Adult Learning…Adult learning is any"post-compulsory"learning.It is a broad term that cancomprise formal collegeeducation; job relatedtraining, communityeducation, or selfimprovement.
Andragogy uses approaches to learning that are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic emphasizes more quality between the teacher and learner
Theory of Adult EducationAndragogy was originallyused by AlexanderKapp but was laterdeveloped into a theoryof adult education bythe American educatorMalcolm Knowles.
Andragogy vs. PedagogyKnowles asserted that andragogy (Greek: "man-leading") should bedistinguished from the more commonly used pedagogy (Greek:"child-leading").
Knowles’ AndragogicalAssumptions concept of the learner role of the learner’s experience readiness to learn orientation to learning need to know motivation
Types of Education and Settings forLearning Formal Schools and universities Nonformal Organized outside the formal system Informal From everyday interactions
Characteristics of Adult Learners autonomous and self- directed have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge goal-oriented relevancy-oriented practical need to be shown respect
Motivating the Adult Learner social relationships external expectations social welfare personal advancement escape/stimulation
Barriers lack of time, money, confidence, or interest lack of information about opportunities to learn scheduling problems "red tape" problems with child care transportation motivation factors
Critical Elements of Learning Motivation Reinforcement Retention Transference
Adults learn best when… Prior learning is Mistakes are seen as appreciated and/or opportunities to learn rewarded Instruction provides Subject matter is relevant opportunity for interaction to their needs Dialog is part of the learning Full of partial opportunity Practical/hands-on for self direction is experience is part of the provided learning They can employ critical
ExperiencingAdult Revising and Reflection repeating and sharingExperientialLearning Applying InterpretingCycle Generalizing
Important Points of Adult Learning Adults will commit to learning when the goals and objectives are considered realistic and important to them. Adults want to be the origin of their own learning and will resist learning activities they believe are an attack on their competence. Adult learning has ego involved. Adults need to participate in small-group activities during the
Important Points of AdultLearning Adults need to receive feedback on how they are doing and the results of their efforts. Adult learners come to learning with a wide range of previous experiences, knowledge, self-direction, interests, and competencies. Transfer of learning for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated.