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The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR
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The Potential Effect of Wave Energy Converters on Surfing Waves - Steve CHALLINOR

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  • 1. International Symposium on the Protection of Waves Impacts of Wave Energy Projects on Surfing Waves Steve Challinor on behalf of Surfers Against Sewage
  • 2. What are Wave Farms? <ul><li>Arrays of wave energy converter devices (WECs) </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of WECs under development </li></ul><ul><li>WECs generate electricity by harnessing power from waves </li></ul><ul><li>Located in shallow (seabed-mounted WECs) and deep water (floating WECs) </li></ul>
  • 3. Floating WECs <ul><li>Examples: Pelamis (attenuator) and Powerbuoy (point absorber) </li></ul>
  • 4. Seabed-mounted WECs <ul><li>Example: Oyster (oscillating wave surge converter) </li></ul>
  • 5. How do WECs affect Waves? <ul><li>WECs change wave characteristics by: </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbing wave energy – reduces wave energy and wave height </li></ul><ul><li>Interfering with wave energy (reflecting and blocking waves) – changes wave height and wave direction </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to waves can cause changes to shoreline bathymetry, particularly at breaks with mobile sediment (e.g. sand bars) </li></ul>
  • 6. Evidence of Impacts <ul><li>Very few WECs deployed, so no evidence from direct measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Most evidence gained from numerical modeling / computer simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from Cornwall, SW England and Orkney Islands, Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence = threats to surfing waves? </li></ul>
  • 7. Example 1: Cornwall, SW England <ul><li>‘ Wave Hub’ - proving facility for prototype WECs </li></ul><ul><li>8km 2 sea area (4km x 2km) </li></ul><ul><li>Floating WECs = 20+km offshore </li></ul><ul><li>20MW generating capacity (1MW = 400 houses) </li></ul>
  • 8. Halcrow (2006) study <ul><li>‘ Typical layout’ of floating WECs comprising: </li></ul><ul><li>1 x Wave Dragon WEC </li></ul><ul><li>2 x Fred Olsen FO 3 WECs </li></ul><ul><li>30 x Powerbuoy WECs </li></ul><ul><li>6 Pelamis WECs </li></ul><ul><li>2 wave scenarios: </li></ul><ul><li>small summer waves (Hs 1m, Tp 7s) </li></ul><ul><li>large autumn waves (Hs 4m, Tp 16s) </li></ul>
  • 9. Wave Hub Array 2 x Fred Olsen FO 3 WECs 1 x Wave Dragon WEC 6 x Pelamis WECs 30 x Powerbuoy WECs
  • 10. Small Summer Waves (Hs 1m, Tp 7s) Wave height immediately behind WECs reduced by >20% Wave height at shore reduced by 9-11%
  • 11. Large Autumn Waves (Hs 4m, Tp 16s) Wave height immediately behind WECs reduced by >20% Wave height at shore reduced by 3-5%
  • 12. Different WECs = Different Effects 1 x Wave Dragon WEC 2 x Fred Olsen FO 3 WECs 30 x Powerbuoy WECs 6 x Pelamis WECs
  • 13. Example 2: Orkney Islands, Scotland <ul><li>Part of the ‘Pentland Firth’ licensing area for wave farms and tidal farms </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1,600MW generating capacity </li></ul>Orkney Islands Thurso
  • 14. Venugopal and Smith (2007) <ul><li>Site off mainland Orkney </li></ul><ul><li>Seabed-mounted WECs = 2km offshore </li></ul><ul><li>1 layout scenario of 5 WECs </li></ul><ul><li>1 wave scenario (Hs = 4m, Tp = 10s) </li></ul>
  • 15. Porosity Scenarios <ul><li>Porosity = % wave energy transmission through WEC </li></ul><ul><li>Wave energy lost to absorption and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Porosities = 0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% </li></ul>5 WECs in line Downstream wave climate
  • 16. Wave Height Changes Wave height reduced from 13% (90% porosity) to 67% (50% porosity) immediately behind WECs Porosities 0% to 90% Wave height reduced by >20% 1000m behind WECs Wave height increased in front of WECs due to wave reflection Wave height reduced by c.10% 500m behind WECs
  • 17. Results <ul><li>For all porosities wave height and wave energy are always reduced downstream of WECs </li></ul><ul><li>This could affect sedimentation processes and wave climate near the shore </li></ul><ul><li>Lower porosity = lower energy absorption + higher energy reflection = lower wave transmission = more impact on wave height </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for second row of WECs behind first row </li></ul>
  • 18. Threats to Surfing Waves? <ul><li>PMSS (2010) study: </li></ul><ul><li>Present = 20MW (Wave Hub) </li></ul><ul><li>Future = 1200MW </li></ul>
  • 19. Threats to Surfing Waves? <ul><li>West Cornwall </li></ul>
  • 20. Threats to Surfing Waves? <ul><li>North Cornwall </li></ul>
  • 21. Threats to Surfing Waves? <ul><li>Marwick Bay, Orkney </li></ul>
  • 22. Threats to Surfing Waves? <ul><li>Marwick Bay, Orkney </li></ul>Various reef breaks c.500m 10MW array 2MW array
  • 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Studies suggest: </li></ul><ul><li>Wave farms pose a threat to surfing waves </li></ul><ul><li>Threat related to wave farm characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Different WECs = different effects on waves </li></ul><ul><li>Seabed mounted WECs = shallower water / closer to shore = greater threat? </li></ul><ul><li>Floating WECs = deeper water / further offshore = smaller threat? </li></ul>
  • 24. More Info – SAS Reports <ul><li>Climate change issues: Climate Change – A Surfer’s Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Wave farms and WECs: The WAR Report – Waves Are Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on surfing waves: Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation </li></ul>
  • 25. More Info – Cited Studies <ul><li>Halcrow (2006). Wave Hub. Development and design phase. Coastal processes study report. South West of England Regional Development Agency, June 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Venugopal, V and Smith, G. (2007). Wave climate investigation for an array of wave power devices. Proceedings of the 7th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, Porto, Portugal, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>PMSS (2010) Offshore Renewables Resource Assessment and Development (ORRAD) Project – Technical Report. Report prepared for South West Regional Development Agency. </li></ul>

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