Dissacharides
by Karen Timberlake-voice of “Dr Rob Craig”
by “DrRobiAwesome“
• Question 15.42
• To 15.55
• Amylose and amy...
Chapter 23 2
Periodic Acid Cleavage
• Periodic acid cleaves vicinal diols to give
two carbonyl compounds.
• Separation and...
Topics missed
• Epimerization
• Enediol Rearrangement
Chapter 23 4
Epimerization
In base, H on C2 may be removed to form
enolate ion. Reprotonation may change
the stereochemist...
Chapter 23 6
Enediol Rearrangement
In base, the position of the C=O can shift.
Chemists use acidic or neutral solutions
of...
Chapter 23 8
Oxidation by Bromine
Bromine water oxidizes aldehyde, but not
ketone or alcohol; forms aldonic acid.
=>
Begin here after chapter 15 h.w
Chapter 23 10
Disaccharides
• Three naturally occurring glycosidic linkages:
• 1-4’ link: The anomeric carbon is bonded
to...
Chapter 23 12
Cellobiose
• Two glucose units linked 1-4’.
• Disaccharide of cellulose.
• A mutarotating, reducing sugar.
=>
Chapter 23 14
Maltose
Two glucose units linked 1-4’.
=>
Chapter 23 16
Lactose
• Galactose + glucose linked 1-4’.
• “Milk sugar.”
=>
Chapter 23 18
Sucrose
• Glucose + fructose, linked 1-1’
• Nonreducing sugar
=>
Chapter 23 21
Cellulose
• Polymer of D-glucose, found in plants.
• Mammals lack the -glycosidase enzyme.
=>
Chapter 23 23
Amylose
• Soluble starch, polymer of D-glucose.
• Starch-iodide complex, deep blue.
=>
Chapter 23 25
Amylopectin
Branched, insoluble fraction of starch.
=>
Chapter 23 27
Glycogen
• Glucose polymer, similar to amylopectin, but
even more highly branched.
• Energy storage in muscl...
Chapter 23 29
Ribonucleosides
A -D-ribofuranoside bonded to a heterocyclic
base at the anomeric carbon.
=>
Chapter 23 31
Nucleic Acids
• Polymer of ribofuranoside
rings linked by phosphate
ester groups.
• Each ribose is bonded to...
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
Exam and chapter 16
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Exam and chapter 16

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In biochemistry, lipids are molecular organic compounds, composed largely of carbon and hydrogen, that are essential for cell growth. Lipids are non-soluble in water and combine with carbohydrates and proteins to form the majority of all plant and animal cells. They are more commonly synonymous with the word "fats" when speaking in terms of personal health. Although all fats are lipids, not all lipids are fats.

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Exam and chapter 16

  1. 1. Dissacharides by Karen Timberlake-voice of “Dr Rob Craig” by “DrRobiAwesome“ • Question 15.42 • To 15.55 • Amylose and amylopectin • Maltose-diase • Lactose-lactase • Sucrose –sucrase • Polysaccharides-blood types • Chapter 16
  2. 2. Chapter 23 2 Periodic Acid Cleavage • Periodic acid cleaves vicinal diols to give two carbonyl compounds. • Separation and identification of the products determine the size of the ring. =>
  3. 3. Topics missed • Epimerization • Enediol Rearrangement
  4. 4. Chapter 23 4 Epimerization In base, H on C2 may be removed to form enolate ion. Reprotonation may change the stereochemistry of C2. =>
  5. 5. Chapter 23 6 Enediol Rearrangement In base, the position of the C=O can shift. Chemists use acidic or neutral solutions of sugars to preserve their identity. =>
  6. 6. Chapter 23 8 Oxidation by Bromine Bromine water oxidizes aldehyde, but not ketone or alcohol; forms aldonic acid. =>
  7. 7. Begin here after chapter 15 h.w
  8. 8. Chapter 23 10 Disaccharides • Three naturally occurring glycosidic linkages: • 1-4’ link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on C4 of second sugar. • 1-6’ link: The anomeric carbon is bonded to oxygen on C6 of second sugar. • 1-1’ link: The anomeric carbons of the two sugars are bonded through an oxygen. =>
  9. 9. Chapter 23 12 Cellobiose • Two glucose units linked 1-4’. • Disaccharide of cellulose. • A mutarotating, reducing sugar. =>
  10. 10. Chapter 23 14 Maltose Two glucose units linked 1-4’. =>
  11. 11. Chapter 23 16 Lactose • Galactose + glucose linked 1-4’. • “Milk sugar.” =>
  12. 12. Chapter 23 18 Sucrose • Glucose + fructose, linked 1-1’ • Nonreducing sugar =>
  13. 13. Chapter 23 21 Cellulose • Polymer of D-glucose, found in plants. • Mammals lack the -glycosidase enzyme. =>
  14. 14. Chapter 23 23 Amylose • Soluble starch, polymer of D-glucose. • Starch-iodide complex, deep blue. =>
  15. 15. Chapter 23 25 Amylopectin Branched, insoluble fraction of starch. =>
  16. 16. Chapter 23 27 Glycogen • Glucose polymer, similar to amylopectin, but even more highly branched. • Energy storage in muscle tissue and liver. • The many branched ends provide a quick means of putting glucose into the blood. =>
  17. 17. Chapter 23 29 Ribonucleosides A -D-ribofuranoside bonded to a heterocyclic base at the anomeric carbon. =>
  18. 18. Chapter 23 31 Nucleic Acids • Polymer of ribofuranoside rings linked by phosphate ester groups. • Each ribose is bonded to a base. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) =>
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