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Grammar review Grammar review Document Transcript

  • 1Summary OfGrammar ReviewBse BookBy:Rizal Firman AshariXb/23SMA NEGERI 3 MADIUN
  • 2GRAMMARREVIEW
  • 31. NORMAL SENTENCE PATTERN IN ENGLISHSUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT MODIFIERJohn and I ate A pizza Last nightwe studied “present perfect” Last weekA. SUBJECTThe subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is the person orthing that performs or is responsible for the action of the sentence , and it normallyprecedes the verb. Note: every sentence in English must have a subject.Coffee is deliciousMilk contains calciumThe subject may be a noun phrase. A nun phrase is a group of words ending witha noun. (It CANNOT begin with a preposition)Example of subject: The girls are not going to that movie. Mary, John, George, and I went to a restaurant last night. The bank closed at two o’clock The weather was very bad yesterday“it” can act as a pronoun for a noun or can be the subject of an impersonal verb.As the subject of an impersonal verb, the pronoun is not actually used in a place of anoun, but is part of an idiomatic expression. It is hard to believe that he is dead`“There” can act as a pseudo- subject and is treated like a subject when changingword order to a question. The true subject appears after the verb, and the numberof the true subject controls the verb. There was a fire in that building last month.verb (singular) subject (singular) There were many students in the room.Verb plural subject plural Were there many students in the room ?Verb subjectB. VERBThe verb follows the subject in a declarative sentence; it generally shows theaction of the sentence. Note: every sentence in English must have a verb. Theverb may be the single word or the verb may be a phrase. A verb phrase consistof one or more auxiliaries and one main verb. The auxiliaries always precede themain verb. They hate spinach.(a single word) John is going to Miami tomorrow.(auxiliaries= is, main verb= going)
  • 4 Jane has been reading that book.(auxiliaries= has, main= been, verb= reading)Example of verbs and verb phrase: Mary is watching television. Jane is very tall. It was raining at six o’clock last night She must have gone to the bank.C. COMPLEMENT OR OBJECTA complement completes the verb. It is similar to the subject because it isusually a noun or noun phrase; however, it generally follows the verb when thesentence is in the active voice. Note: every sentence does not require acomplement. A complement cannot begin with the preposition.Example of complements: John bought a cake yesterday. (what did John bought yesterday?) They called Mary yesterday. (whom did they call yesterday?) He was smoking a cigarette. (what was he smoking?)D. MODIFIERA modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action. Very often it is apreposition phrase (a group of words that begin with a preposition and ends witha noun). Note: A modifier of the time usually comes last if more than one modifieris present.Example of prepositional phrases:In the morning, at the university, on the table etc.A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase.Last night, next year, hurriedly, outdoors etc.Note: Every sentence does not require a modifier. A modifier answers thequestion when? Where? Or how?.Example of modifiers: John bought the book at the bookstore. (where did john buy a book?)modifier of place Jill was swimming in the pool yesterday. (when was Jill swimming?)modifier of time He was driving very fast. ( How was he driving? )Modifier of manner We ate dinner at seven o’clock. (when did we eat dinner ?)Modifier of timeNote: the modifier normally follows the complement, but not always.However, the modifier especially when it is prepositional phrases usuallycannot separate the verb and the complement.
  • 51. The Noun PhraseThe noun phrase is the group of words that end with a noun. It can containdeterminers (the, a, this, etc), adjective, adverbs and nouns. It cannot begin wit thepreposition. Remember that both subject and complements are generally nounsphrase.A. COUNT AND NON COUNT NOUNSA count noun is the one that can be counted.book-- one book, two books, three books....student-- one student, two students, three students...person-- one person, two people, three people...A non-count noun is one that cannot be counted.Milk-- you cannot say one milk, two milks,.. . .It is possible, however to count some non-count noun if the substance is placedin a countable container.glass of milk-- one glass of milk, two glasses of milk,....Some determiner can be used only with count or non-count nouns, while otherscan used with either.Besurethat you know the plurals of irregular count noun. The following list containssome irregular count nouns that you should to know.Person- people Child- children Tooth- teethFoot- feet Mouse- mice Man- menWoman- womenThe list of some no-count noun that we should know.Sand soap Physics MathematicsNews Mumps Air PoliticsMeasles Information Meat HomeworkFood Economics Advertising* Money*note: Although advertising is a non-count noun, advertisement is a count noun, ifyou wish to speak of one particular advertisement, you must use this word.WITH COUNT NOUNS WITH NON-COUNT NOUNSA(n), the, some, anyThis, that, these, thoseNone, one, two, three, . . .ManyA lot ofA (large/ great) number ofA fewFewer . . . thanMore . . . thanThe, some, anyThis, thatNoneMuch(usually in negatives or question)A lot ofA large mount ofA littleLess. . . thanMore . . . than
  • 6There are too many advertisements during television shows.There is too much advertising during television shows.Some non-count nouns, such as food, meat, money, and sand. May be usedas count nouns in order to indicate the different types.He studies meats. (for example, beef, pork, lamb, etc)The word “time” can be either countable or non- countable depending on thecontext. When it means occasion, it is countable. When it means number ofhours, days, years, etc. it is non-countable.We have spent too much time on this homework. (non-count)She has been late for class six times this semester. (count)B. A AND ANA or an can be precede only singular count nouns, they mean one. They can usedin the general statement or to introduce a subject whish has not been previouslymentioned.A baseball is round (general- means all baseballs)I saw a boy in the street. (we don’t know which boy)An is used before words that begin with a vowel sound. A is usedbefore words that begin with a consonant sound. But for the following wordsbegin with a consonant sound and thus must always preceded by a.European eulogy Euphemism EucalyptusHouse Home Heavy Halfuniform University universal UnionThe following words begin with vowel sound and thus must always preceded by an.hour heir Herbal honoruncle umbrella unnatural understandingC. THEThe is used to indicate something that we already know about or somethingthat is common knowledge.The boy in the corner is my friend. (the speaker and the listener knowwhich boy)The earth is round. (there is only one earth)With non-count nouns, one uses the article “the” if speaking in specificterms, but uses no article if speaking in general.
  • 7Sugar is sweet. (general- all sugar)The sugar on the table is from Cuba. (specific- the sugar that is on the table)Normally, plural count nouns when they mean everything within a certain class, arenot preceded by the.o Oranges are green until they ripen (all oranges)o Athletes should follow a well- balance diet (all athletes).Normally a proper noun is not preceded by an article unless there are several peopleor things with the same name and the speaker is specifying one of them.o there are three Susan Parkers in the telephone directory.o The Susan parkers that I know lives on First Avenue.Normally words such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, school. Church, home college andwork do not use any article unless to restrict the meaning.- We ate breakfast at eight o’clock this morning.- We went to school yesterday.Use the following generalization as a guide for the use of the article the.USE THE WITH DON’T USE THE WITHOceans, rivers, seas, gulfs, plural lakes(the Red Sea, the Atlantic ocean, thePersian Gulfs)Singular lakes (lake Geneva. Lake Erie)Mountains (the Rocky mountains) Mounts (mount Vesuvius)Earth, moon (the earth, the moon) Planets, constellations (Venus, Mars)Schools, colleges, universities, when thephrase begin with school etc.(theuniversity of Florida, the college of arts).Schools, college, universities when thephrase begins with a proper noun (SantaFe Community College)Ordinal numbers before nouns. (the firstworld war)Cardinal numbers after nouns (WorldWar One)Wars (except world wars). (the CrimeanWar)Certain countries or groups of countrieswith more than one word (except GreatBritain).Countries preceded by New or anadjective such as a direction (newZealand, South Africa)Countries with only one word (France,Sweden)Continents (Europe, Africa)States (Florida, Ohio)Historical document ((the constitution,the Magna Charta)Ethnic group (the Indians, the Aztecs)Sports (baseball, basketball)Abstract nouns (freedom, happiness)General areas of subject matter
  • 8(mathematics, sociology)Holidays (Christmas, thanksgiving)D. OTHERThe use of the word other is often cause of confusion for foreign students. Studythe following formulas.WITH COUNT NOUNS WITH NON-COUNT NOUNSAn+ other +singular noun (one more)Another pencil= one more pencilThe other + singular noun (last of theset)The other pencil = the last pencilpresentOther + plural nouns (more of the set)Other pencils = some more pencilsOther + non-count nouns (more of theset_Other water = some more waterThe other + plural nouns (the rest ofthe set)The other pencils = all remainingpencilsThe other + non-count nouns (all therest)The other water = the remaining waterNote: another and other are nonspecific while the other is specific. If the subjectis understood, one can omit the noun and keep the determiner and “other “ sothat “other” function as a pronoun. If it is a plural count noun that is omitted,“other become “others “. The word other can never be plural if it is followed bynoun.I don’t want this book. Please give me another. (another= any other book– not specific)I don’t want this book. Please give me the other (the other = the otherbook – specific)The chemical is poisonous. Others are poisonous too. (others= otherchemicals – not specific)Note: Another way to substituting for the noun is to use other + one or ones.- I don’t want this book. Please give me another one.- The chemical is poisonous. Other ones are posonous too.2. THE VERB PHRASEAs mentioned in item 3, the verb phrase consists of the main verb and anyauxiliaries.A. TENSES AND ASPECTSimple present – he walks to school every day.
  • 9Simple past – he walked to school every day.Present progressive (continuous) – he is walking to school now.Past progressive (continuous) – he was walking to school when he sawJane.Present perfect – he was walked to school several times.Past perfect – he had walked to school before he hurt his foot.It is very important that you know whether a verb is regular or irregular.You will notice that regular verbs are the same in the past tense and pastprinciple; however, irregular verbs are very often different in these forms.The table bellow is some list of common regular verbs. The other irregularverbs you can look in the dictionary.SIMPLE PRESENTTENSESIMPLE PASTTENSEPAST PARTICIPLE PRESENTPARTICIPLEBeat Beat beaten BeatingBegin Began begun BeginningBind Bound bound BindingCatch Caught caught CatchingChoose Choose chosen choosingDo Did done DoingDrink Drank drunk DrinkingFall Fell fallen fallingEat Ate eaten EatingGet Got Gotten gettingGive Gave given givingPay Paid paid PayingSell Sold sold SellingSend Sent sent SendingTake Took Taken TakingUnderstand Understood understood UnderstandingWear Wore worn wearingYou should also know that there is no change in the following verbs to indicate thedifferent tenses.SIMPLE PRESENTTENSESIMPLE PASTTENSEPAST PARTICIPLE PRESENTPARTICIPLEBet Bet bet BettingBid Bid bid BiddingCost Cost cost CostingFit Fit fit FittingPut Put put PuttingQuit Quit quit QuittingShut Shut shut ShuttingSpread Spread spread Spreading
  • 10Read Read read ReadingB. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSEThis tense is usually not used to indicate present time. However, it is used toindicate present time (now) with the following stative verbs.Know Believe Hear see Wish SmellUnderstand Hate Love Like Sound WantHave Need appear Seem Own tasteNote: The verbs listed above are almost never used in the present or pastprogressive (continuous), although it is possible in the same cases.Simple presents is used to indicate are regular or habitual action. Example:We want to leave now. (stative verb)Mark usually walks to school. (habitual verb)Your cough sounds bad. (stative verb)C. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)Use the following formula to form the present progressive.Subject + (am/ is/ are) + (verb+ ing). . . The present progressive is used to indicate present time (now) with allbut the stative verbs listed previously. Example: John is eating dinnernow. And it also to indicate future time. Example: We are leaving for thetheater at seven o’clock. Example of present progressive:The committee members are examining the material now.(present time)George is leaving for France tomorrow. (future time)We are flying to Venezuela next month. (future time)D. SIMPLE PAST TENSESimple past tense is used for completed action that happened at one specifictime in the past. The italicized in the previous sentence are important becausethey show that simple past is not the same as past progressive or presentperfect. Example:John went to Spain last year.Bob buy s new bicycle yesterday.E. PAST PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)Use the following rule to form the past progressive.
  • 11Subject + (was/ were) + (verb + ing) .. . . .The past progressive is used to indicate: An action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by anotheraction. In this case the general rule is:When + subject 1 + simple past tense + subject 2 + past progressive. . . .OrSubject 1 + past progressive + when + subject 2 + simple past tense. . . .When Mark came home, Martha was watching television.OrMartha was watching television when Mark came home. Two actions occurring at the same time in the past. In this case, thefollowing rules usually apply.Subject 1 + past progressive + while + subject 2 + past progressive . . . .OrWhile + subject 1 + past progressive + subject 2 + past progressive . . . .Martha was watching television while John was reading a book.OrWhile john was reading a book, Martha was watching television.Note: the following construction is also possible, but it is not as commonas the preceding two.While + subject 1 + past progressive + subject 2 + simple past . . . .While Martha was watching television, John read a book. An action which was occurring at the some specific time in the past.Example of past progressive:John was walking to class when he lost his pen.George was watching television when his brother called.The student was reading while the professor was speaking.F. PRESENT PERFECTUse the following rule to form the present perfect.Subject + (has/ have) + (verb in the past participle) . . . .The present perfect is used to indicate: An action that happened at an indefinite time in the past. Example: Johnhas traveled around the world. (we don’t know when) An action that happened more than once in the past. Example: Georgehas seen this movie three times. An action that began in the past and is still occurring in the present.Example: John has lived in the same house for twenty years (he still live in
  • 12there) or John has lived in the same house since 1975 (he still live inthere).Note: use FOR + duration of time (for five years, for ten minutes). Use SINCE +beginning time (since 1945. Since five o’clock). While adverb YET/ ALREADY is usedto indicate something has happened (or hasn’t happened) at an unspecific time inthe past. These adverbs are often used with the present perfect. ALREADY –affirmative sentence. YET – negative sentence and question.Note: ALREADY usually appears between the auxiliaries and the main verb; however,it can appear at the beginning or the end of the sentence. YET appears at the end ofthe sentence.Subject + (has/ have) + already + (verb in past participle) . . . .Subject + has/ have) + not + (verb in past participle) . . . + yet . . .Examples of yet and already:We have already written our reports.We haven’t written our reports yet.Note: another option with the use of YET is sometimes possible. In this case, the verbis positive and the adverb YET doesn’t appear at the end of the sentence.Subject + (has/ have) + yet + (verb in infinite) . . . .John has yet to learn the material = john hasn’t learned the materials yet.Note: this use of YET should not be con fused with the coordinating conjunction ye,which mean but. Example: I don’t have money, yet I really need the computerG. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFor an action that began in the past and is still occurring in the present (presentperfect rules, third item), it is also possible to use the present perfect progressive(continuous). Use the following rule to form this aspect.Subject + (has/ have) + been + (verb + ing) . . . .Example of present perfect:Jorge has already walked to school. (indefinite time)He has been to California three times. (more than once)Mary has seen the movie before. (indefinite time)H. PAST PERFECTUse the following rule to form past perfect.
  • 13Subject + had + (verb in the past participle) . . . .The past perfect is used to indicate: An action that happened before another action in the past; there usuallyare two actions in the sentence. Example: John had gone to the store (1staction) before he went home (2ndaction). A state which continued for a time in the past, but stopped before now.Note that there is no connection with the present. Example: Abdu hadlived in New York for ten years (1staction) before he moved to California(2ndaction).The past perfect is usually used before, after or when. Look the followingformulas.Subject + past perfect + before +subject + simple past tense. . . .John had gone to the store before he went home.Subject + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfect . . .John went home after he had gone to the store.Before + subject + simple past tense subject + past perfect . . .Before John went home, he had gone to the store.After + subject + past perfect + subject + simple past tense. . . .After john had gone to the store, he went home.Note: the adverb When can be used in place before or after in any of theseformulas without change in meaning.I. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS)This past perfect concept can also be conveyed by the past perfectprogressive (continuous). Study the following rule.Subject + had + been + (verb + ing) . . .Example of past perfect progressive (continuous):The professor had reviewed the material before he gave quizGeorge had worked at the university for 45 years before he retired orGeorge had been working at the university for 45 years before he retired.3. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENTRemember that the subject and verb in a sentence must agree in person andnumber.The evalator works very well. The evalator work very well.Singular singular plural plural
  • 14A. SUBJECT SEPARATED FROM THE VERBVery often if the subject and verb are separated, they will be separated by aprepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase has no effect on the verb.Subject + (prepositional phrase) + verbExample:The study of languages is very interesting.Singular subject singular verbSeveral theories on this subject have been proposed.Plural subject plural verbThe following expression also have no effect on the verb.Together with Along withAccompanied by As well asThe actress, along with her manager and some friends is going to party tonight.Singular subject singular verbNote: if the conjunction and is used to instead of one of these phrases, the verbwould then be plural. Example: the actress and her manager are going to the partytonight.A. WORDS THAT ALWAYS TAKE SINGULAR VERBS ANDPRONOUNSThe following words must be followed by singular verbs and pronouns in formalwritten English.Any + singularnounNo + singularnounSome +singular nounEvery +singular nounEach +singular noun(anybody,anyone,anything)(nobody, noone, nothing)(somebody,someone,something)(everybody,everyone,everything)(either*,neither*)*either and neither are singular if they are not used with or and nor.Example:Everybody who has not purchased a ticket should be in this time.If either of you takes a vacation now, we will not be able to finish thework.
  • 15B. NONE/ NONone can take either a singular or plural verb, depending on the noun whichfollow it.None + of the + non-count noun + singular verb- None of the counterfeit money has been found.None + of the + plural count noun+ plural verb- None of the students have finished the exam yet.No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun which thefollows it.No + (singular noun/ non-count noun) + singular verbNo example is relevant to this case.No + (plural noun) + plural verbNo examples are relevant to this case.C. EITHER/ NEITHERWhen either and neither are followed by or and nor, the verb may be singularor plural, depending on whether the noun following or and nor singular or plural.Study the following formulas.(neither/ either) + noun + (nor/ or) + plural noun + plural verbneither John nor his friends are going to the beach today.Plural noun plural verbeither John or his friends are going to the beach today.Singular subject singular verb(neither/ either) + noun + (nor/ or) + singular noun + singular verbNeither John nor Bill is going to the beach today.Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.D. GERUNDS AS SUBJECTSIf a sentence begins with (verb + ing)or (gerund). The verb must also be singular.Example:Knowing her has made him what he is.Not studying has caused him many problems.
  • 16E. COLLECTIVE NOUNSThe following nouns are usually singular. In some cases they are plural if thesentence indicate that the individual members are acting separately.Congress Family Group Committee ClassOrganization Team Army Club CrowdGovernment Jury Majority* Minority Public*Majority can be singular or plural (if it is alone it is usually singular)Examples of collective nouns:The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.The family was elated by the news.Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation.Collective nouns indicating time, money, and measurements used as a whole aresingular. Example: Fifty minutes isn’t enough time to finish this exam.F. A NUMBER OF/ THE NUMBER OFA number of + plural noun + plural verb . . .The number of + plural noun +singular verb . . .Example:A number of students are going to the class picnic. (a number of = many)The number of residents who have been questioned on this matter isquite small.G. NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURALThe following nouns are always considered plural they cannot be singular. Andmust say “a pair of _______“Scissors shorts Pants Jeans TongsTrousers Eyeglasses Pliers TweezersExamples:The pants are in the drawer.The pliers were on the table.A pair of pants is in the drawer.A pair of pliers was on the table.
  • 17H. THERE IS/ THERE ARE(there is/ there was/ there has been) + singular subject (or non-count) . . . .(there are/ there were/ there have been) +plural subject . . . .Example:There is a storm approaching.Singular singularThere have been a number of telephone calls today.Plural pluralThere was water on the floor where he fell.Singular non-count4. PRONOUNSA. SUBJECT PRONOUNSSubject pronouns occur in the subject position of a sentence or after the verbbe. The following list subject pronouns.Note: also use the subject pronouns after than, as and that.Example:I am going to the store.She and I have seen this movie before.We students are going to have a party.Note:” we”, “you” and “us” can be followed directly by anoun.B. COMPLEMENT PRONOUNComplement pronoun occur in complement position,whether they complement a verb or preposition.Note: you and it are same for subject or complement position.Examples:They called us on the telephone. (complement)The policeman was looking for him. (after preposition)C. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVESPossessive adjectives are not the same as possessivepronouns. These simply modify, rather than replace, nouns;possessive pronouns replace nouns. Possessive forms indicateownership.Note: possessive adjectives are used to refer to parts of a body.Examples: John is eating his dinner. Note: “Its” is not the sameas it’s. “it’s” means it is or it has.I WeYou YouHeShe TheyitMe UsYou YouHimHer ThemitMy OurYour YourHisHer TheirIts
  • 18D. POSSESIVE PRONOUNSThese pronouns cannot precede a noun. They are pronounsand thus replace the noun. The noun is understood from thecontext and is not repeated.Note: his and Its are the same whether they precede a nounor not.Examples:This is my book. This is mine.Your teacher is the same as his teacher. Yours is the same as his.E. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNSThese pronouns usually follow the verb and indicate that the subject is bothgiving and receiving the action.Note: in the plural, themselves, changes to selves.Note: most forms are made by adding the suffix to thepossessive adjective; however, himself, itself andthemselves are made by adding the suffix to thecomplement form. The form hisself and theirselvesare always incorrect.Examples:She served herself in the cafeteria.They were talking among themselves.Reflexive pronoun can also be used for emphasis. This means that the subjectdid action alone. In this case normally follows the subject.I myself believe that the proposal is good.John himself bought these gifts.You yourself must do this homework5. VERBS AS COMPLEMENTA. VERBS THAT ARE ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVESometimes the verb functioning as the complement must be in the infinitive(to + verb) and sometimes be in the gerund form. The following verbs are alwaysfollowed by the infinitive if the complement is a verb.Agree Strive Fail Learn Wish DemandDesire Attempt Claim Pretend Refuse HesitateHope Expect Tend Want Need OfferPlan Intend Prepare Decide Forget SeemsExamples:John expects to begin studying law next semester.The president will attempt to reduce inflation in the next four years.The soldiers are preparing to attack the village.Mine OursYours yoursHisHers TheirsItsMyself OurselvesYourself YourselvesHimselfHerself ThemselvesItself
  • 19B. VERBS THAT ARE ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND.Other verbs must always be followed by the gerund. These verbs include:Admit Postpone Resent Quit Resume riskDelay Deny Avoid Finish ConsiderMiss Appreciate Enjoy Can’t help MindReport Suggest Practice Resist RecallExamples:Would you mind not smoking in this office?Michael was considering buying a new car until the prices went up.Note: these sentence are made negative by adding the negative particle not beforethe infinitive or gerund. Example: John decided not to buy the car.C. VERBS + PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDIf a verb + preposition, adjective + preposition, noun + preposition, orpreposition alone is followed directly by a verb, the verb will always be in thegerund form. These lists consists of verb + prepositions:Approve of WorryaboutBe betteroffThinkaboutCount on Put offGive up Rely on Succeed in Keep on Depend on Think ofThe following expressions contain the preposition to. These expression must also befollowed by the gerund.Object to Look forward to Confess toExamples:John gave up smoking because of his doctor’s advice.Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.We are not looking forward to going back to school.D. ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe following adjectives + preposition are also followed by the gerund.Accustomed to Afraid of Capable of Fond ofIntent on Interested in Successful in Tired ofExamples:Mitch is afraid of getting married now.Craig is fond of dancing.Alvaro intent on finishing school next year.E. NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe following nouns + preposition are also followed by the gerund.Choice of Excuse for Intention of Method forPossibility of Reason for (Method of)
  • 20There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.There is no reason for leaving this early.Anytime a preposition is followed directly by a verb, the verb will be in thegerund form.After leaving the party, Ali drove home.F. ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE.The following adjectives are always followed by the infinitive form of the verband never be the gerund.Anxious Easy Prepared Difficult HardEager Boring Common Ready StrangePleased Usual Dangerous Good Able**able is followed by the infinitive (different with capable is followed by of + thegerund.Examples:Mohammad is eager to see his family.It is dangerous to drive in this weather.We are ready to leave now.Note: some verbs can be followed by either infinitive or the gerund but the meaningchanges. They are stop, remember and forget. Example: John stopped studying (johnis not going to study anymore) ; John stopped to study (john stopped doingsomething in order to study).G. PRONOUNS BEFORE THE GERUND OR INFINITIVE.Some common verbs which are followed by the infinitive and which oftenrequire an indirect object are listed here.Allow Ask Beg Convince Expect instructInvite Order Permit Persuade Prepare PromiseRemind Urge WantExamples:Joe asked Mary to call him when she woke up.We ordered him to appear in court.6. QUESTIONSWhen forming a question, one place must the auxiliary or the verb be before thesubject. If there is no auxiliary or be, one must use the correct form of do, does, ordid, after that, the simple form of the verb must be used. .the tense and person areshown only by this auxiliary, not by the main verb.A. YES/ NO QUESTIONSThese are questions for which the answer is yes or no.(auxiliary/ be/ do, does, did)+ subject + verb . . . .Examples:
  • 21Is Mary going to school today?Was Mary sick yesterday ?Did you go to class yesterday?B. INFORMATION QUESTIONSThese are question for which the answer is more than yes or no, there mustsome information in the answer. Who or what in subject question. A subject question is one in which thesubject is unknown.(who/ what) + verb + (complement) + (modifier)- Who opened the door? (Someone opened the door) Whom and what in complement questions. The complement is unknown.(whom/ what) + (auxiliary/ do, does. Did) + subject + verb + modifier- Whom does Ahmad know from Venezuela? (Ahmad knows someonefrom Venezuela) When, where, how and why questions. These question are the same ascomplement question.(when, where, how, why) + (auxiliary/ be/ do, does, did) + subject + verb +complement + modifier . . .- When did John move to Jacksonville?C. EMBEDDED QUESTIONSAn embedded question is one which is included in a sentence or anotherquestion. Study the following rule:Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + subject + verbNote: there must not be an auxiliary between the question word and the subjectin an embedded question. Example:Question : where will the meeting take place?Embedded question: we haven’t ascertained where the meeting will takeplace.The following rule applies if the embedded in another question.Auxiliary + subject + verb + question word + subject + verb- Do you know where he went?Note: question words can be single words or phrases. Phrases include: whose +noun, how many, how much, how long, how far, what time and what kind. Example:I have no idea how long the interview will take.Note: there is no change in the order of subject position questions because thequestion word is functioning as the subject. Example: who will paint that picture?
  • 22D. TAG QUESTIONIn a tag question the speaker makes a statement, but is not completelycertain of the truth, so he or she uses a tag question to verify the previousstatement. Sentences using the tag question should have main clause separatedfrom the tag by a comma. Observe the following rules: Use the same auxiliary verb as in the main clause. Or use do, does, did. If the main clause negative, the tag is affirmative and vice versa. Don’t change the tense. Use the main subject in the main clause and the tag. Negative forms are usually contracted (n ’t). There is, there are and it is forms contain a pseudo- subject so the tag willalso contain there or it if it were subject pronoun. The verb “have” may be used as main verb or it may be used as anauxiliary.Examples:There are only twenty-eight days in February, aren’t there?You and I talked with the professor yesterday, didn’t we?You have two children, don’t you ?7. AFFIRMAYIVE AGRREMENTTo avoid needles repetition of words from the affirmative statement, use theconjunction and, followed by a simple statement using so or too. The order of thisstatement will depend on whether so or too is used. When a form of the verb “be” is used in the main clause, the same tense ofthe verb “be” is used in the simple statement that follows.Affirmative statement (be) + and +Subject + verb (be) + tooSo + verb (be) + subject- I am happy, and you are too.- I am happy, and so are you. When a compound verb (auxiliary + verb), for example: will go, should do,has done etc. occur in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is usedin the simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree.Affirmative statement + and +(compound verb)Subject + auxiliary only + tooSo + auxiliary only + subject- They will work in the lab tomorrow, and you will too.- They will work in the lab tomorrow, and so will you.
  • 23 When any verb except be appears without any auxiliaries in the main clause,the auxiliary do, does or did is used in the simple statement. The subject andthe verb must agree and the tense must be the same.Affirmative statement + and +(single verb except be)Subject + do, does, or did + tooSo + do, does, or did + subject- Jane goes to school, and my sister does too.- Jane goes to school and so does my sister.8. NEGATIVE AGREEMENTEither and neither function in the simple statement much like so and too inaffirmative sentences, however, either and neither are used to indicate negativeagreement.Negative statement + and Subject + negative auxiliary or be +eitherNeither + positive auxiliary or be +subject- I didn’t see Mary this morning. John didn’t see Mary this morning.I didn’t see Mary this morning, and john didn’t either.I didn’t see Mary this morning, and neither did John.9. NEGATIONTo make a sentence negative, add the negative particle not after the auxiliary orverb” be”. If there is no auxiliary or be, add the appropriate form of do, does, or didand place the word not after that.John is rich – john is not rich.Mark is has seen Bill – Mark has not seen Bill.Marvin likes spinach – Marvin does not like spinach.Isaac went to class – Isaac did not go to class.A. SOME/ ANYIf there is a noun in the complement of a negative sentence, oneshould add the particle any before the noun. Note: the following rule appliesto use of some and any.Some – affirmative sentenceAny – negative sentences and questions.- John has some money – John doesn’t have any money.It is also possible to make sentences such as this negative by adding the negativeparticle no before the noun. In this case, the verb cannot be negative.o John has no money.
  • 24B. HARDLY BARELY, RARELY, SELDOM, ETC.,Usually incorrect to have two negatives together, this is called adouble negative and is not acceptable in standard English.Hardly/ barely/ scarcelyMeanAlmost nothing or almost not at allRarely/ seldom/ hardly everMeanAlmost never- John rarely comes to class on time (John usually does not come toclass on time)- Jerry hardly studied last night (Jerry studied very little last night)- She scarcely remembers the accident (She almost doesn’t rememberthe accident)10. COMMANDSA command is an imperative statement. One person orders another to dosomething. It can be preceded by please. The understood subject is you.Close the door Leave the room Pay your rentPlease turn off the light Open the window Be quietA. NEGATIVE COMMANDThe negative command is formed by adding the word “don’t” before theverb.Don’t close the doorPlease don’t turn off the light.B. INDIRECT COMMANDUsually the verb order, ask, tell or say are used to indicate an indirectcommand. They are followed by the infinitive (to + verb).o John told Mary to close the door .o Jack asked Jill to turn off the light.o The teacher told Christopher to open the window.C. NEGATIVE INDIRECT COMMANDTo make an indirect negative command, add the particle not before theinfinitive.Subject + verb + complement + not + (verb in infinitive)- John told Mary not to close the door- Jack asked Jill not to turn off the light.
  • 2511. MODAL AUXILIARIESModal auxiliaries generally used to indicate something which is potential oruncertain. The modal include:PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSEWillCanMayShallMust (have to)Would (used to)CouldMightShould (ought to) (had better)(had to)Note: this words in parentheses ( ) indicate semi modals. These have similar meaningto the modal.A. NEGATION OF MODALSTo make a modal negative, add the particle not after modal.John would like to leave – John would not like to leave.B. QUESTIONS WITH MODALSTo make a question, place the modal et the beginning of the sentence.Example: would John like to leave?Note: a modal is always followed by the simple form (verb word). That’s meanafter a modal can never be: (verb + ing), (verb +s ), past tense, or infinitive.There are two ways that a modal can occur: Modal + simple form of the verb Modal + have + (verb on past participle).C. CONDITIONAL SENTENCESThe modals will, would, can and could often appear in conditional sentences.Usually conditional sentence contain the word if, there are two types ofconditionals: the real (factual and habitual) and the unreal (contrary to facthypothetical).The real or future possible is used when speaker expresses an action or situationwhich usually occurs, or will occur if the circumstances in the main clause aremet. Hypothetical situation: If I am not planning anything for this evening, whensomeone asks me if I want to go to the movies, I will say:“If I have the time, I will go” – “I will go unless I don’t have time”.However, the unreal condition expresses a situation (past, present, or future)thatwould take place or would have taken place if the circumstance expressed wereor had been different now or in the past. Hypothetical situation: if I don’t havetime to go to the movies, but I actually want to go, I say:“if I had the time. I would to go” (I know I don’t have time and therefore I can’tgo to the movies)
  • 26The if clause can come first or last in the sentence with no change in meaning.Notice that when the if clause comes first, it is followed by a comma. Examples:If we didn’t have to study, we could go out tonight.OrWe could go out tonight if we didn’t have to study.Both sentence mean: we can’t go out tonight because we have to study)Note: the word if is generally not followed directly by the modal; the modalappears in the other part of the sentence unless there are two modals in onesentence.If + subject + conjugated verb . . . . + modal . . .OrSubject + modal . . . . + if . . . + conjugated verbNote: in the unreal condition, the past tense form of be is always were inconditional sentence, it can never be was incorrect English.If a verb in unreal conditional sentence isnegative, the meaning is actually positiveand vice versa. Example:If I were rich, I would travel aroundthe world. (I am not rich, I’m notgoing to travel around the world)If I didn’t in a hurry, I wouldn’thave spilled the milk. (I was in a hurry, I spilled the milk)Remember:Past perfect = had + (verb in past participle)Modal + perfect = modal + have + (verb in past participle)D. REAL CONDOTIONS (POSSIBLY TRUE)FUTURE TIMEIf + subject + simple present tense . . + (will, can, may, must) + (verb in simpleform)- If I have the money, I will buy a new car.HABITUALIf + subject +simple present tense + simple present tense . . .- John usually walks to school if he has enough time.COMMANDIf + subject + simple present tense + command form . . .- If you go to the post office, please send this letter for me.E. UNREAL CONDITIONS (NOT TRUE)PRESENT OR FUTURE TIMEIf + subject + simple past tense + (would, could, might) + (verb in simple form)- If I had the time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend.If I were. . . If we were . . .If you were . . . If you were . . .If he were . .If she were . . . If they were . ..If it were . . .
  • 27(I don’t have the time) ( I’m not going to the beach with you)- He would tell you about it if he were here.PAST TIMEIf + subject + past perfect . . + (would, could, might) + have + (verb in pastparticiple- If we had known that you were there, we would have written you aletter.(we didn’t know that you were there) (We didn’t write you a letter)Note: it is also possible to indicate a past unreal condition without using theword if. in this case auxiliary had is before, rather than after the subject. Theclause will usually come first in the sentence.Had + subject + (verb in past participle) . . .F. AS IF/ AS THOUGHThese conjunctions indicate something unreal or contrary to fact and thus arevery similar in form conditional sentences. The verb which follows theseconjunctions must be in the past tense or past perfect. Always use were neverwas.Subject + verb (present) + (as if/ as though) + subject + verb (past) . . .- The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer (it is notwinter)- He acts as though he were rich. (he is not rich)Subject + verb (past) + (as if/ as though) + subject + verb (past perfect) . . .- Jeff looked as if he had seen a ghost (he didn’t see a ghost)- He looked as though he had run ten miles. (he didn’t run ten miles)Note: the two preceding rules apply only when as if or as though indicatecontrary to fact meaning. At times the do not have that meaning and thenwould not be followed by these tense. Example: he looks as if he has finishedthe test (perhaps he has finished).G. HOPE/ WISHThe verb hope is used to indicate something that possibly happened or willpossibly happen. The verb wish is used to indicate something that definitely didnot happen or definitely will not happen. The verb hope can be followed by anytense. The verb wish must not be followed by any present tense verb or presenttense auxiliary. Example:We hope that they will come. (we don’t know if they are coming)We wish that they could come. (they are not coming)
  • 28Note: in the following rules, notice that the word that is optional.FUTURE WISHSubject + wish + (that) + subject + {(could/ would + verb) / (were + verb + ing)}- We wish that you could come to the party to night. (you can’t come)PRESENT WISHSubject + wish + (that) + subject + simple past tense . . .- I wish that I had enough time to finish my homework (I don’t haveenough time)PAST WISHSubject + wish + (that) + subject + {past perfect/ (could have + verb in pastparticiple)}- I wish that I had washed the clothes yesterday (I didn’t wash theclothes)- She wishes that she could have been there (she couldn’t be there)H. WOULDIn conditional sentence, would can also mean a past time habit. When David was young, he would swims once a day.I. USED TOThe expression used to means the same as would. Used to is always in this form,it can never be use to.Subject + used to + verb in simple form . . .- When David was young, he used to swim once a day. (past time habit)Subject + (be/ get) + used to + verb + ing. . .- John is used to swimming every day. (he is accustomed to swimmingevery day)- John got used to swimming every day. (he become accustomed toswimming every day).J. WOULD RATHERWould rather means the sane as prefer. But “would rather” must be followed bya verb. Example :John would rather drink coca- cola than orange juiceJohn prefers drinking coca cola to drinking orange juiceNote: would rather is followed by “than”, but prefer is followed by “to”.Would rather depending on the number of subject and the meaning of sentence.PRESENT
  • 29Subject + would rather + verb in simple form . . .- Jim would rather go to class tomorrow than todayPASTSubject + would rather +have + verb in past participle . . .- John would rather have gone to class yesterday than today.PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVESubject 1 + would rather that+ subject 2 + verb in simple form . . .- I would rather that you call me tomorrow.PRESENT CONTRARY TO FACTSubject 1 + would rather that + subject 2 + verb in simple past tense . . .- Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same departmentas he does. (his girlfriend does not work in the same department)“Would rather” when there are two subjects and the time in the past.PAST CONTRARY TO FACTSubject 1 + would rather that + subject 2 + past perfect . . .- Jim would rather that Jill had gone to class yesterday. (Jill didn’t go toclass yesterday)Note: for the present and past contrary to fact sentence, use didn’t + (verb in simpleform) and hadn’t + (verb past participle) respectively.
  • 30BSE BOOK
  • 311. UNIT 1 (LET ME INTRODUCE MYSELF)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSION.EXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSGood morning, Good afternoon/evening, Hi/ hello!Greeting someoneHow are you doing? Asking how someone isI’m fine, thanks; Very well Saying how you areSee you, good bye, see you soon/ later/tomorrowSaying good byeLet me introduce myself. My name is. .. .I’d like to introduce myself. My nameis. . .Allow me introduce myself. My name is. . .Introducing yourselfI’d like to introduce. . .Let me introduce . . .Allow me introduce . . .Introducing someoneB. NOTEA recount text tells “what happened”. The purpose of the story is to tell aseries of events and evaluate their significance in some ways. It has expression ofattitude and feeling, usually made by the writer about the events. The textorganized to include: The information about ‘who’, ‘where’, and ‘when’. A record of events usually chronological order. Personal comments or evaluative remarks, which are arranged overthroughout the record of events A reorientation which ‘round off’ the sequence of events.The grammatical patterns of the text include: Use nouns and pronouns to identify people or things involved Use of action verbs refer to events Use past tense to locate events in relation to writer’s time Use of conjunction and time connectives to sequence the events Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases to indicate place and time. Use of adjectives to describe nouns
  • 32C. SIMPLE PAST TENSETo talk about past events and conditions, you use VERB-2 forms.Examples: I joined the Traditional Competition Dance in Jakarta last year. It was my biggest competition.Telling past events:Examples: (+) I represeted my junior high school.(-) I did not feel nervous anymore.Telling pas conditions:Examples: (+) It was my biggest competition.(-) I was not ready for this.The adverbs that are usually used in the simple past tense sentence are: yesterday, aweek ago, last week, . . . ago, last . . . etc2. UNIT 2 (I’M SORRY TO HEAR THAT)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONSEXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSI see; you are right; nice; wow; really?;is it?Showing attentionI’m terrible/ dreadfully sorry about. . .How annoyingYou must be very upset/ annoyedHow upsettingThat’s a pityShowingsympathyB. NOTEIn the recount text you may find words and phrases used to start, connect asentence with the next one, and end your composition. The phrases and wordsare: first, then, next, after that, and finally. (+) S + V2 ( - ) S + did not + V1. (+) S + was/ were + noun/ adjective (-) S + was/ were not + noun/ adjective
  • 33C. SIMPLE PAST TENSEThe simple past tense is used to tell actions or situation in the past. Ininterrogative sentences, here are the patterns:Actions(?) Did + Subject + verb 1- Example: Did you go to her wedding party yesterday?Situations/conditions(?) Was / were + Noun/ adjective- Example: Was she angry with you last night?3. UNIT 3 (THAT SOUNDS A NICE IDEA!)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS.EXPRESSION FUNCTIONSThat sounds a nice idea.Thank you. I’d like to.I would, very much.With pleasure.Accepting an offer/ invitationNo, thank you.I’m not sure I canThat’s very kind of you, but . . .Declining an offer/ invitationFirst, prepare the avocados, orange. . .Then cut some onions. . .Finally, fry them together. . .Giving instructionB. NOTEProcedural texts tell how to do something. It is usually organized to include: The goal of the activity Any materials needed to achieve the goal Steps to accomplish the goalThe grammatical patterns of this procedural text include: The use of commands (cut, put, pour. Etc.) The use of action verbs (wash, boil, etc.) The use precise vocabulary (fry, fragrant, etc) The use adverbials to expression details of time and place, mannerand soon.
  • 34C. GOING TO (DO)Going to (do) is used when we already decided to do, what we intend to do inthe future.Example: Tomorrow I’m going to join a karate competition.4. UNIT 4 (CAN I SEE YOU AT 11 A.M.?)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONEXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSWould tomorrow be possible?How about 2 p.m.?Can I see you at 10 p.m.?Will it be convenient if I come 3 p.m.?Making appointmentsSure I’ll waiting for you.Yes, I think so.Great, it’s a perfect time.Sure, that will be fine.Approving appointmentsI’m afraid I can’tSorry I don’t think so.No I can’tCancelling appointmentsB. PROCEDURAL TEXTProcedural texts tell how to do something. It is usually organized to include: The goal of the activity Any materials needed to achieve the goal Steps to accomplish the goalThe grammatical patterns of this procedural text include: The use of commands (cut, put, pour. Etc.) The use of action verbs (wash, boil, etc.) The use precise vocabulary (fry, fragrant, etc) The use adverbials to expression details of time and place, mannerand soon.5. UNIT 5 (I’M DELIGHTED TO HEAR THAT)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS.EXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSI’m delighted to hear thatGreat!It’s marvelous!Saying you are pleased
  • 35I’m very glad for . . .I’m very pleased with . . .Thank you very much for . . .Thanks a lot for . . .ThankingYou are welcomeMy pleasureThat’s all rightAny timeDon’t mention itResponding to thanksB. PASSIVE FORMPRESENT SIMPLE Am/ is/ are + V3- Active : Somebody holds a ceremony.- Passive : A ceremony is held by some body.PAST SIMPLE Was/ were + V3- Active : The King of Majapahit built the castle.- Passive : The castle was built by the King of Majaphit.C. NARRATIVE TEXTA narrative text is a text that entertains and instructs the reader. it entertainsbecause it deals with the unusual and unexpected development of events.. itinstruct because it teaches readers that problems should be confronted andattempts made to resolve them. The text is organized to include: A stage that introduces the main character/s in a setting time and place A sequence of events, which may begin in a usual pattern, is changed insome way so that the pattern of events becomes a problem for one ormore of the character. The problem is resolved or attempted to be resolved A stage which makes explicit how the character has changed and whathas been learned from the experience.The grammatical features include: Use of particular nouns to refer or to describe the particular people andthings that the story about. Use of adjectives to build noun groups to describe the things in the story. Use of time connectives and conjunctions to sequence events through times Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases to locate the particular events Use of past tense action verbs to indicate the actions Use of saying and thinking verbs to indicate what characters are feeling,thinking and saying.
  • 366. UNIT 6 (IT WAS THE LEAST I COULD DO)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONSEXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSThat was really nice of youThanks a million (for). . .I’m much obliged . . .I’m grateful to you.thankingIt’s no trouble at allDelighted I was able to helpIt was the least I could doResponding to thanksB. PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST PERFECTWe use present perfect to give new information or to announce a recenthappeningPRESENT PERFECT Have/ has + V3- George has lived in Jakarta for seven years- The students have not cleaned the classroom for daysWe use past perfect to say something had already happened before this time.PAST PERFECT Had + V3- Jane had just got home when Jill phoned her- Jack had seen this movie before.7. UNIT 7 (WHAT A NICE HAIR CUT!)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONSEXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSYou look cute with thatWhat a . . . !You are looking good!I like your . . .ComplimentingCongratulations on winning. . .I’d like to congratulate you on. . .Well done.CongratulatingOh, not reallyIt’s nice of you to say soHow kind of you to say soThanking you for saying so.Responding to Complimenting andCongratulating
  • 37B. DESCRIPTIVE TEXTDescriptive text is a text which is telling us about the characteristics of aparticular thing, such as person’s characteristics or description.8. UNIT 8 (I FIND IT VERY INTERESTING)A. HOW TO SAY THAT YOU ARE EXCITED, FOR EXAMPLE: Really? That’s wonderful I find it interesting Fantastic! That’s terrific! I’m very enthusiasticB. DESCRIPTIVE TEXTA descriptive text is basically aimed at giving information to the readersabout characteristic features of a thing, person or animal. Descriptive texts oftenuse neutral and objective language. The present tense is mostly used in thedescriptive text. The past tense also used to describe an object that does notexist anymore.9. UNIT 9 (I DON’T BELIEVE IT)A. STUDY THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS.EXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONSAre you serious?No! I don’t believe it!You must be joking!You are kidding!Expressing disbeliefReally?That’s very surprisingWhat a surpriseMy goodness!Expressing surpriseB. NEWS ITEMNews item is the texts which tell information about event of the day which isconsidered newsworthy or important. The text includes:- Newsworthy : recounts the event in summary form- Background events : elaborate what happened, to whom. In whatcircumstances
  • 38- Source : comments by participants in, witnesses to andauthorities’ expert on the event.C. PASSIVE (PRESENT CONTINUES)PRESENT CONTINUOUS Am/ is/ are + being + V3Examples :The patient is being examinated by the doctor.The students are being given the lesson about drugs.10. UNIT 10 (THAT’S VERY KIND OF YOU)A. HOW TO ACCEPT AN OFFER OR INVITATION, FOR EXAMPLES: I won’t say no. I’d love to. That’s very nice of you.B. NEWS ITEMSNews item is the texts which tell information about event of the day which isconsidered newsworthy or important. The text includes:- Newsworthy : recounts the event in summary form- Background events : elaborate what happened, to whom. In whatcircumstances- Source : comments by participants in, witnesses to andauthorities’ expert on the event.C. WILLWill is used when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. “Will”is always followed by Verb 1.Examples :They will give a big support to the time.They will hold training for new members.