THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin and its Derivatives
DERMATOLOGY <ul><li>STUDY  OF  THE  STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION,  AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>DERMA- SKIN </li>...
Functions of Skin <ul><li>Protects from injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves body. ...
Main layers of the Skin <ul><li>Epidermis – outermost skin layer </li></ul><ul><li>2.Dermis – true skin layer </li></ul><u...
DIFFERENCES OF THE SKIN LAYERS BASIS EPIDERMIS DERMIS HYPODERMIS 1. LOCATION OUTERMOST SUB EPIDERMAL SUBCUTANEOUS 2.THICKN...
5. LAYERS 5 SUB LAYERS 1.S. CORNEUM 2.S. LUCIDUM 3.S. GRAULOSUM 4. S. SPINOSUM 5. S. GERMINATIVUM 2 SUB LAYERS 1.S. PAPILL...
 
<ul><li>EPIDERMAL  DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>I.Epidermis of fishes and Aquatic amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>GLANDS </l...
<ul><li>2.SEROUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>-secretes poisonous alkaloids  for protection against  predators. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>II.EPIDERMIS OF TERRESRIAL  OR LAND VERTERATES </li></ul><ul><li>GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>1.MAMMARY GLANDS </li></...
<ul><li>3.OIL/ SEBACEOUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>secretes oilo/sebum;for lubrication/mare skin moist/shiny </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>5.SEROUS GLANDS [SNAKE] </li></ul><ul><li>secretes poison/toxic alkaloids </li></ul><ul><li>6.CERUMINOUS GLANDS [M...
TYPES OF GLANDS ACCDG. TO MANNER OF SECRETION <ul><li>1.MEROCRINE GLANDS [TRUE GLAND] </li></ul><ul><li>release secretion ...
APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND
<ul><li>3.APOCRINE GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>intermediate in position </li></ul><ul><li>secretions  gathers at the tip or a...
 
EPIDERMAL DERIVATIVES <ul><li>1.MAMMALS </li></ul><ul><li>HAIR- shaft,bulb,root </li></ul><ul><li>NAILS-lunula,nail bed,ro...
<ul><li>2.BIRDS-BEAKS,PREENING,NESTING,F00D-FEATHERS-FOR INSULTION, </li></ul><ul><li>FLIGHTS,BODY CONTOURS </li></ul><ul>...
 
<ul><li>3.REPTILES </li></ul><ul><li>epidermal scales-molting </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton turtles-scutes </li></ul><ul><...
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE  SKIN CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 1. AGNATHANS ‘ multi-layered  and is  rich w/mucous glands  ‘ s...
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 2.CHONDRICH-THYES ‘ more  layered and cells are compactly arranged ‘ unicellular glands exceptin...
 
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 3. OSTEICH-THYES  -more mucous glands -presence of cycloid scales -with uicellular goblet cells ...
Bony fish
 
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 4.AMPHIBIA ‘ skin-w/o scales ‘ with incipient stratum corneum ‘ uncellular goblet cells secretes...
 
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 5.REPTILES ‘ thick stratum corneum ‘ with epidermal scales molts at regular internal ‘ presence ...
Reptilian
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 6.AVES ‘ thin-skinned ‘ epidermal scales umited to feet and base of breaks ‘ presence of sharp c...
 
CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 7.MAMMALS ‘ hairs are present arising  from hair follicles ‘ epidermal glands .sebaceous-sebum ....
THE MAMMALIAN SKIN
 
Stratum corneum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale (germinativum) Stratum lucidum** **Thick skin only
Stratum Basale <ul><li>Lowest epidermal layer, near dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Good nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>Reprod...
 
Stratum Spinosum <ul><li>Living cells </li></ul><ul><li>Dividing </li></ul><ul><li>8-10 cells thick </li></ul><ul><li>Poly...
 
Stratus Granulosum,  Lucidum   <ul><li>Poor nutrient supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatten layer of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3...
Stratum Corneum <ul><li>25-30 cells thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are filled with keratin and hardened. </li></ul><ul><li...
Melanocyte <ul><li>Produces melanin for protection from UV radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for skin color. </li><...
Melanocyte
 
Irregular Dense Connective Tissue Collagenous fibers                                                                  
Layers of the dermis <ul><li>Stratum papillarosum </li></ul><ul><li>- superficial region(1/5) of the dermis,consists of ar...
Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Blood vessels
 
FEATURE THIN SKIN THICK SKIN 1. Distribution All parts of the body except palms,palmar digits,soles Palms,palmar surface o...
DERIVATIVES OF THE EPIDERMIS <ul><li>HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>PARTS OF HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>A. HAIR ROOT  D. HAIR FOLLICLE...
 
Hair Follicle
 
<ul><li>TYPES OF HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>A. ANGORA </li></ul><ul><li>B. DEFINITIVE HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>C. LANUGO </li></...
Angora Hair
Definitive Hair
Lanugo Hair
 
Sebaceous Gland DERIVATIVES OF THE DERMIS
Sweat Gland SKIN GLANDS
Types of Sweat Glands (Sudoriferous Glands) <ul><li>Merocrine glands:  release fluid by exocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Eccri...
APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND
ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND
 
Sensory Structures of Dermis <ul><li>Deep touch/pressure:  Pacinian corpuscles </li></ul><ul><li>Light touch/pressure:  Me...
 
                                                                               Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Se...
FACTORS INFLUENCING SKIN COLOR <ul><li>GENETIC INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNT OF MELANIN PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>...
WHITE SKIN
BROWN SKIN
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Theintegumentarysystem 100430042335-phpapp02

  1. 1. THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin and its Derivatives
  2. 2. DERMATOLOGY <ul><li>STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION, AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>DERMA- SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN/INTEGUMENT – the largest organ of the body, approximately 5 kg of the body weight </li></ul><ul><li>thick in palms and soles, thin in eyelids and scrotum </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Skin <ul><li>Protects from injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves body. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizes, stores vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory functions </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul>
  4. 4. Main layers of the Skin <ul><li>Epidermis – outermost skin layer </li></ul><ul><li>2.Dermis – true skin layer </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hypodermis – the subcutaneous layer </li></ul>
  5. 5. DIFFERENCES OF THE SKIN LAYERS BASIS EPIDERMIS DERMIS HYPODERMIS 1. LOCATION OUTERMOST SUB EPIDERMAL SUBCUTANEOUS 2.THICKNESS THIN THICK RELATIVE 3. HISTOLOGICAL COMPONENT HIGHLY EPITHELIAL CONNECTIVE, MUSCULAR,NERVOUS, VASCULAR CONNECTIVE 4. VASCULARI- ZATION AVASCULAR VASCULAR VASCULAR
  6. 6. 5. LAYERS 5 SUB LAYERS 1.S. CORNEUM 2.S. LUCIDUM 3.S. GRAULOSUM 4. S. SPINOSUM 5. S. GERMINATIVUM 2 SUB LAYERS 1.S. PAPILLAROSUM 2.S. RETICULAROSUM RELATIVE 6. NERVE ENDINGS ABSENT PRESENT PRESENT 7. GLANDS AGLANDULAR GLANDULAR –SWEAT,SEBACEOUS, MAMMARY GLANDULAR – SECRETES LEPTIN 8. DERIVATIVES HAIRS AND NAILS GLANDS GLAND
  7. 8. <ul><li>EPIDERMAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>I.Epidermis of fishes and Aquatic amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>1.MUCOUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>secretes gelatinous substance mucin </li></ul><ul><li>in frogs; for water absorption and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>in fish; defense mechanism for predations </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>2.SEROUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>-secretes poisonous alkaloids for protection against predators. </li></ul><ul><li>3.PHOTOPHORES GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>-contains light-emittingn </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>II.EPIDERMIS OF TERRESRIAL OR LAND VERTERATES </li></ul><ul><li>GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>1.MAMMARY GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>secretes milk-feed the young </li></ul><ul><li>both sexes;male-non functional;female-location </li></ul><ul><li>2.SWEAT GLANDS AND SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>produce sweat/perspiration cooling mechanism to regulate body temp </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>3.OIL/ SEBACEOUS GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>secretes oilo/sebum;for lubrication/mare skin moist/shiny </li></ul><ul><li>4.UROPYGIAL GLAND [BIRDS] </li></ul><ul><li>tail of uroryogium </li></ul><ul><li>secretes oil,oiling the beark;shiny feathers/preening by beaks </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>5.SEROUS GLANDS [SNAKE] </li></ul><ul><li>secretes poison/toxic alkaloids </li></ul><ul><li>6.CERUMINOUS GLANDS [MAN] </li></ul><ul><li>-secretes cerumen </li></ul><ul><li>7.GLANDS OF ZELS </li></ul><ul><li>-moits the eyelashes </li></ul><ul><li>8.MELBOMIAN GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>-moists the eyelids </li></ul>
  12. 13. TYPES OF GLANDS ACCDG. TO MANNER OF SECRETION <ul><li>1.MEROCRINE GLANDS [TRUE GLAND] </li></ul><ul><li>release secretion thought memrbrane/cells remain intact. </li></ul><ul><li>ex.unicellular integumentary glands sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>2.HOLOCRINE GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>cells themselves constitute the secretion </li></ul><ul><li>cells goes with secretion </li></ul><ul><li>ex.sebaceous gland </li></ul>
  13. 14. APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND
  14. 15. <ul><li>3.APOCRINE GLANDS </li></ul><ul><li>intermediate in position </li></ul><ul><li>secretions gathers at the tip or apical portion of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>part of the cyptoplasm are pinched off with the secretion & then repair itself. </li></ul><ul><li>ex.mammary glands </li></ul>
  15. 17. EPIDERMAL DERIVATIVES <ul><li>1.MAMMALS </li></ul><ul><li>HAIR- shaft,bulb,root </li></ul><ul><li>NAILS-lunula,nail bed,root </li></ul><ul><li>CLAWS-cats,monkeys,bird,etc, </li></ul><ul><li>HOOVES-ungulates </li></ul><ul><li>TUSKS-elephants,source of plastics </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>2.BIRDS-BEAKS,PREENING,NESTING,F00D-FEATHERS-FOR INSULTION, </li></ul><ul><li>FLIGHTS,BODY CONTOURS </li></ul><ul><li>parts;shaft,barbs,barbules,,calamus </li></ul><ul><li>Types; </li></ul><ul><li>1.flight feathers </li></ul><ul><li>2.covert feathers </li></ul><ul><li>3.pin feathers </li></ul><ul><li>4.filoplumers </li></ul><ul><li>5.hair feathers </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>3.REPTILES </li></ul><ul><li>epidermal scales-molting </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton turtles-scutes </li></ul><ul><li>-corapace </li></ul><ul><li>- plastron </li></ul><ul><li>4.AMPHIBIAN-rough/coarse skin </li></ul><ul><li>5.FISHES –with dermal scales </li></ul><ul><li>Types of scales </li></ul><ul><li>1.CYCLOID SCALES-concentric ridges-milkfish </li></ul><ul><li>2.CTENOID SCALES-w/spines or ctenii </li></ul><ul><li>3.GANIOD SCALES-rhomboid shape, </li></ul><ul><li>4.COMOID SCALES-extinct fishes dermal armor </li></ul><ul><li>5.PLACOID SCALES-spines directed caudally-sharks,skates </li></ul>
  18. 21. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE SKIN CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 1. AGNATHANS ‘ multi-layered and is rich w/mucous glands ‘ slime eels lack scales ‘ Layers are mitotic including surface cells horny denticles in the buccal funnel is the only cormfied structure,shed replaced ‘ thinner than epidermis but tough due to interwoven collagenous fibers. ‘ rich in the melanophores w/c ad heres tightly to the underlying musculator myosepta
  19. 22. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 2.CHONDRICH-THYES ‘ more layered and cells are compactly arranged ‘ unicellular glands excepting chaemiras ‘ stingrays-goblet toxins. ‘ multicellular cells at the base secretes toxins Multicelullar cells are conc. at the base of the claspers of males ‘ thicker than epidermis and w/2 more or less defined layers ‘ placoid scales fr.the paleozioc shakers ‘ sheet of melanophores derse dorsally than virtrally less illumnuscence ‘ with ceratotrichia or fin rays
  20. 24. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 3. OSTEICH-THYES -more mucous glands -presence of cycloid scales -with uicellular goblet cells w/c maintain mucous coat of the skin to prevent dessication -with poisonous granular gland -photophores serve as lures /warning -presence of ancient ganoid or modern cycloid scale -flexible dermal fin rays which stregthens the fins of bony fishes -with osteoderms
  21. 25. Bony fish
  22. 27. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 4.AMPHIBIA ‘ skin-w/o scales ‘ with incipient stratum corneum ‘ uncellular goblet cells secretes mucigens for semi-aquatic amphibians ‘ mucons glands-mucin ‘ poison glands-alkaloidal secreation ‘ cornified skin prevents dessication. ‘ with dermal chomatophores ‘ firmly attached to the underlying musuculature ‘ voluminous bread subcutaneous lymph sinuses separates skin from muscles ‘ bony dermal scales in caecilians
  23. 29. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 5.REPTILES ‘ thick stratum corneum ‘ with epidermal scales molts at regular internal ‘ presence of unique horny surface features ‘ integumentary glands are not abundant ‘ scales,scutes,rattles,clansz,plaque,spiny crests ‘ bony dermal,bones are more abundant ‘ osteoderms 1.lizards-underlying the epidermal scales 2.snakes-absent
  24. 30. Reptilian
  25. 31. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 6.AVES ‘ thin-skinned ‘ epidermal scales umited to feet and base of breaks ‘ presence of sharp clans ‘ integumentary glands are absent ‘ uropygial gland caudal, oil the feathers ‘ with feathers .down .filoplumes .rectrices .remiges ‘ dermis supports the feathers and arrectures pilorum/ plumarun ‘ exceptionally thin ‘ motility of skin is correlated to thermoregulatory function of feathers ‘ no osteoderms ‘ with spurs both sexes .tarsometatasus .carpometasus in some
  26. 33. CHORDATE EPIDERMIS DERMIS 7.MAMMALS ‘ hairs are present arising from hair follicles ‘ epidermal glands .sebaceous-sebum .sudoriferous-sweat .mammary-milk ‘ stratum germinativum is germinating ‘ dense stratum corneum ‘ derivatives .claws .horns .hairs .nails .baleen whale bone hangs or oral cavity ‘ presence of hair follicle,arrector muscles,sweat, sebaceous glands,conn. tissues ‘ highly vascularized ‘ with nerve endings ‘ has thermoregulatory function-homiothermic ‘ hypodermis or subcutaneous layer separates skin from muscles ‘ with pigment cells
  27. 34. THE MAMMALIAN SKIN
  28. 36. Stratum corneum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale (germinativum) Stratum lucidum** **Thick skin only
  29. 37. Stratum Basale <ul><li>Lowest epidermal layer, near dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Good nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces by mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal, columnar in shape </li></ul><ul><li>Moves to upper epidermis in 27 days. </li></ul>
  30. 39. Stratum Spinosum <ul><li>Living cells </li></ul><ul><li>Dividing </li></ul><ul><li>8-10 cells thick </li></ul><ul><li>Polygonal in appearance </li></ul>
  31. 41. Stratus Granulosum, Lucidum <ul><li>Poor nutrient supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatten layer of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 cells thick. </li></ul><ul><li>No cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Keratin accumulates. </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in very thick skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Translucent. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly keratinized. </li></ul><ul><li>Dead cells </li></ul>
  32. 42. Stratum Corneum <ul><li>25-30 cells thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are filled with keratin and hardened. </li></ul><ul><li>Sloughed off. </li></ul><ul><li>Outer most layer of epidermis. </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinocytes </li></ul>
  33. 43. Melanocyte <ul><li>Produces melanin for protection from UV radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for skin color. </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma. </li></ul>
  34. 44. Melanocyte
  35. 46. Irregular Dense Connective Tissue Collagenous fibers                                                                  
  36. 47. Layers of the dermis <ul><li>Stratum papillarosum </li></ul><ul><li>- superficial region(1/5) of the dermis,consists of areolar connective tissues with elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>- contains dermal papillae that house capillaries,touch corpuscles,& free nerve endings </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stratum reticularosum </li></ul><ul><li>- the deeper portion (4/5 of the dermis) </li></ul><ul><li>- with dense regular conn. Tissue with bundles of collagen and elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>- spaces between fibers contain adipocytes,hair follicles,nerves,sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands </li></ul>
  37. 48. Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Blood vessels
  38. 50. FEATURE THIN SKIN THICK SKIN 1. Distribution All parts of the body except palms,palmar digits,soles Palms,palmar surface of digits and soles 2. Epidermal thickness 0.10-0.15mm 0.6 – 4.5 mm 3. Epidermal Strata Lack stratum lucidum,thinner s. spinosum and s. corneum Thick s. lucidum,spinosum,corneum 4. epidermal Ridges Lacking due to poorly developed or fewer dermal papillae Present due to well- developed or numerous dermal papillae 5. Hair follicles and Arrector pili Muscle Present Absent   6. Sebaceous Glands Present Absent   7. Sudoriferpous Gland Fewer More numerous 8. Sensory Receptors Sparser denser
  39. 51. DERIVATIVES OF THE EPIDERMIS <ul><li>HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>PARTS OF HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>A. HAIR ROOT D. HAIR FOLLICLE </li></ul><ul><li>B. HAIR SHAFT E. HAIR CORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>C. HAIR BULB F. HAIR MEDULLA </li></ul>
  40. 53. Hair Follicle
  41. 55. <ul><li>TYPES OF HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>A. ANGORA </li></ul><ul><li>B. DEFINITIVE HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>C. LANUGO </li></ul><ul><li>2. NAIL </li></ul><ul><li>A. NAIL ROOT </li></ul><ul><li>B. NAIL BED </li></ul><ul><li>C. LUNULA </li></ul>
  42. 56. Angora Hair
  43. 57. Definitive Hair
  44. 58. Lanugo Hair
  45. 60. Sebaceous Gland DERIVATIVES OF THE DERMIS
  46. 61. Sweat Gland SKIN GLANDS
  47. 62. Types of Sweat Glands (Sudoriferous Glands) <ul><li>Merocrine glands: release fluid by exocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Eccrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion is mostly water with solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cools body down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops scent as bacteria metabolize secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated when frightened, during pain, during emotional upset </li></ul></ul>
  48. 63. APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND
  49. 64. ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND
  50. 66. Sensory Structures of Dermis <ul><li>Deep touch/pressure: Pacinian corpuscles </li></ul><ul><li>Light touch/pressure: Meisner’s corpuscles </li></ul><ul><li>Warm temperature: Free nerve endings </li></ul><ul><li>Cold temperature: Free nerve endings </li></ul><ul><li>Pain: Free nerve endings </li></ul>
  51. 68.                                                                           Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 2. Neck, Shoulders, Upper Arm, and Upper Thorax (Lungs) Key Figure 4 a Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S. Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed                                                                 Recognized by adipose tissue.
  52. 69. FACTORS INFLUENCING SKIN COLOR <ul><li>GENETIC INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNT OF MELANIN PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DEGREE OF OXYGENATION </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONES </li></ul><ul><li>* MSH </li></ul><ul><li>5. EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT </li></ul>
  53. 70. WHITE SKIN
  54. 71. BROWN SKIN

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