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Comparative Performance of
Residential Walls
J. Gregg Borchelt, PE
Brick Industry Association
borchelt@bia.org
Two Properties Important to
Communities and Home Owners
 Fire Resistance
 Missile Impact
Wall Systems
 Typical residential construction
 Brick veneer
 Fiber-cement siding
 Vinyl siding
Brick Veneer Wall Section
2x4 Top Plate
½ inch Gypsum Wallboard
3½ inch Fiberglass Insulation
Weather Resistant Barrier
½ ...
Siding Wall Section
2x4 Top Plate
½ inch Gypsum Wallboard
3½ inch Fiberglass Insulation
Weather Resistant Barrier
½ inch O...
Fire Resistance
Objectives
 Compare performance of typical
residential walls with respect to fire
resistance rating
 Ver...
Fire Resistance
 Brick itself has a fire resistance based
on amount of “equivalent thickness”
 Volume of material divide...
Fire Resistance
 Solid Brick: Equivalent thickness of
2.7 inches for 1 hour
 Hollow Brick: Equivalent thickness of
2.3 i...
Brick Background
 All brick comply with C 652, Hollow
Brick
 Void area or face shell thickness
 Brick 1 and 2 are from ...
Brick Tested
Brick 1 Brick 2 Brick 3
3½ inch wide 2¾ inch wide 1¾ inch wide
66% solid 69% solid 83% solid
1 hour rating le...
Other Sidings Tested
 Typical products, purchased at
building supply firm
 Fiber-cement
 8 inch high by 5/16 inch thick...
Fire Test
 ASTM E 119, Standard Test Method for Fire
Tests of Building Construction and Material
 Specimen at least 100 ...
Fire Test
 Failure Criteria
 Collapse of wall
 No passage of flame or hot gases to
ignite cotton waste of cool side
 T...
Furnace
Hose
Wall Specimen, Brick 1
Brick 1
 Test stopped after 1 hour
 No damage to brickwork
 Embrittlement of building paper
 4952.26 scf of natural ga...
Brick 1, Hose Stream Test
Brick 2
 Test stopped after 1 hour
 Minimal damage to wall
 Crack at top
 Embrittlement of building paper
 Natural ga...
Brick 2, Hose Stream Test
Brick 3
 Test stopped at 1 hour
 Cracking in wall
 Building paper burned; OSB charred
 5061.41 scf of natural gas burn...
Brick 3, After Fire Exposure
Fiber-cement
 Furnace turned off
at 22 minutes; relit
at 37 minutes
 Load-induced
failure and flaming
to unexposed face
...
Fiber-cement
 70% of fiber-cement siding detached
 Building paper and OSB consumed
 Damage to wood framing
 No hose st...
Fiber-cement Siding, After Fire
Exposure
Exposed
Face
Vinyl Siding
 Furnace shut off
after 2 minutes;
never relit
 Load-induced
failure and flaming
to unexposed face
at 18 mi...
Vinyl Siding
 Vinyl siding, fiberglass insulation and
OSB consumed
 Severe damage to wood framing
 No hose stream test
...
Vinyl Siding, After Fire Exposure
Key Results
 All brick veneer walls achieved 1 hour
rating
 Fiber-cement and vinyl siding walls
did not make 1 hour rati...
Conclusions
 Brick veneer provides improved fire
resistance over other sidings
 Building codes require a 1 hour fire
rat...
Benefits to Communities
 Brick veneer provides improved fire
resistance over other sidings
 Protection of residents from...
Impact Resistance of Brick Veneer
Structures to Hurricane Debris
 Similar wall construction
 Brick veneer (4 inch nomina...
Objective
 Determine the resistance of typically
constructed residential brick veneer walls
to hurricane-generated missil...
Standards
 Florida Building Code:
Assemblies and materials up to 30 ft (9.1 m )
in height must resist a missile impact of...
Standards
 ASTM E 1996: Standard Specification
for Performance of Exterior Windows,
Curtain Walls, Doors and Impact
Prote...
Standards
 ASTM E 1996:
 Failure Criterion:
 No penetration through inside surface of
gypsum wallboard
Missile Impact Specimen
4 ft square panel
Wood studs
13 mm OSB
sheathing
Weather-resistant
barrier
Gypsum
Wallboard
Batt i...
Air Cannon and Specimen
Sighting Cannon on Wall
Brick Veneer, Specimen 1
9 lb 2 inch x 4
inch timber at
34 mph
Exterior Damage: Small vertical crack
Interior Damage: None...
Brick Veneer, Specimen 2
9 lb 2 inch
x 4 inch
timber at 55
mph
Brick Veneer, Specimen 2
Exterior Damage: 9.5 mm penetration, vertical crack 1 mm
at bottom and hairline at top, hairline ...
Brick Veneer, Specimen 3
 Anchor
frequency
reduced to
that required
for non-high
wind locations
1 anchor for each 4 sq. f...
Brick Veneer Specimen 3
9 lb 2
inch x 4
inch
timber at
79 mph
Brick Veneer, Specimen 3
Broken Missile
Point of Impact
9 lb 2 inch x 4
inch timber at 79
mph
Fiber-cement Siding
9 lb 2 inch x
4 inch timber
at 34 mph
Vinyl Siding
9 lb 2 inch x 4
inch timber at 34
mph
Results
Material
Perforation
Speed, mph
1/2 in. OSB Sheathing 22
Fiber-cement Siding 25
Vinyl Siding 25
Brick Veneer >79
Conclusions
Perforation speed of a 4 in. nominal brick
veneer wall is in excess of 79 mph for a 9 lb
hurricane design mis...
Benefits to Communities
 Brick veneer provides:
 Greater than minimum performance
found in building code requirements
 ...
For More Information:
The Brick Industry Association, Southeast
Region
8420 University Executive Park
Suite 800
Charlotte,...
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Transcript of "Comparative performance of residential walls"

  1. 1. Comparative Performance of Residential Walls J. Gregg Borchelt, PE Brick Industry Association borchelt@bia.org
  2. 2. Two Properties Important to Communities and Home Owners  Fire Resistance  Missile Impact
  3. 3. Wall Systems  Typical residential construction  Brick veneer  Fiber-cement siding  Vinyl siding
  4. 4. Brick Veneer Wall Section 2x4 Top Plate ½ inch Gypsum Wallboard 3½ inch Fiberglass Insulation Weather Resistant Barrier ½ inch OSB Sheathing Veneer Anchor 1 inch Air Space Brick Veneer 2x4 Wood Studs at 16 inches o.c. 2x4 Bottom Plate
  5. 5. Siding Wall Section 2x4 Top Plate ½ inch Gypsum Wallboard 3½ inch Fiberglass Insulation Weather Resistant Barrier ½ inch OSB Sheathing Fiber-cement or Vinyl Siding 2x4 Wood Studs at 16 inches o.c. 2x4 Bottom Plate
  6. 6. Fire Resistance Objectives  Compare performance of typical residential walls with respect to fire resistance rating  Verify 1 hour rating of assembly with new “hollow” brick
  7. 7. Fire Resistance  Brick itself has a fire resistance based on amount of “equivalent thickness”  Volume of material divided by face area  Thickness that remains when brick is squeezed to close any openings, without reducing face area  Determined from ASTM C 67 tests; net area of bed surface  Used by building codes to establish fire resistance of brick as a component
  8. 8. Fire Resistance  Solid Brick: Equivalent thickness of 2.7 inches for 1 hour  Hollow Brick: Equivalent thickness of 2.3 inches for 1 hour  Wanted to evaluate performance of wall system built with brick that did not have a 1 hour rating itself
  9. 9. Brick Background  All brick comply with C 652, Hollow Brick  Void area or face shell thickness  Brick 1 and 2 are from commercial production  Brick 3 was made to verify code limit  Minimum thickness in building codes  2 inches in Residential Code  2 5/8 inches in Building Code
  10. 10. Brick Tested Brick 1 Brick 2 Brick 3 3½ inch wide 2¾ inch wide 1¾ inch wide 66% solid 69% solid 83% solid 1 hour rating less than 1 hour not permitted by code
  11. 11. Other Sidings Tested  Typical products, purchased at building supply firm  Fiber-cement  8 inch high by 5/16 inch thick lap siding  Vinyl  Premium grade  Thicker material  Insulation included  Nailing schedule complied with Residential Building Code
  12. 12. Fire Test  ASTM E 119, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Material  Specimen at least 100 square feet  9 feet high by 12 feet wide  Vertical load applied to wood frame, equal to typical 2 story home  Required temperature rise in furnace  Fire exposed to exterior of wall assembly  Brick veneer  Siding
  13. 13. Fire Test  Failure Criteria  Collapse of wall  No passage of flame or hot gases to ignite cotton waste of cool side  Temperature rise of 250 ºF on cold side  Water penetrates wall under hose stream
  14. 14. Furnace
  15. 15. Hose
  16. 16. Wall Specimen, Brick 1
  17. 17. Brick 1  Test stopped after 1 hour  No damage to brickwork  Embrittlement of building paper  4952.26 scf of natural gas burned
  18. 18. Brick 1, Hose Stream Test
  19. 19. Brick 2  Test stopped after 1 hour  Minimal damage to wall  Crack at top  Embrittlement of building paper  Natural gas consumption not measured
  20. 20. Brick 2, Hose Stream Test
  21. 21. Brick 3  Test stopped at 1 hour  Cracking in wall  Building paper burned; OSB charred  5061.41 scf of natural gas burned
  22. 22. Brick 3, After Fire Exposure
  23. 23. Fiber-cement  Furnace turned off at 22 minutes; relit at 37 minutes  Load-induced failure and flaming to unexposed face at less than 1 hour Flames breached cold face
  24. 24. Fiber-cement  70% of fiber-cement siding detached  Building paper and OSB consumed  Damage to wood framing  No hose stream test  2572.41 scf of natural gas burned
  25. 25. Fiber-cement Siding, After Fire Exposure Exposed Face
  26. 26. Vinyl Siding  Furnace shut off after 2 minutes; never relit  Load-induced failure and flaming to unexposed face at 18 minutes Loading jacks
  27. 27. Vinyl Siding  Vinyl siding, fiberglass insulation and OSB consumed  Severe damage to wood framing  No hose stream test  858.45 scf of natural gas burned
  28. 28. Vinyl Siding, After Fire Exposure
  29. 29. Key Results  All brick veneer walls achieved 1 hour rating  Fiber-cement and vinyl siding walls did not make 1 hour rating  Vinyl siding and its insulation contributed to intensity of fire  Difference in amount of gas burned in the tests
  30. 30. Conclusions  Brick veneer provides improved fire resistance over other sidings  Building codes require a 1 hour fire rating when buildings are closer than 5 feet  Homes at risk from wild fires, grass fires, etc.
  31. 31. Benefits to Communities  Brick veneer provides improved fire resistance over other sidings  Protection of residents from exterior fires  Longer response time for life safety  Less damage to homes  Reduced injury for fire fighters
  32. 32. Impact Resistance of Brick Veneer Structures to Hurricane Debris  Similar wall construction  Brick veneer (4 inch nominal solid brick)  Fiber-cement siding  Vinyl siding (no insulation in siding) Tenth Canadian Masonry Symposium
  33. 33. Objective  Determine the resistance of typically constructed residential brick veneer walls to hurricane-generated missiles
  34. 34. Standards  Florida Building Code: Assemblies and materials up to 30 ft (9.1 m ) in height must resist a missile impact of a 9 lb (40 N) 2 inch x 4 inch (50 mm x 100 mm) timber travelling at 34 mph(54.7 km/hr)
  35. 35. Standards  ASTM E 1996: Standard Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Windborne Debris in Hurricanes  Standard Protection: 40 N (9 lb) 50 mm x 100 mm (2 inch x 4 inch) timber travelling at 54.7 km/hr (34 mph)  Enhanced Protection: 40 N (9 lb) 50 mm x 100 mm (2 inch x 4 inch) timber travelling at 87.8 km/hr (55 mph)
  36. 36. Standards  ASTM E 1996:  Failure Criterion:  No penetration through inside surface of gypsum wallboard
  37. 37. Missile Impact Specimen 4 ft square panel Wood studs 13 mm OSB sheathing Weather-resistant barrier Gypsum Wallboard Batt insulation between studs 4 inch face brick with Type N mortar 22 ga corrugated anchors, 1 for each 2 sq. ft. 1 inch air space
  38. 38. Air Cannon and Specimen Sighting Cannon on Wall
  39. 39. Brick Veneer, Specimen 1 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 34 mph Exterior Damage: Small vertical crack Interior Damage: None Point of Impact
  40. 40. Brick Veneer, Specimen 2 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 55 mph
  41. 41. Brick Veneer, Specimen 2 Exterior Damage: 9.5 mm penetration, vertical crack 1 mm at bottom and hairline at top, hairline horizontal crack Interior Damage: None Point of Impact 75-100 mm mortar band mistakenly put around edges 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 55 mph
  42. 42. Brick Veneer, Specimen 3  Anchor frequency reduced to that required for non-high wind locations 1 anchor for each 4 sq. ft.
  43. 43. Brick Veneer Specimen 3 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 79 mph
  44. 44. Brick Veneer, Specimen 3 Broken Missile Point of Impact 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 79 mph
  45. 45. Fiber-cement Siding 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 34 mph
  46. 46. Vinyl Siding 9 lb 2 inch x 4 inch timber at 34 mph
  47. 47. Results Material Perforation Speed, mph 1/2 in. OSB Sheathing 22 Fiber-cement Siding 25 Vinyl Siding 25 Brick Veneer >79
  48. 48. Conclusions Perforation speed of a 4 in. nominal brick veneer wall is in excess of 79 mph for a 9 lb hurricane design missile Brick veneer meets requirements for high velocity hurricane zones in the Florida building code Brick veneer meets requirements for enhanced protection of ASTM E 1996
  49. 49. Benefits to Communities  Brick veneer provides:  Greater than minimum performance found in building code requirements  Safety for home and business occupants  Fire resistance  Missile impact  Reduced property damage from fire and high wind events  More durable buildings
  50. 50. For More Information: The Brick Industry Association, Southeast Region 8420 University Executive Park Suite 800 Charlotte, NC 28262 Phone: 1-800-622-7425 Fax: 704-510-0042 Website: www.gobricksoutheast.com
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