Content-based Instruction (CBI) in TESOL

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Content-base Instruction for EFL - one of the Asian EFL Journal Certificate courses - one of the ppt versions I use (depending on the audience)

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  • “ weaker” and “stronger” may have positive/negative connotations… other ideas? Is Swimming or other major fields of study inappropriate?
  • Content-based Instruction (CBI) in TESOL

    1. 1. Considering Content for Language-learning Classrooms Robert J. Dickey Keimyung, Korea past president, Korea TESOL
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ Prescriptive ” vs. “ Descriptive ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Theory-driven ” vs. “ Reality-based ” </li></ul><ul><li>For classrooms “where a commitment has been made to content learning as well as language learning.” </li></ul>
    3. 3. I. General Introduction to CBI <ul><li>Terms of Art </li></ul><ul><li>General Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Dissecting “content” </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1. Terms of Art <ul><ul><li>Language Teaching Investigators are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semanticists </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. www.content-english.org <ul><ul><li>Content-based Instruction (CBI) Content-based Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of Content and Language (content & language, ICL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-enriched / Content-focused / Content-centered / Content-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-sensitive / Content-oriented / Content-infused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme-based / Topic-based / Discipline-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching Dual-focused Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching (Content) Through English / Teaching Through Foreign Languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion / Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Across the Curriculum / Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Second Language Learning / Extended Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning with Languages / Learning through an additional language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Curriculum Bridge Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Curricular Teaching Interdisciplinary Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-handed foreign language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning skills based ELT / ESP Applied Languages </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 2. General Aims <ul><li>“ Killing two birds with one stone” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning by Doing” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Language in Context” </li></ul><ul><li>“ not talking about language, but using </li></ul><ul><li>language to learn language and content” </li></ul>
    7. 7.
    8. 8. <ul><li>Assumption of learner motivation through interest in content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that valid? “can’t please everyone” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing from other approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not “HOW” to teach, but with what (“text”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not dictate teacher & learner roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used with any other approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently matched with task-based learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Brumfit (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to communicate, or Communicating to learn? . . . ** using content to learn language, or using language to learn content </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>CBLT has explicit language learning aim </li></ul><ul><li>CBI may not </li></ul><ul><li>(heritage from “Language(s) Across the Curriculum” and Immersion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAC – every lesson should reinforce language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion / partial immersion – surround learners with the new language and they will learn (also, “Language Showers”) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 3. Dissecting “content” <ul><li>No agreement on definition </li></ul><ul><li>No agreement on focus of cbi </li></ul><ul><li>No agreement on duration of cbi </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>No Agreement whether CBI early </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Distinguish between Cummins’ (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>BICS / CALP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BICS -- B asic I nterpersonal C ommunication S kills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALP -- C ognitive A cademic L anguage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P roficiency </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14.
    15. 15. “ latitude” in the (lack of) definition <ul><li>“ CBI” label an “umbrella” </li></ul><ul><li>justify going outside established course materials </li></ul>
    16. 16. Design Questions <ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science / Biology / “The Environment” / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Pond” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate to learners’ educational development / other courses of study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One class session (or less) – topical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One to three weeks – thematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six weeks or more – sustained content </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17.
    18. 18. No agreement on Focus <ul><li>Harder and softer varieties (content continuum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ traditional fields of academic study” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does literature or linguistics fit in here? Sports? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anything other than explicit language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why not a grammar lesson taught in English? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a range between these extremes </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Using content to teach language, or </li></ul><ul><li>Using language to teach content? </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Substitutions for content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ academic skills” as (aim for?) content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ vocational skills” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-media/technology as “content” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(TV commercials, movies, the internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ language skills” as content (applied languages) - Translation, Journalism, Debate. Public Speaking… “the four skills” (especially Listening & Reading, topical areas) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Stronger / Weaker Versions </li></ul><ul><li>(language continuum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Conceptual Mastery of a certain subject” (McGroarty, 1991) … strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ content as a vehicle” … weak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can chart this (Cartesian) Quadrants </li></ul>
    22. 22.
    23. 23. CBLT <ul><li>Using content to learn English (CBLT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ content-driven” -- content pre-selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>content determines language points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course title may indicate “content” selection? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ language-driven” -- content selected by language instructor (& students?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>language aims determine content selection? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>language aims determine content use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>common source for all content materials? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Issues <ul><li>Authenticity / Genuineness ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with subject matter courses? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everything is content” (including the Grammar-translation textbook drill sentences”) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Teacher qualification in Subject area? </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Based on various factors </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally “grading” the levels of content / language in a series of courses? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t neglect learner anxiety as a multiplier of all other issues </li></ul><ul><li>A “Gradient Continuum” of classes? </li></ul><ul><li>Content courses just one part of overall language learning program </li></ul>Balance of content & English
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Content / Language Mix <ul><li>Cognitive Load </li></ul>
    28. 28.
    29. 29.
    30. 30. <ul><ul><li>A topical matrix </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31.
    32. 32. <ul><li>Mix Options </li></ul><ul><li>(Here “language as content” (e.g., Literature) or “language as skill” (e.g., Reading, Translation) belongs under “Subject Matter.” </li></ul><ul><li>Language science here refers merely to the “science” aspects, e.g., grammar, vocabulary, phonetics…) </li></ul>
    33. 33.
    34. 34. <ul><li>Robert J. Dickey </li></ul><ul><li>Keimyung University </li></ul><ul><li>Daegu </li></ul><ul><li>S. Korea 704-701 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.content-english.org </li></ul>
    35. 35. Part II
    36. 36. Considering Content for Language-learning Classrooms Robert J. Dickey Keimyung, Korea past president, Korea TESOL
    37. 37. II. Planning Content + Language <ul><li>Identifying learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>L1 Use </li></ul><ul><li>Methods (Teaching Tools) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Class </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul>
    38. 38. 1. Identifying learning objectives <ul><li>Orientations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners’ orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration, parents, others </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Course objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other learning objectives, e.g., “academic skills”, test preparation… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVERY lesson should have both/3 types </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>EFL vs. ESL approaches (generally) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N. American “CBI” is bifurcated: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immersion/partial immersion (even French as a foreign language in Canada) has content focus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ mainstreaming” in USA has more language skills focus – use of “sheltered,” “pullout” and “adjunct” programs (or, it did “pre-GW”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European “CLIL” more oriented to “balance” (though not necessarily 50/50) </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Instructor’s knowledge-base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued by both content specialists and language specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent reason for distinction between “content-focus” and “language-focus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reason for topical vs. sustained content decisions </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Contents in the literature Law/Legal Writing (Hong Kong) Sociology (Korea, Indonesia) cartoons (Korea) Political Science, Sociology /Adjunct (Japan) Psychology (Japan) (Korea) Pre-Science (Malaysia) Natural Science (Japan) Topics in the History of Science (Malaysia) Western Civilization (Japan) American History (Japan) Literature (Japan) Linguistics (Japan) Art History /Adjunct (Japan) History of Western Art (Japan) Film (Hong Kong) cartoons (Korea) Business/Accounting case-study (Hong Kong) Tourism/Cultural Assets (Korea) Theological Studies (Japan) (Korea) Conversation (Japan) General English (reading) (Japan) HS Literature (Malaysia) HS Math (Malaysia) HS Science (Malaysia)
    43. 43. 2. L1 Use <ul><li>No assumption of L2-only </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’ familiarity with content may affect L1 use </li></ul><ul><li>Content focus (test aim?) along with time factors may dictate L1 use </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>CBI does not dictate teaching techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>works well with Task-based, as well as with the more teacher-centered systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably all “methods” can and have used a content-based syllabus at one time or another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>does not dictate medium of instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distance learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL/video/audio/other </li></ul></ul>3. Teaching Methods
    45. 45. 4. Sample Class <ul><li>Language Objective – subjunctive ‘wish’ </li></ul><ul><li>Content Objective - Indian English Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Class general aims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ appreciation of literature” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation for writing assignment - social commentary through poetry </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. A Sample Class .2 <ul><li>The “text”: Tagore’s Crescent Moon – “Vocation” </li></ul><ul><li>Language objectives: “I wish I were…” and descriptive writing </li></ul><ul><li>Content objective: roles in society and creative thinking </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Teaching English through content, Teaching content through English ??? </li></ul><ul><li>A Framework for constructing a content-enriched (content-enhanced) lesson plan </li></ul><ul><li>from the paper at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.content-english.org/data/dickey-ei.pdf </li></ul>5. Framework
    48. 48. A Lesson from N. Luzon
    49. 49. <ul><li>Identify the specific course and group of students to teach. </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Identify the content to be utilized. </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Identify why the students should care. </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Identify the specific “teaching point(s).” </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>Develop/locate an exemplar text. </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>Design student responses to the text. </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>Students check their own work, and that of their peers. </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates. </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Groupwork. </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>Testing (Assessment). </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>Identify the specific course and group of students to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the content to be utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify why the students should care. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the specific “teaching point(s).” </li></ul><ul><li>Develop/locate an exemplar text. </li></ul><ul><li>Design student responses to the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Students check their own work, and that of their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Groupwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing (Assessment). </li></ul>
    60. 60.
    61. 61. <ul><li>Robert J. Dickey </li></ul><ul><li>Keimyung University </li></ul><ul><li>Daegu </li></ul><ul><li>S. Korea 704-701 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.content-english.org </li></ul>

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