  media, teachers wordlist handouts… Wr...
The Literature - General                           10
Literature Summary L1 Interference / Fossilization Pidgins & Creoles (contact languages) World Englishes English as a ...
Local Variety? “Only Singlish…” Singaporean English? Australian English.                            12
13
The Literature - KonglishKim, J. (2010). Konglish as a second language? [New Perspective]. The Korea Herald, April 9.Mille...
Literature Classifications Anglicisms (loanwords in Korean) L1 Interference or Fossilization  •   Pronunciation  •   Gra...
“Korean” Language Three accepted avenues for inclusion in “Korean” language  •   “Pure”(indigenous) Korean ( 순한국어 )  •   ...
“Korean” Language (2) “Pure” Korean developments    ►Pre-Hangul    (does this matter?)    ►Hermit Kingdom era (pre-1870) ...
“Korean” Language (3) Treated as Korean:  • Sino-Korean ( 한자어 )    ►Korean words derived from Chinese    ►Words created i...
“Korean” Language (4) Treated as Korean:  • 외래어 ( 단어 ) Foreign linguistic input,    accepted as new Korean    ►Foreign   ...
Korean Language (5) Not Korean  Words recognized as “foreign”    ►Not in dictionary?    ►Korea has a government-recognize...
English in Korea (1)1880-1940: Missionary English - principally  North American English1920-1980: Japanized English - prin...
English in Korea (2)1960-current: classic British/American  Literature1960-current: contemporary USA music,  radio, movies...
Historical Summary A significant amount of so-called  “Konglish” has been adopted as valid  Korean language (loanwords) ...
Survey of Teachers 62 respondents, 56 responses used Demographic mix:  •   Teaching experience  •   Asian experience  • ...
Respondents’ Qualifications 26 Respondents had M.Ed.English,    MATESOL/related, or M. AppLing   19 Respondents had a Ma...
Teacher Responses (1) Definitions coded into 20 Fields Fields generated from responses and the literature  • 5 fields fo...
Coding FieldsInto Korean                 Into EnglishKorean w/English inserted   K think is English but...Loanwords into K...
Coding Fields (2)Into English                Into EnglishInterlanguage (fossilized   English words w/  error)             ...
Coding Fields (3)Into EnglishIdeological UseK Culture influenced EnglishDecorative                               29
Teacher Responses (2) Examples coded into 5 “themes”  • Used in Korean  • Structure from Korean or code-mixing  • Adaptat...
Teacher Responses (3)Theme                Responses   % (56)Used in Korean:          17      30.4% *Structure from Korean ...
Teacher Responses (4) 10 / 17 “In Korean” Theme did not indicate  any of the “English” issues.   • Only 3 of those 10 had...
Discussion Learners enter the classroom with  these words, structures, & sounds Resource to be developed, as Kent  and S...
Analysis Differences in source of Konglish  impact manner of correction Differentiated terminology perhaps  necessary?  ...
The Future Bilingual future for Korea? Functional multilingualism? Heightened general proficiency? Only for a few? Te...
Rob Dickey       Keimyung UniversityEmail: rjdickey@content-english.org                                      36
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Konglish Dickey Daejeon 2012

1,585 views
1,411 views

Published on

presentation at the 2012 KOTESOL Daejeon-Chungcheong Annual Autumn Symposium at Woosong University, Daejeon, S. Korea November 24.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,585
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Formal not limited to classroom, can include independent courses of study
  • Singlish, Singaporean-English, Australian English … define through an accepted local dictionary? Army & Navy?
  • Michael Swan and Bernard Smith
  • Konglish Dickey Daejeon 2012

    1. 1. Perceptions while working with Koreans’ English (It’s not just Konglish) Robert J. Dickey KOTESOL Daejeon-Chungcheong Annual Autumn Symposium November 24, 2012 Woosong University, Daejeon
    2. 2. Roadmap1. Introduction2. The Literature3. Survey of Teachers4. Analysis5. Conclusions & the future 2
    3. 3. Role(s) of English in Korea Course of study Preparation for overseas travel or study • Does destination matter? Interaction with non-Koreans Work-related • international materials • business partners Entertainment 3
    4. 4. Teachers’ Perceptions Qualifications and Background • Time in Korea / Asia / Abroad • Time in Teaching (EFL, Asia) • Educational Background Teaching Approaches • GTM/Audio-Lingual (avoid errors) • Communicative (risk-taking) • World Englishes 4
    5. 5. Learners’ Perceptions Age Experience with English • Formal education • Informal learning / use Self-monitoring • Error vs. Mistake Parent/Employer/Other influence? 5
    6. 6. Defining Konglish Literature doesn’t agree Teachers don’t agree Koreans don’t agree How do we deal with it if we don’t know what it is? 6
    7. 7. “Growing a Language?” Suppose • Languages are born, evolve, decay, die • Vulgarization is natural (Latin, etc.) Stages might be • Contact/Pidgin • Creole (disputed) • “ish” • “ian” 7
    8. 8. Users’ & Teachers’ Perceptions When does the local variety become valid for various purposes? • Local business & entertainment • Local media • Communication with outsiders while “here” • International communication When are there “native speakers” of a localized variety? 8
    9. 9. Literature From scholarly research to books to blogs, snippets/photos from local media, teachers wordlist handouts… Written in both English and Korean Distinction 1: • Historical (linguistic source) or • Current (Usage) Distinction 2: • Is it Korean or English? 9
    10. 10. The Literature - General 10
    11. 11. Literature Summary L1 Interference / Fossilization Pidgins & Creoles (contact languages) World Englishes English as a Lingua Franca Common-core (simplified) English • Pronunciation • Vocabulary • Structures 11
    12. 12. Local Variety? “Only Singlish…” Singaporean English? Australian English. 12
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14. The Literature - KonglishKim, J. (2010). Konglish as a second language? [New Perspective]. The Korea Herald, April 9.Miller, J. (2003). A Word by Any Other Meaning: Konglish. MED Magazine 5.Park, J-K. (2002). Teaching World Englishes and teacher development. KATE Newsletter 26(2).Doms, D. (2004). English and Korean speakers categorization of spatial actions: A test of the Whorf hypothesis. (Unpublished Masters Dissertation.)Kent, D.B. (1999). Speaking in tongues: Chinglish, Japlish and Konglish. KOTESOL Proceedings PAC2, 1999.Kent, D.B. (2001). Teaching Konglish: Selected resources for students and teachers. KOTESOL Proceedings 2001.Kent, D.B. (n.d.). "KONGLISH": A Strange Linguistic Practice of Koreans ["The Kent Konglish Dictionary"].Everest, T. (2002). Konglish: Wronglish? The English Connection 6(5).Shaffer, D. (2010). English-to-Korean borrowing: Focusing on meaning. The English Connection 14(3).Nam, J.Y. and Southard, B. (1994). Orthographic representation and resyllabification of English loan words in Korea. Language and Speech, 37(3).Kang, Y., Kenstowicz, M., and Ito, C. (2008). Hybrid loans: A study of English loanwords transmitted to Korean via Japanese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 17.Lee, J.S. (2006). Linguistic constructions of modernity: English mixing in Korean television commercials. Language in Society 35(1).Shim, R. J. (1999). Linguistic constructions of modernity: English mixing in Korean television commercials. World Englishes 18(2).Kim, H. (2009). Linguistic motivation in formation and translation of compound nouns. Discourse and Cognition 16(1).Min H-S. (2001). A study on the semantics of signboard language in Korea. Korean Semantics 9.Kim, S-H. (2001). An error analysis of college students writing: Is that really Konglish? Studies in Modern Grammar 25. 14
    15. 15. Literature Classifications Anglicisms (loanwords in Korean) L1 Interference or Fossilization • Pronunciation • Grammar • Vocabulary ►Hybrid terms (binil-bongtu, long-dari) ►Truncated (remocon, aparteu) ►Corruptions, Pseudo-loanwords & Fabrications (fighting, manicure, gagman) 15
    16. 16. “Korean” Language Three accepted avenues for inclusion in “Korean” language • “Pure”(indigenous) Korean ( 순한국어 ) • Sino-Korean ( 한자어 ) • Adopted Loanwords ( 외래어 ) ►Treated as “proper” Korean How defined? 16
    17. 17. “Korean” Language (2) “Pure” Korean developments ►Pre-Hangul (does this matter?) ►Hermit Kingdom era (pre-1870) ►1870-1945 (pre-American influence, words from Korean linguistic roots) ►1945-current (“modern” words from Korean linguistic roots) 17
    18. 18. “Korean” Language (3) Treated as Korean: • Sino-Korean ( 한자어 ) ►Korean words derived from Chinese ►Words created in Korea from Chinese Characters ►Words created in Japanese from Chinese Characters and adopted in Korea ►Japanese words with created “Chinese” Characters and adopted in Korea 18
    19. 19. “Korean” Language (4) Treated as Korean: • 외래어 ( 단어 ) Foreign linguistic input, accepted as new Korean ►Foreign origins unknown to some users ►Many are generally understood by society as “English” (though some words were not) ►Written more frequently in Korean script ►Widely used to replace Korean lexical items or to fill-in Korean lexical gaps, e.g., “bus” 19
    20. 20. Korean Language (5) Not Korean Words recognized as “foreign” ►Not in dictionary? ►Korea has a government-recognized language authority ►May be written in either (or both) Korean and English scripts ►More or less common, depending on age groups, social level, education, etc. 20
    21. 21. English in Korea (1)1880-1940: Missionary English - principally North American English1920-1980: Japanized English - principally British English, Japanese pronunciation and narrowed definitions, includes words from other languages treated as English1945-1990: US Army English - influenced by American Black Vernacular and (US) southern dialects plus military terminology 21
    22. 22. English in Korea (2)1960-current: classic British/American Literature1960-current: contemporary USA music, radio, movies & TV1966-1981: US Peace Corps “Educated American English”1990-current: Expatriate Teachers (US,CAN,UK,AUS)2000-current: Outer Circle Englishes 22
    23. 23. Historical Summary A significant amount of so-called “Konglish” has been adopted as valid Korean language (loanwords) Some amount of “Konglish” is high-use in Korea although not recognized as valid Korean Several recognized varieties of English are circulating in Korea 23
    24. 24. Survey of Teachers 62 respondents, 56 responses used Demographic mix: • Teaching experience • Asian experience • Higher education Diverse responses to • “How would you define “Konglish” • Please provide examples 24
    25. 25. Respondents’ Qualifications 26 Respondents had M.Ed.English, MATESOL/related, or M. AppLing 19 Respondents had a Master’s in another field (2 included above) 3 Doctorate English, 3 in other field (3) 28 Certificates (less than 150 hours) 17 Diplomas (more than 150 hours) 24 Licenses/Diplomas to teach 4 no teaching qualification (2 with Master’s) 25
    26. 26. Teacher Responses (1) Definitions coded into 20 Fields Fields generated from responses and the literature • 5 fields for “use in Korean language” • 15 fields for “use in English language” ►1 field (Decoration) no responses ►10 fields only one response  Many could be merged into “themes” 26
    27. 27. Coding FieldsInto Korean Into EnglishKorean w/English inserted K think is English but...Loanwords into Korean Similar but not alwaysDirect Transcription of corresponding to English to Korean: US/UK English Hangulization (or English Specific to speaking as writing) KoreaCreated English-like Structural borrowing words for Korean from KoreanAdopted Words 외래어 K thinking in English language 27
    28. 28. Coding Fields (2)Into English Into EnglishInterlanguage (fossilized English words w/ error) adjusted meaningsKorean Pronunciation of narrowed meanings English broadened meaningsK In-group formations of Non-standard to Non- English AsiansCode-mix / -share even Aberration (Non- within a created word standard)Adapted Words InappropriateCreated Words Creative 28
    29. 29. Coding Fields (3)Into EnglishIdeological UseK Culture influenced EnglishDecorative 29
    30. 30. Teacher Responses (2) Examples coded into 5 “themes” • Used in Korean • Structure from Korean or code-mixing • Adaptation of Vocabulary use or meaning • Pronunciation issue • Error Definitions considered where examples were unclear 30
    31. 31. Teacher Responses (3)Theme Responses % (56)Used in Korean: 17 30.4% *Structure from Korean or code-mixing: 10 17.9%Adaptation of Vocabulary use or meaning: 34 60.7%Pronunciation issue: 10 17.9%Error: 5 8.9% 31
    32. 32. Teacher Responses (4) 10 / 17 “In Korean” Theme did not indicate any of the “English” issues. • Only 3 of those 10 had a higher degree in TESOL/English/English Education 14 Definitions indicated Konglish “specific to Koreans” 8/ 13 “Aberrant” Definitions hold higher degree in TESOL/English/English Educ 5 Definitions indicated Created words 32
    33. 33. Discussion Learners enter the classroom with these words, structures, & sounds Resource to be developed, as Kent and Shaffer and others argue Distinctions to be noted in terms of use outside intra-Korean usage Correction as needed for International Communication 33
    34. 34. Analysis Differences in source of Konglish impact manner of correction Differentiated terminology perhaps necessary? • Engrish or Engrean for Anglicisms Appreciation of Creativity 34
    35. 35. The Future Bilingual future for Korea? Functional multilingualism? Heightened general proficiency? Only for a few? Test-based? Role for (imported) native-speakers of English teachers? 35
    36. 36. Rob Dickey Keimyung UniversityEmail: rjdickey@content-english.org 36

    ×