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HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
HRM - Employee Relations Slides
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HRM - Employee Relations Slides


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  • 1. Employers’ Associations
    • Represent the views and interests of companies within one sector or industry.
    • Financed by subscriptions from members.
    • E.g. Newspaper Society, Engineering Employers Association, Meat Marketing Board
  • 2. Employers’ Associations
    • Provide a range of services
    • Try to influence government e.g. taxes, employment law
    • Produce both product and market research for members
    • Public relations voice for industry (e.g. BSE crisis)
    • Can provide negotiating team for pay, working conditions etc.
    • Individual employees have very little power.
    • A group of workers who join together to further their own interests:
    • Obtaining satisfactory pay
    • Ensuring satisfactory working conditions (no of hours, breaks)
    • Negotiating bonuses
    • Obtaining job security
    • Unison
    • Representing local govt employees, health, utilities, 1.3m members
    • The Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU)
    • Represent people working in a range of different occupations and industries in the public and private sector
  • 5.
        • Represents all trade unions.
        • Provides information and advice to its members
        • Membership starting to increase again
        • Involved in research into employment rights, health and safety, working conditions
        • CBI (Confederation of British Industry) represents employers
    • One union represents all workers in an organisation
    • This system saves time and money and there is less likely to be conflict.
  • 7. Question
    • Describe the role of Trade Unions in supporting employees and employers when disputes occur in the workplace.
    • (3 marks)
    • (2006 Higher Bus Man)
  • 8. Solution
    • Trade Unions
    • Represents employees with regard to wage negotiations, conditions of service, dismissal, redundancy and other work-related matters.
    • Undertake collective bargaining on behalf of employees.
    • Have greater negotiation power than individuals.
    • Offer employers advice in work-related matters.
    • Involvement with Industrial Tribunal.
  • 9. Professional Associations
    • Represent ‘professional’ occupations
    • Doctors – British Medical Association
    • Police – Police Federation
    • Footballers – Professional Footballers Association
    • Represent members in bargaining for pay and improved terms and conditions
  • 10. Employee relations processes
    • NEGOTIATION – discussing, agreeing and implementing changes
    • CONSULTATION – by law employees have to be consulted, however may only involve “telling”
    • ARBITRATION – a third party is called upon to make a decision, eg ACAS, where the employer and employees are in dispute
  • 11. Employee relations policies
    • Contract of Employment Terms and conditions
    • Procedures/Policies for dealing with staff complaints,the disciplining of staff, redundancy procedures and redundancy payment
    • Involvement of staff in decision making
    • Trade union recognition
    • Collective bargaining
    • This is the process of a group representing the employees negotiating changes in working conditions with the employer(s).
    • Typically agreements will be for several years at a time.
  • 13. Question
    • Employee Representative Groups, (eg Trade Unions) use the power of collective bargaining for the benefit of their members. Describe 3 advantages of collective bargaining.
    • (2007 Bus Man Higher)
    • (3 marks)
  • 14. Solution
    • Representing a large number improves the negotiating position and chance of success for members.
    • Agreements reached can be on a national level.
    • Reduces the number of individual meetings required to resolve an issue.
    • Without collective bargaining the employees could be taken for granted and deliberately left out of discussions, consultations or told very little by the organisation.
    • Negotiators are experienced.
    • Work to rule
    • Overtime ban
    • Sit in
    • Boycott
    • Strike
  • 16. Question
    • Employees may undertake industrial action in an attempt to force employers to meet their demands. Describe types of industrial action that employees could take.
    • (4 marks)
    • (2008 Higher Bus Man)
  • 17. Solution
    • Strike - employees refuse to do their work and do not enter the workplace.
    • Sit in - employees are in their place of work but do not do any work.
    • Work to rule - employees only undertake the exact jobs written in their job description.
    • Go slow - employees deliberately work at a much slower rate.
    • Overtime ban - employees do not do any overtime.
    • Picketing - employees protest at entrance to the place of work.
  • 18. Question
    • Explain possible effects that prolonged industrial action could have on an organisation.
    • (5 marks)
    • (2008 Higher Bus Man)
  • 19. Solution
    • Loss in production will lead to possible shortages in stock
    • Loss in sales revenue may lead to liquidation
    • Long term loss of customers who now shop at competitors
    • Image of organization is tarnished- future applicants may not be attracted to the company, so the business might lose out on the best employees.
    • Damage to long term reputation of organization
    • Share price can fall- no shares are being sold so the business are receiving no capital
    • May result in redundancies- employees are still getting paid, therefore the company is losing money as no output is being produced. So as to save money they would sack the staff to save money
    • Improves working practices
    • Facilitates change
    • A European concept that has been introduced in UK.
    • Allows access to company information and gives employee representatives joint decision making powers.
    • Companies (150+ employees) can be fined if they do not have a Special Negotiating Board.
  • 21.
    • If an employee is unhappy with their conditions or the way in which they are treated.
    • Three stages in the process:
    • Negotiations with union and HRM dept
    • ACAS approached for a ruling
    • Employment Tribunal (has legal powers)
    Grievance procedures
    • Steps an organisation will take to deal with an employee who is breaking the conditions of their contract. Could be:
    • Verbal warning - logged
    • Written warning
    • Second written warning
    • Contract terminated (P45 issued)
    • However could jump straight to dismissal depending in nature of offence