Exam and chapter 16

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In biochemistry, lipids are molecular organic compounds, composed largely of carbon and hydrogen, that are essential for cell growth. Lipids are non-soluble in water and combine with carbohydrates and proteins to form the majority of all plant and animal cells. They are more commonly synonymous with the word "fats" when speaking in terms of personal health. Although all fats are lipids, not all lipids are fats.

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Exam and chapter 16

  1. 1. Dissacharides by Karen Timberlake-voice of “Dr Rob Craig” by “DrRobiAwesome“ • Question 15.42 • To 15.55 • Amylose and amylopectin • Maltose-diase • Lactose-lactase • Sucrose –sucrase • Polysaccharides-blood types • Chapter 16
  2. 2. Chapter 23 2 Periodic Acid Cleavage • Periodic acid cleaves vicinal diols to give two carbonyl compounds. • Separation and identification of the products determine the size of the ring. =>
  3. 3. Topics missed • Epimerization • Enediol Rearrangement
  4. 4. Chapter 23 4 Epimerization In base, H on C2 may be removed to form enolate ion. Reprotonation may change the stereochemistry of C2. =>
  5. 5. Chapter 23 6 Enediol Rearrangement In base, the position of the C=O can shift. Chemists use acidic or neutral solutions of sugars to preserve their identity. =>
  6. 6. Chapter 23 8 Oxidation by Bromine Bromine water oxidizes aldehyde, but not ketone or alcohol; forms aldonic acid. =>
  7. 7. Begin here after chapter 15 h.w
  8. 8. Chapter 23 10 Disaccharides • Three naturally occurring glycosidic linkages: • 1-4’ link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on C4 of second sugar. • 1-6’ link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on C6 of second sugar. • 1-1’ link: The anomeric carbons of the two sugars are bonded through an oxygen. =>
  9. 9. Chapter 23 12 Cellobiose • Two glucose units linked 1-4’. • Disaccharide of cellulose. • A mutarotating, reducing sugar. =>
  10. 10. Chapter 23 14 Maltose Two glucose units linked 1-4’. =>
  11. 11. Chapter 23 16 Lactose • Galactose + glucose linked 1-4’. • “Milk sugar.” =>
  12. 12. Chapter 23 18 Sucrose • Glucose + fructose, linked 1-1’ • Nonreducing sugar =>
  13. 13. Chapter 23 21 Cellulose • Polymer of D-glucose, found in plants. • Mammals lack the -glycosidase enzyme. =>
  14. 14. Chapter 23 23 Amylose • Soluble starch, polymer of D-glucose. • Starch-iodide complex, deep blue. =>
  15. 15. Chapter 23 25 Amylopectin Branched, insoluble fraction of starch. =>
  16. 16. Chapter 23 27 Glycogen • Glucose polymer, similar to amylopectin, but even more highly branched. • Energy storage in muscle tissue and liver. • The many branched ends provide a quick means of putting glucose into the blood. =>
  17. 17. Chapter 23 29 Ribonucleosides A -D-ribofuranoside bonded to a heterocyclic base at the anomeric carbon. =>
  18. 18. Chapter 23 31 Nucleic Acids • Polymer of ribofuranoside rings linked by phosphate ester groups. • Each ribose is bonded to a base. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) =>
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