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This one magnesium lab
 

This one magnesium lab

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    This one magnesium lab This one magnesium lab Presentation Transcript

    • Determination of the Empirical Formula • Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide • Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate • Determination of the empirical formula of an oxide of tin,
    • Agenda • Must go over safety • 3 labs-2 trials each • Give back exam • Next exam in 3 weeks!!!
    • Test taking • An exam in a subject is not a measure of weather you are a good person or not- • It is how you prepared
    • Mg Lab
    • Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide • Determination of the Empirical Formula of • Magnesium Oxide
    • Caution!!!! • Eye protection is essential. • Open flame will be present. • Do not breathe the fumes generated. • Once any burner is lit, assume ALL equipment is hot. • Do not touch the crucible, lid, triangle, ring, or stand during or after they have been heated.
    • Donot burn Mg • If this happens . . . Look away
    • You will be asked to put glasses on by me! . .
    • 2 main laws This lab illustrates (i) the law of conservation of mass and (ii) the law of constant composition. • (i) The total mass of the products of a reaction must equal the total mass of the reactants • (ii) Any portion of a compound will have the same ratio of masses as the elements in the compound
    • GOAL AND OVERVIEW • The quantitative stoichiometric relationships governing mass and amount will be studied using the combustion reaction of magnesium metal. • Magnesium is reacted with oxygen from the air in a crucible, and the masses before and after the oxidation are measured.
    • 78 % Nitrogen -20% oxygen • Magnesium reacts vigorously when heated in the presence of air. The Mg-O2 reaction is energetic enough to allow some Mg to react with gaseous N2. • Although there is a higher percentage of N2 gas in the atmosphere than O2, O2 is more reactive and the magnesium oxide forms in a greater amount
    • GOAL AND OVERVIEW The resulting masses are used to calculate the experimental empirical formula of magnesium oxide, which is then compared to the theoretical empirical formula. A crucible and Bunsen burner will be used to heat magnesium metal to burning.
    • Objectives of the data analysis: 1. Determine the expected formula for the ionic oxide expected when Mg reacts with O2 2. Find the theoretical and actual yields of MgxOy 3. Evaluate results using stoichiometry and error analysis
    • Math mathematical operations For water 2 H= 2 X 1.008 amu= 2.016 amu 1 O = 15.9994 amu= + 15.9994 amu 18.02 amu MUST DO THIS FIRST!!!! (18.02 amu )(6.022 x 10-23)(1.660× 10-24grams) = = 18.02 grams = 1 mole H2O
    • What you will Not do!!!!
    • Can answer . . . • If 10.00 grams of magnesium is burned in the presence of oxygen- • How much magnesium Oxide is produced?? 2Mg(s) + O2(g) ——> 2MgO(s)
    • how many moles • Determine how many moles are given in the problem. • Calculate the molar mass of the substance. • Multiply step one by step two. • Make sure you have a periodic table and a calculator handy.
    • Need to get to molecular weight of Mg``` 1 Mg= 1 X Atomic Mass: ===== 24.305 amu= This is to say Mg exist as 24.30 grams/Mol *can be used as an conversion factor
    • Firstly . . We need 24.30 grams = 1 mole Mg 1 mole Mg = 24.3 grams 1 DOZEN = 12 THINGS!!! (18.02 grams) = (1 mole H2O ) = 1 (1 mole H2O) (18.02 grams)
    • 40.3 grams = 1 mole MgO 1 Mg= 1 X Atomic Mass: ===== 24.305 amu= 1 O = 15.9994 amu= + 15.9994 amu 40.3 amu MUST DO THIS FIRST!!!! (18.02 amu )(6.022 x 10-23)(1.660× 10-24grams) = = 40.3 grams = 1 mole MgO
    • Grams A = Moles A = Moles B = Grams B • Grams to moles for Mg-(periodic table) And • Moles of Mg to moles of MgO (the reaction) • But –in total . . .need . . . . . . • Grams A = Moles A = Moles B = Grams B (Mg) (MgO)
    • . 2Mg(s) + O2(g) ——> 2MgO(s) This says: 2 mol Mg = 2 mol of MgO 2 mol MgO = 2 mol of Mg (2 mole Mg) = (2 mole MgO ) = 1 (2 mole MgO) (2 mol Mg)
    • Grams A = Moles A = Moles B = Grams B 10 g of Mg (1 mole Mg) (2 mole MgO ) = 0.823 mol of MgO (24.3 g of Mg) (2 mol Mg) 0.823 mol of MgO (40.3 gram MgO) = 32.92 gram MgO (1 mol of MgO)
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 1) Fire the empty crucible and lid for about 3 minutes to remove water, oils, or other contaminants and to make sure there are no cracks. The bottom of the crucible should glow red-hot for about 20 seconds. Remove the flame and cool the crucible with lid.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 2) Record the mass of crucible and lid once it has cooled. Do not handle it with your hands.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 3) Obtain about 0.3 g (35 cm) magnesium ribbon (do not handle the ribbon with your hands). Fold the ribbon to fit into the bottom of the crucible. • 4) Record the mass of the magnesium ribbon, lid and crucible.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 5) Place the crucible securely on the clay triangle. Set the lid slightly off-center on the crucible to allow air to enter but to prevent the magnesium oxide from escaping.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 6) Place the Bunsen burner under the crucible, light it, and brush the bottom of the crucible with the flame for about 1 minute; then, place the burner under the crucible and heat strongly.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 7) Heat until all the magnesium turns into gray-white powder (probably around 10 minutes). • 8) Stop heating and allow the crucible, lid and contents to cool.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 9) Add about 1 ml (~10 drops) of distilled water directly to the solid powder. Carefully wait for some of the gas that is generated toward your nose, but be very careful . Record any odor. • 10) Heat the crucible and contents, with the lid slightly ajar, gently for about 2 minutes and then strongly for about another 3 to 5 minutes.
    • EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE • 11) Allow the crucible to cool and then record the mass of the crucible, lid and contents.
    • Please report ----DATA ANALYSIS 1. The mass of Mg metal used 2. theoretical yield of MgO from reaction: Mg(s) + ½ O2(g)  MgO(s) 3. mass of oxide product formed 4. mass of O incorporated (by difference; see eq. 4)
    • Please report ----DATA ANALYSIS 5. empirical formula of the oxide 6. percent by mass of Mg and O in the oxide 7. calculate the percent yield
    • 2 more experiments • Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate • Determination of the empirical formula of an oxide of tin,