Motor Behavior Final ProjectPresentation Transcript
The Slap Shotand the impact it has on the game of Ice Hockey Robert W. Goldkranz Dr. Hurley: EXS 297 Spring 2011
Overview Brief History Visual and Vestibular System Fitts’ Law Learning the Motor Skill Feedback Mental Practice
Evolved from European Field Hockey(Wikipedia) First Indoor Game was played in Montreal on March 3rd, 1875(Wikipedia) NHA was formed in 1910 to structure professional hockey(Wikipedia) Bernard “Boom Boom” Geoffrion invented the Slap Shot when he was ten years old.(Shea, Kevin, 2002) The evolution of Hockey stick performance started in the 1960’s(Wikipedia) History of Hockey and the Slap Shot
Visual and Vestibular System The interconnectedness of the visual and vestibular systems is demonstrated by the vestibular ocular reflex, which functions to stabilize the eyes when the head moves.(Rose, Debra J.; Christina, Robert W., 2006) Balance Hand-Eye Coordination Reaction Time
A significant quality of balance is needed to skate on ice.
Balance is the key to controlling all other aspects of the skill of ice hockey.
A slap shot is taken in stride with skating, balance is needed to slow down and keep shoulders square to execute the slap shot.
Associating balance activities in proper exercise programs by concentrating on strength and flexibility.(Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Durpree, Sarah, 2006)
Creating good balance will benefit for student athletes later down the road.(Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Durpree, Sarah, 2006)
Hand-eye coordination is required to hit the puck with the stick accurately.
The more coordinated a player is with the impact of the stick to puck the more accurate the shot will be.
How the puck is struck also contributes to the elevation of the puck.
Lack of sleep leads to impaired hand-eye coordination.(Scarpello, Gary, 2010)
Significant to shooting a slap shot, it is best to concentrate on hand-eye coordination exercise’s.
One-timer slap shots
Avoiding hits and blocked shots
Getting out of the way of a 70mile an hour slap shot.
Strategy of slap shot against weakness areas of goalies reaction time.
Lack of sleep leads to impaired reaction time.(Scarpello, Gary, 2010)
Fitts’ Law Speed of a slap shot is compromised for a more accurate shot on the target. (Magee, Patrick M., 2009) Accuracy of a slap shot is compromised when increasing speed of the shot.(Magee, Patrick M., 2009) Studies show student athletes depending on age will choose speed over accuracy.(Sternberg, Robert J.,1979) New trends contributed through technology of composite hockey sticks invented by David E. Calapp and Michael Bennett(CIPO,2011) can resolve this problem.(Laliberte, David J., 2009) MT= a + b log2(2A/W + c)(Gokturk, Mehmet, 2008) Famous researcher, Paul Fitts theorized a mathematical expression of an indirect relationship between speed and accuracy.(Gokturk, Mehmet, 2008)
Learning the Motor Skill Whole Learning More efficient for skills with high degree of interaction and integration among components.(Fischman, M.; Christina, R.; Vercruyssen, M., 1981) A higher level of prior knowledge of the skill would influence this process.(Lim, J.; Reiser, R.; Olina, Z., 2009) Principal of Specificity of Training(Fischman, M.; Christina, R.; Vercruyssen, M., 1981) Part-to-Whole Learning Used for more complex skills(Markland, R.; Martinek, T., 1988) Alternative for learners having trouble through whole transfer learning. Ice Hockey Slap Shot Video
Feedback Coach’s Success Audio Feedback Immediate Terminal Feedback Corrective Feedback Whole Movement Feedback Part Movement Feedback (Markland, R.; Martinek, T., 1988) Information arising as a consequence of performance, which is important to skill learning by providing athletes with performance analysis of what they did right and wrong and can even serve as a motivator.(Christina, R.; Rose, D., 2009)
Mental Practice A method for acquiring, rehearsing, or enhancing a physical skill in the absence of actually performing the movement.(Whetstone, T, 1995)
Studies show effectiveness of target sport tasks such as a slap shot.(Whetstone, T., 1995)
Allows athletes to practice with lack of budget for facilities.(Whetstone, T., 1995)
Increases self-awareness relevant to the game.(Whetstone, T., 1995)
Exercise's the cognitive process of the skill.
Summary Balance Hand-Eye Coordination Reaction Time Speed and Accuracy Feedback provided by proper learning process Successful Future: As a unique and effective coach, concentration on key components of the Ice Hockey Slap Shot will bring an advantage to the High School Hockey Club.
References Canadian Intellectual Property Office, NA, ND, Canadian Patent Database, Retrieved March 11th, 2011 from http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/2088468/summary.html Christina, Robert W.; Rose, Debra J., (2009) Motor Behavior: Custom Ed. For SUNY Cortland. Taken from: A Multilevel Approach to the Study of Motor Control and Learning, (2nd ed.) Pearson Custom Publishing. Christina, Robert W.; Fischman, Mark G.; Vercruyssen, Max J., (1981), Retention and Transfer of Motor Skills: A Review for the Practitioner, Quest, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p181-94, 14pp. Claxton, David B.; Dupree, Sarah; Troy, Maridy, (March, 2006), A Question of Balance, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPHERD), Vol. 77 Issue 3, p32-37, 6pp. Gokturk, Mehmet, (2008), Fitts' Law, Interaction-Design.org, Retrieved April 10th, 2011 from http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html Laliberte, David J., (2009), Biomechanics of Ice Hockey Slap Shots: Which stick is the best?, The Sports Journal, Vol. 12 Issue 1. Lim, Jung; Olina, Zane; Reiser, Robert A., (January, 2009), The Effects of Part-Task and Whole-Task Instructional Approaches on Acquisition and Transfer of a Complex Cognitive Skill, Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 57 Issue 1, p61-77, 17pp. Magee, Patrick M., (2009), Whole-body predictors of wrist shot accuracy in ice hockey: A kinematic analysis by way of motion capture, McGill University, p30.
Continued References Markland, Regina; Martinek, Thomas J., (1988), Descriptive Analysis of Coach Augmented Feedback Given to High School Varsity Female Volleyball Players, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p289-301, 13pp. Scarpello, Gary, (February, 2010), Lack of Sleep Could be Trouble for CTE Students, Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, Vol. 85 Issue 2, p8-9, 2pp. Schneider, Angie, (April, 2009), How to Perform a Slap Shot Video: Presented by Live Strong, Youtube.com, Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTBLBFdbUK4 Shea, Kevin, (2003), One on one with Bernard Geoffrion, Legends of Hockey, Retrieved March 11th, 2011 from http://www.legendsofhockey.net/html/spot_oneononep197202.htm Sternberg, Robert J., (April, 1979), The Development of Human Intelligence. Technical Report No. 4. Cognitive Development Series, National Science Foundation, p32, 1pp. Whetstone, Thomas S., (1995), Enhancing Psychomotor Skill Development Through the Use of Mental Practice, Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, Vol. 32 Issue 4. Wikipedia, NA, ND, History of Ice Hockey, Retrieved March 11th, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_hockey Wikipedia, NA, ND, History of the Ice Hockey Stick, Retrieved March 11th, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_hockey_stick