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: Introduction of Food Web and Mammalian Evolution of the Whale

: Introduction of Food Web and Mammalian Evolution of the Whale

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  • 1. Field Based Science: Topic/Key Content:Living EnvironmentAuthor: Dr. Robert D. CraigTitle: Introduction of Food Web and Mammalian Evolution of the WhaleTopic/Key Content: Living EnvironmentTime Frame: 1 trip, two 90 minute class periodsAudience: Living Environment, grade 10-12Aim (Instructional Objectives): To examine what an aquatic food web describes and how it is constructed To investigate how mammals evolved to become whalesSWBAT (Students will be able to): Explain the evolution of the Whale (From land to sea) Demonstrate construction of a food webProcedure: Student will view http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.html Andhttp://www.acsonline.org/factpack/bluewhl.htm Students will review what is to be a Palentologist is a pre-assessment. They willthem begin to From the Aquarium, a classroom assessment will take place. Two charts will becompleted, as well as a Food Web. Students will also be asked to describe the tools and technology used by expertsof palentologists in a brief essay format.To construct a food web and a Phylogenetic tree
  • 2. Will produce a short essay on evolutionThe blue whale is the largest mammal, possibly the largest animal, to ever inhabitthe earth. Its body is long, somewhat tapered, and streamlined, with the headmaking up less than one-fourth of its total body length. Its rostrum (upper part ofthe head) is very broad and flat and almost U-shaped, with a single ridge thatextends just forward of the blowholes to the tip of the snout. Its blowholes areMotivation (Hook): You have recently been employed by the new York Aquarium as a PalentologistScientist to upkeep the Museums permanent Mummy collection. Before the interview,you have been asked to review the procedure for finding,. The Museum has recently acquired “Demitrius” and Red Shroud Mummy, and theyknow little about Him. How do you prepare for your interview?National Science Objectives meet by this Lesson:Project 2061By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that • The basic idea of biological evolution is that the earths present-day species developed from earlier, distinctly different species. • Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another. • Natural selection provides the following mechanism for evolution: Some variation in heritable characteristics exists within every species, some of these characteristics give individuals an advantage over others in surviving and reproducing, and the advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than others to survive and reproduce. The proportion of individuals that have advantageous characteristics will increase. • Heritable characteristics can be observed at molecular and whole-organism levels-in structure, chemistry, or behavior. These characteristics strongly influence what capabilities an organism will have and how it will react, and therefore influence how likely it is to survive and reproduce. • New heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells. Changes in other cells of an organism cannot be passed on to the next generation.
  • 3. • Natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments. Chance alone can result in the persistence of some heritable characteristics having no survival or reproductive advantage or disadvantage for the organism. When an environment changes, the survival value of some inherited characteristics may change. • The theory of natural selection provides a scientific explanation for the history of life on earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.National Science Objectives meet by this Lesson:Science as InquiryCONTENT STANDARD A: As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all studentsshould develop • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry • Understandings about scientific inquiryStandard #4 – Science • Students will understand and applyLevel: IntermediateKey Ideas:1. Living Environment: Dawin’s theory of evolution2. Living Environment: Chemical techniques can be used to determine characteristics ofartifacts.Standard #6 - Interconnectedness Science • Students will understandLevel: IntermediateKey Ideas:1. Living Environment: Relation to Roman Civilization and how cultures intertwine2. Living Environment: Relation to DNA analysis, and biological determinations in Forensic ScienceStandard #3 –Language for Critical AnalysisStudents will listen, speak and write for critical analysis and evaluationAs readers, students will analyze experiences, idea, information and issuesz presented byothers using a variety of established criteria. • Students Key Ideas:1. Carbon Dating: Students use logarithmic and anti logarithmic calculation for carbondating
  • 4. Pre AssessmentWhat does a Palentologist do?How does a Palentologist work relate to Darwin’s Theories?What is Whale?How do whales breathe?How do Whales swim?What are some Mammals that swim?How is the evolution of snakes related to whales?
  • 5. How do think whales evolve?Brief Introduction (by Instructor)Lets go through your pre-assessment>What does a Palentologist Do?They examine fossils bones and past work of archeologist to determine the evolution andexistence of past organismsHow does a Palentologist work relate to Darwin’s Theories?What is a Whale?The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. The last definition is the one followed here. Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins (i.e. members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidea) nor porpoises.
  • 6. How do whales breathe?Whales have lungs and must come to the surface to breathe. They have nostrils calledblowholes. These are located on the top of the head to access air easily. When SouthernRight Whales exhale, condensation from the 2 blowholes forms a v-shaped blow. Thenoise may be heard over a kilometre away.How do whales breathe?How do Whales swim?What are some Mammals that swim?How is the evolution of snakes related to whales?How do think whales evolve?
  • 7. Work Description:Modern paleontology sets ancient life in its contexts by studying how long-term physicalchanges of global geography paleogeography and climate paleoclimate have affected theevolution of life, how ecosystems have responded to these changes and have adapted theplanetary environment in turn and how these mutual responses have affected todayspatterns of biodiversity. Hence, paleontology overlaps with geology (the study of rocksand rock formations) as well as with botany, biology, zoology and ecology – fieldsconcerned with life forms and how they interact.Instructor: Let’s go through the questions you answered in your pre-assessment to thislesson. Techniques and tools used by the Palentologist To Begin:. For Further investigation:The evolution of whales has been a mystery. How did a large, big-brained mammal -- air-breathing, warm-blooded, giving birth to live young -- come to live entirely in water, when mammals evolved on land? The discovery of many fossils with transitional features documents the transformation of whales from land animals to ocean dwellers. Another indication of whales evolutionary heritage can be seen in the way they moveWhales evolved from warm-blooded, air breathing mammalian ancestors that lived onland. The transition from land to sea, probably in search of food, presented difficulties forwhich adaptations developed over many generations. Smooth skin and loss of protrudingear parts and hind limbs streamlined whales for swimming. The nostrils moved to the topof the head to facilitate breathing and an underlaying, insulating layer of blubber replacedhair for warmth. The body, supported by water, was able to reach its enormous size.
  • 8. Skull similar to that of a Wolf the shape is only found in whales today – sahara desert once had water basolasaurs had kne caps bones but totoally live in water says that basolosaurus once lived on land- whales have remenants of these parts Sanomix whales are related to 15 million year old wolf like mammalAssessment The assessment of the New York Aquariummabout their Whale will includeconstruction of a Food webChart 1- Techniques used by the palentologyEvidence found What it reveals?CetaceansAmbulocetusRodhocetusBasilosaurusDorudontidaeModern WhalesFood WebChart - Techniques used by the palentologyEvidence found What it reveals?CetaceansAmbulocetusRodhocetusBasilosaurusDorudontidae
  • 9. Modern WhalesWhat happens further up the food web? Each level of a food web or a food chain iscalled a trophic or feeding level, and the organisms in the food web are classified bywhether they are primary producers or consumers. The consumers in food webs are calledA simple marine food chain might look like the one to the left. The salmon is the topconsumer; the herring are the secondary consumers; and the copepods are the primaryconsumers. The phytoplankton are the producers.A more complex marine food web might look like the one to the right. Despite the visualcomplexity of the diagram, many species and many links between species are not shown.Organisms may have more than one trophic role because they eat a variety of food types.
  • 10. from the Macromedia Website). Organism Trophic Type Prey/Food Predators/Grazersalgae primary producer --- krill, fish, blue whalesbirds carnivorous consumer krill, fish seals, killer whalesblue whales planktivorous consumer algae, krill killer whales birds, seals, killerfish omnivorous consumer algae, krill whales blue whales, fish, birds,killer whales top consumer --- sealskrill herbivorous consumer algae fish, blue whales, birdsseals carnivorous consumer fish, birds killer whales
  • 11. Interdisciplary Links: view http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.htmlhttp://www.acsonline.org/factpack/bluewhl.htm • ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creodonts • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creodonts • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creodonts • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creodontshttp://www.environment.sa.gov.au/coasts/whales/biol.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.htmlhttp://www.environment.sa.gov.au/coasts/whales/biol.html • Living Environment www.phschool.com (“Biology” Prentice Hall, 2003)
  • 12. Vocabulary list: (to be completed by students)1. Palentologist2. Phylogenetic tree3. Darwins Theory of Evolution
  • 13. 4. Evolution by Natural Selection 5. Homologous body structures 6. Taxonomy 7. Vestigial Organs 8. Descent with Modification 9. Survival of the Fitest 10. Food Web 11. Producers 12. Consumers 13. Autotrophs 14. Heterotrophys1. Palentologist: is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examinationof plant and animal fossilsretrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleontology2. Phylogenetic tree: A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree, is a treeshowing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that
  • 14. are believed to have a common ancestor. In a phylogenetic tree, each node withdescendants represents the most recent common ancestor of the descendants, with edgelengths sometimes corresponding to time estimates.Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_tree3. Darwins Theory of EvolutionAfter becoming eminent among scientists for his field work and inquiries into geology,he proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved overtime from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection.[1] Thefact that evolution occur4. Evolution by Natural Selection:Natural selection is the process by which favorable traits that are heritable become morecommon in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, andunfavorable traits that are heritable become less common. Natural selection acts on thephenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals withfavorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with lessfavorable phenotypes. If these phenotypes have a genetic basis, then the genotypeassociated with the favorable phenotype will increase in frequency in the next generation.Over time, this process can result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particularecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_Selection5. Homologous body structures: In anthropology and archaeology, homology is a type ofanalogy whereby two human beliefs, practices or artefacts are separated by time but sharesimilarities due to genetic or historical connections.Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homology_%28anthropology%296. Taxonomy: Taxonomies, or taxonomic schemes, are composed of taxonomic unitsknown as taxa (singular taxon), or kinds of things that are arranged frequently in ahierarchical structure, typically related by subtype-supertype relationships, also calledparent-child relationships. In such a subtype-supertype relationship the subtype kind ofthing has by definition the same constraints as the supertype kind of thing plus one ormore additional constraints.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy7. Vestigial OrgansIn evolutionary biology and comparative anatomy, vestigiality is a term which describeshomologous characters of organisms which have lost all or most of their original function
  • 15. in a species through evolution. These may take various forms such as anatomicalstructures, behaviors and biochemical pathways. TheseAlthough structures usually called "vestigial" are largely or entirely functionless, avestigial structure may retain lesser functions or develop new ones8. Descent with ModificationA group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor.In modern biology, it is generally accepted that all living organisms on Earth aredescended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene poolhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_descent9. Survival of the Fitest109. Survival of the FitestA food chain is the flow of energy from one organism to the next. Organisms in a foodchain are grouped into trophic levels — from the Greek word for nourishment, trophikos— based on how many links they are removed from the primary producers. Trophiclevels may consist of either a single species or a group of species that are presumed toshare both predators and prey. They usually start with a primary producer and end with acarnivoretrophic 15. Producers Primary production is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide, principally through the process of photosynthesis, with chemosynthesis being much less important. All life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. 16. Consumers 17. autotropys
  • 16. 18. HeterotrophysGlossary 1. Absorption Spectroscopy: refers to a range of techniques employing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. In absorption spectroscopy, the intensity of a beam of light of measured before and after interaction with a sample is compared. ( Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_spectroscopy) use. Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_classification 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopy) 13. retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_diffraction)