Afghan drug control

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Afghan drug control

  1. 1. TRANSITIONAL ISLAMIC STATE OF AFGHANISTAN MINISTRY FOR RURAL REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL – COUNTER NARCOTICS DIRECTORATE DRUG CONTROL IN THE AFGHAN CONTEXT A cross cutting position paper1 to present the Government’s strategy for addressing the National Drug Control Strategy through the National Development Budget. Background 1. Two decades of war has left Afghanistan with some of the highest rates of rural poverty, illiteracy and infant and maternal mortality in the world. Most Afghans live at low subsistence levels and the average life expectancy is only 44 years. Due to the prolonged conflict in Afghanistan, social, physical and financial infrastructure has been devastated, generating a fertile environment for an explosion in illicit opium cultivation and drug production. For most of the 1990’s Afghanistan was the main source of the illicit opium and heroin produced, trafficked and consumed in the world. The absence of non-farm income opportunities has forced Afghans, a large proportion of whom are landless, back into agriculture to secure their survival. Under conditions of high uncertainty and risk, the cultivation of opium poppy has provided relatively secure cash income. 2. The UN Security Council resolution 1378 of 14 November 2001 notes that both the transitional administration and the new Government “should respect Afghanistan’s international obligations, including cooperating fully in international efforts to combat terrorism and illicit drug trafficking within and from Afghanistan”. On 17 January 2002 the Interim Authority issued a decree banning cultivation, production, drug abuse and trafficking of narcotic drugs. Later on 3 April 2002, a second decree outlined an eradication programme for the 2002 harvest. Again, on 4 September 2002 a decree was issued for the enforcement of the ban on the cultivation, production, drug abuse and trafficking. 3. Afghanistan has never before developed any coherent policy or national strategy to address counter narcotics objectives in a comprehensive way. With an effective central 1 Prepared jointly by Counter Narcotics Directorate (CND) of the National Security Council (NSC) and Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) on behalf of the Afghanistan Transitional Authority (ATA)
  2. 2. 2 Government and National Drug Control Policy, an unprecedented opportunity for change now exists. Rationale 4. In October 2002 the Counter Narcotics Directorate (CND) was established in Afghanistan to coordinate national policies and programmes for drug control. This is achieved through regular liaison with key Ministries and government bodies, including provincial administrations, as well as with relevant international agencies. The CND reports to the President and the Cabinet, jointly coordinates programmes for drug control with neighbouring countries and approves proposed projects with a specific focus on drug control. 5. As a result of extensive dialogue between Ministries and consultation with international partners the Government has drawn up a ten year National Drug Control Strategy (NDCS) for Afghanistan. The overall goal of the strategy is to eliminate the production, consumption and trafficking of elicit drugs, into, within and from Afghanistan. There are five key elements of this strategy: i. The provision of alternative livelihoods for Afghan poppy farmers; ii. The extension of drug law enforcement through out Afghanistan; iii. The implementation of drug control legislation; iv. The establishment of effective institutions; v. The introduction of prevention and treatment programmes for addicts. 6. In line with these key elements the following specific objectives have been identified: i. Long term elimination of opium cultivation, with the aim of seventy percent reduction by the year 1386, and complete elimination by the year 1391. The Government will make every effort to achieve complete elimination of illicit drug cultivation before the set target in areas where alternative livelihoods have been made sufficiently available. ii. Countering the trafficking, processing, and distribution of narcotic and psychotropic substances into, within and out of the country through vigorous interdiction and prosecution measures. Similarly strict measures should be taken against the trafficking, use and distribution of precursor chemicals into and within the country. iii. Increasing efforts to forfeit drug generated assets and checking money laundering. iv. Reducing the problematic use of legal and illegal substances through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and social integration. v. Enhancing regional and international cooperation to facilitate the elimination of illegal drug production and trafficking, and the reduction of drug abuse. 7. The development of National Public Investment Programmes and the establishment of Consultative Groups to enhance policy dialogue and donor alignment with Government priorities provides a real opportunity to ensure a systematic approach to these specific drug control objectives with the CND playing a central oversight role.
  3. 3. 3 Summary of Strategy for Integrating the Drug Control Strategy in the National Development Budget 8. Building on the National Development Framework (NDF), the National Development Budget (NDB) develops and focuses attention on twelve core public investment programmes. Each of the three pillars of the NDF contribute to drug control objectives: Pillar 1 - Humanitarian and Human and Social Capital: recognizes that the establishment of a strong public social policy is central to poverty elimination. Social policy involves both the creation of an enabling environment and direct public action targeted at those at risk. Pillar 2 - Physical Reconstruction and Natural Resources: ensures the release of assets that are currently under-used to benefit individuals and their communities and enhance their productivity. Pillar 3- Private Sector Development: seeks to promote an enabling environment for investment recognizing the centrality of the private sector to pro-poor growth. The purpose of the NDB is therefore to 'ring fence' development expenditure, so that priority activities can be highlighted against resource constraints. Each programme has been developed in consultation with lead and non-lead Ministries in that particular sector and with donors, UN agencies and NGOs. Successful implementation of the NDCS through the NDB will depend on the ability and the capacity of governmental organizations and the public administration at provincial and local level to assess social and economic situations, to lead on the design of regional development plans and the implementation of projects. In accordance with drug control objectives this implies strengthening the role of governmental organizations to do the following: i. Increase capacity to enforce action against drug traffickers; ii. Assess the economic situation of opium poppy farmers in order to provide development assistance to those in need; iii. Establish institutions for treatment and rehabilitation for drug abusers, particularly those using opiates and psychotropic drugs, and intravenous drug users at risk of transmitting HIV/AIDS. 9. The development of initial implementation plans by the Government in the context of the NDCS has provided guidance to the design of 12 National Public Investment Programmes. The Government appreciates that it is only as a result of the synergies between key sectoral investments that a sustained progress towards drug control can be achieved. The NDCS will adopt a balanced approach addressing both the supply and demand for drugs. Therefore drug control objectives must be mainstreamed across the different national Public Investment Programmes. 10. In the area of drug demand reduction, the strategy will focus on the establishment of prevention programmes for those at risk of drug abuse as well as the development of treatment and rehabilitation facilities and services for those already abusing / misusing drugs. Key Public Investment Programmes include Health and Nutrition, Culture and Media and Education, Urban Management and Returnees and IDPs.
  4. 4. 4 11. In carrying out law enforcement interventions, it is crucial to balance the political risk of internal instability caused by counter narcotics measures, with the requirement to project central authority nationally in the cause of eliminating narcotic drug cultivation and production. Key Public Investment Programmes include National Security, Justice and Public Administration and Economic Management. 12. It is recognized that drug control objectives can only be achieved in a sustainable manner when sustainable alternative livelihood opportunities are accessible those involved in the production and trading of narcotics. Low-income areas will be given priority in the allocation of resources, taking into account communities’ commitment to coherent drug supply reduction strategies. The reasons for different socio-economic groups’ involvement in poppy cultivation are complex, but the sustainable elimination of poppy will only be achieved if strategies build on an appropriate understanding and analysis of the situation. That there can be no quick fixes when it comes to promotion of alternative livelihoods in poppy growing areas is clear. Rather elimination of poppy can only take place in the context of a long-term commitment to poverty reduction. Alternative livelihood opportunities will develop from investment in farm and non-farm enterprises, and through the promotion of forward and backward production and consumption linkages (processing, trade, storage, inputs, tools, household goods and services, transport and recreation etc.). Key Public Investment Programmes include Livelihoods and Social Protection, Natural Resource Management, Education and Vocational Training, Trade and Investment, Transport and Urban Management. Articulation of Key Benchmarks 13. The core benchmarks to guide the implementation of Public Investment Programmes include: i. Establishment of an enabling political and legal framework for law enforcement and promotion of alternative livelihoods both at the center and the regions: ii. Enhanced capacity for counter-narcotics law enforcement; iii. Enhanced drug demand reduction capacity; iv. Sustainable development promotes the livelihoods people currently dependent on opium production for securing income; v. Investment programmes contribute to eliminate the illicit opium cultivation takes into consideration the economic and social causes of illicit cultivation; vi. Implementation commitments with the provincial administration based on a better understanding and analysis of the drug supply and development context, including regional implementation constrains; vii. Evidence of better background analysis and prioritization of capacity-building needs to support compliance with national drug control objectives. viii. Information on the progress of those investments programmes contributing direct to drug control made readily available 14. A range of strategies will be required to promote growth in the rural economy and infrastructural investment has a key role to play. For example, government benchmarks to establish an enabling environment for poverty reduction and the promotion of alternative livelihoods over the next 12 months include the following: i. The generation of over 60 million workdays for poor and vulnerable households;
  5. 5. 5 ii. The establishment of a National Livelihoods Surveillance System across several Ministries to enhance analysis of the assets, strategies and risks faced by different groups of people iii. The National Solidarity Programme - expected to provide over US$70 million of block grants to 20,000 village communities; iv. Integrated area development plans to ensure identification of long term and locally appropriate opportunities for public investments; and, v. 50,000 micro-loans disbursed to women and men and establishment of pilot enterprise development centers in a number of provinces. Strategy for Follow Up During Implementation 15. The establishment of a Counter Narcotics Working Group, chaired by CND, will provide the central mechanism for ensuring that the Public Investment Programmes reinforce the NDCS commitments through appropriate guidance and monitoring. Via the Consultative Groups established for Livelihoods and Social Protection, Natural Resource Management, Health, Educational and Vocational Training etc, the working group will assist in the identification of policies, programmes and resources to ensure that the promotion of drug control, demand reduction and the promotion of alternative livelihoods is part of a broad based poverty focused economic development and social policy strategy. This work will be underpinned by other key cross cutting issues such as security and rule of law, human rights, the environment, gender, humanitarian assistance and monitoring and evaluation. For example, it is crucial that human rights are respected in counter narcotics legislation and the application of law enforcement. To be effective drug control programmes must address gender issues given the extent to which different groups of women and men are actively involved in the drugs chain, as a source of labour, as users and as potential multipliers of key messages for attitudinal change. Appropriate mechanisms to ensure linkage between the Counter Narcotics Working Group and other cross cutting advisory groups is also required.

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