Content-based Instruction (CBI) in TESOL

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Content-base Instruction for EFL - one of the Asian EFL Journal Certificate courses - one of the ppt versions I use (depending on the audience)

Content-base Instruction for EFL - one of the Asian EFL Journal Certificate courses - one of the ppt versions I use (depending on the audience)

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  • “ weaker” and “stronger” may have positive/negative connotations… other ideas? Is Swimming or other major fields of study inappropriate?

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  • 1. Considering Content for Language-learning Classrooms Robert J. Dickey Keimyung, Korea past president, Korea TESOL
  • 2.
    • “ Prescriptive ” vs. “ Descriptive ”
    • “ Theory-driven ” vs. “ Reality-based ”
    • For classrooms “where a commitment has been made to content learning as well as language learning.”
  • 3. I. General Introduction to CBI
    • Terms of Art
    • General Aims
    • Dissecting “content”
  • 4. 1. Terms of Art
      • Language Teaching Investigators are
      • NOT
      • Semanticists
  • 5. www.content-english.org
      • Content-based Instruction (CBI) Content-based Language Instruction
      • Integration of Content and Language (content & language, ICL)
      • Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
      • Content-enriched / Content-focused / Content-centered / Content-driven
      • Content-sensitive / Content-oriented / Content-infused
      • Theme-based / Topic-based / Discipline-based
      • Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching Dual-focused Language Instruction
      • Teaching (Content) Through English / Teaching Through Foreign Languages
      • Bilingual Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD)
      • Immersion / Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP)
      • English Across the Curriculum / Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC)
      • Enhanced Second Language Learning / Extended Language Instruction
      • Learning with Languages / Learning through an additional language
      • Integrated Curriculum Bridge Program
      • Cross-Curricular Teaching Interdisciplinary Teaching
      • Four-handed foreign language instruction
      • Learning skills based ELT / ESP Applied Languages
  • 6. 2. General Aims
    • “ Killing two birds with one stone”
    • “ Learning by Doing”
    • “ Language in Context”
    • “ not talking about language, but using
    • language to learn language and content”
  • 7.
  • 8.
    • Assumption of learner motivation through interest in content
      • Is that valid? “can’t please everyone”
    • Distinguishing from other approaches
      • Not “HOW” to teach, but with what (“text”)
      • Does not dictate teacher & learner roles
      • Can be used with any other approach
        • Frequently matched with task-based learning
  • 9.
    • Brumfit (1979)
    • Learning to communicate, or Communicating to learn? . . . ** using content to learn language, or using language to learn content
  • 10.
    • CBLT has explicit language learning aim
    • CBI may not
    • (heritage from “Language(s) Across the Curriculum” and Immersion)
      • LAC – every lesson should reinforce language learning
      • Immersion / partial immersion – surround learners with the new language and they will learn (also, “Language Showers”)
  • 11. 3. Dissecting “content”
    • No agreement on definition
    • No agreement on focus of cbi
    • No agreement on duration of cbi
  • 12.
    • No Agreement whether CBI early
  • 13.
    • Distinguish between Cummins’ (1979)
    • BICS / CALP
      • BICS -- B asic I nterpersonal C ommunication S kills
      • CALP -- C ognitive A cademic L anguage
      • P roficiency
  • 14.
  • 15. “ latitude” in the (lack of) definition
    • “ CBI” label an “umbrella”
    • justify going outside established course materials
  • 16. Design Questions
    • Cohesion
      • Science / Biology / “The Environment” /
      • “ The Pond”
      • Appropriate to learners’ educational development / other courses of study
    • Duration
      • One class session (or less) – topical
      • One to three weeks – thematic
      • Six weeks or more – sustained content
  • 17.
  • 18. No agreement on Focus
    • Harder and softer varieties (content continuum)
      • “ traditional fields of academic study”
        • How does literature or linguistics fit in here? Sports?
      • anything other than explicit language instruction
        • Why not a grammar lesson taught in English?
      • a range between these extremes
  • 19.
    • Using content to teach language, or
    • Using language to teach content?
  • 20.
    • Substitutions for content
      • “ academic skills” as (aim for?) content
      • “ vocational skills”
      • multi-media/technology as “content”
      • (TV commercials, movies, the internet)
      • “ language skills” as content (applied languages) - Translation, Journalism, Debate. Public Speaking… “the four skills” (especially Listening & Reading, topical areas)
  • 21.
    • Stronger / Weaker Versions
    • (language continuum)
      • “ Conceptual Mastery of a certain subject” (McGroarty, 1991) … strong
      • “ content as a vehicle” … weak
    • We can chart this (Cartesian) Quadrants
  • 22.
  • 23. CBLT
    • Using content to learn English (CBLT)
      • “ content-driven” -- content pre-selected
        • content determines language points
        • Course title may indicate “content” selection?
      • “ language-driven” -- content selected by language instructor (& students?)
        • language aims determine content selection?
        • language aims determine content use?
        • common source for all content materials?
  • 24. Issues
    • Authenticity / Genuineness ??
    • Conflict with subject matter courses?
    • “ Everything is content” (including the Grammar-translation textbook drill sentences”)
    • Language Teacher qualification in Subject area?
  • 25.
    • Based on various factors
    • Intentionally “grading” the levels of content / language in a series of courses?
    • Don’t neglect learner anxiety as a multiplier of all other issues
    • A “Gradient Continuum” of classes?
    • Content courses just one part of overall language learning program
    Balance of content & English
  • 26.
  • 27. Content / Language Mix
    • Cognitive Load
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
      • A topical matrix
  • 31.
  • 32.
    • Mix Options
    • (Here “language as content” (e.g., Literature) or “language as skill” (e.g., Reading, Translation) belongs under “Subject Matter.”
    • Language science here refers merely to the “science” aspects, e.g., grammar, vocabulary, phonetics…)
  • 33.
  • 34.
    • Robert J. Dickey
    • Keimyung University
    • Daegu
    • S. Korea 704-701
    • [email_address]
    • www.content-english.org
  • 35. Part II
  • 36. Considering Content for Language-learning Classrooms Robert J. Dickey Keimyung, Korea past president, Korea TESOL
  • 37. II. Planning Content + Language
    • Identifying learning objectives
    • L1 Use
    • Methods (Teaching Tools)
    • Sample Class
    • Framework
  • 38. 1. Identifying learning objectives
    • Orientations
      • Teacher’s orientation
      • Learners’ orientation
      • Administration, parents, others
  • 39.
    • Course objectives
      • Content learning objectives
      • Language learning objectives
      • Other learning objectives, e.g., “academic skills”, test preparation…
      • EVERY lesson should have both/3 types
  • 40.
    • EFL vs. ESL approaches (generally)
      • N. American “CBI” is bifurcated:
        • immersion/partial immersion (even French as a foreign language in Canada) has content focus
        • “ mainstreaming” in USA has more language skills focus – use of “sheltered,” “pullout” and “adjunct” programs (or, it did “pre-GW”)
      • European “CLIL” more oriented to “balance” (though not necessarily 50/50)
  • 41.
    • Instructor’s knowledge-base
      • Argued by both content specialists and language specialists
      • Frequent reason for distinction between “content-focus” and “language-focus”
      • A reason for topical vs. sustained content decisions
  • 42. Contents in the literature Law/Legal Writing (Hong Kong) Sociology (Korea, Indonesia) cartoons (Korea) Political Science, Sociology /Adjunct (Japan) Psychology (Japan) (Korea) Pre-Science (Malaysia) Natural Science (Japan) Topics in the History of Science (Malaysia) Western Civilization (Japan) American History (Japan) Literature (Japan) Linguistics (Japan) Art History /Adjunct (Japan) History of Western Art (Japan) Film (Hong Kong) cartoons (Korea) Business/Accounting case-study (Hong Kong) Tourism/Cultural Assets (Korea) Theological Studies (Japan) (Korea) Conversation (Japan) General English (reading) (Japan) HS Literature (Malaysia) HS Math (Malaysia) HS Science (Malaysia)
  • 43. 2. L1 Use
    • No assumption of L2-only
    • Learners’ familiarity with content may affect L1 use
    • Content focus (test aim?) along with time factors may dictate L1 use
  • 44.
    • CBI does not dictate teaching techniques
      • works well with Task-based, as well as with the more teacher-centered systems
      • probably all “methods” can and have used a content-based syllabus at one time or another
    • does not dictate medium of instruction:
      • distance learning
      • CALL/video/audio/other
    3. Teaching Methods
  • 45. 4. Sample Class
    • Language Objective – subjunctive ‘wish’
    • Content Objective - Indian English Literature
    • Class general aims
      • “ appreciation of literature”
      • preparation for writing assignment - social commentary through poetry
  • 46. A Sample Class .2
    • The “text”: Tagore’s Crescent Moon – “Vocation”
    • Language objectives: “I wish I were…” and descriptive writing
    • Content objective: roles in society and creative thinking
  • 47.
    • Teaching English through content, Teaching content through English ???
    • A Framework for constructing a content-enriched (content-enhanced) lesson plan
    • from the paper at
    • http://www.content-english.org/data/dickey-ei.pdf
    5. Framework
  • 48. A Lesson from N. Luzon
  • 49.
    • Identify the specific course and group of students to teach.
  • 50.
    • Identify the content to be utilized.
  • 51.
    • Identify why the students should care.
  • 52.
    • Identify the specific “teaching point(s).”
  • 53.
    • Develop/locate an exemplar text.
  • 54.
    • Design student responses to the text.
  • 55.
    • Students check their own work, and that of their peers.
  • 56.
    • Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates.
  • 57.
    • Groupwork.
  • 58.
    • Testing (Assessment).
  • 59.
    • Identify the specific course and group of students to teach.
    • Identify the content to be utilized.
    • Identify why the students should care.
    • Identify the specific “teaching point(s).”
    • Develop/locate an exemplar text.
    • Design student responses to the text.
    • Students check their own work, and that of their peers.
    • Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates.
    • Groupwork.
    • Testing (Assessment).
  • 60.
  • 61.
    • Robert J. Dickey
    • Keimyung University
    • Daegu
    • S. Korea 704-701
    • [email_address]
    • www.content-english.org