There were three major events that
took place in the 18th
are as follows:
1.The American revolution
2.The French revolution and
3.The Industrial revolution ( age of
From 1780 Britain was transformed by the industrial
revolution. Before this time many people use to live
in farms and the countryside. After the industrial
revolution people started living in towns and w0rking
in industries and mining.
In 1707 the act of union was passed. Scotland was
united with England and Wales. England became part
of great Britain.
In the early 18th
century not many people went to
church and religion was not a big thing. Most people
went to church on a Sunday however there was a lack
of energy in the church.
This changed in the 1730’s. A man called George
Whitefield (1714-1770) became a great preacher and
the church of England became the main place where
many people went. By the end of the 18th
religious enthusiasm began to revive.
In the 18th century men wore knee-length trouser like
garments called breeches and stockings. They also wore
waistcoats and frock coats. They wore linen shirts. Both
men and women wore wigs and for men three-cornered
hats were popular. Men wore buckled shoes.
Women wore stays (a bodice with strips of whalebone)
and hooped petticoats under their dresses. Women in the
18th century did not wear knickers.
Fashionable women carried folding fans.
Fashion was very important for the wealthy but poor
people's clothes hardly changed at all.
In the early 18th century charity schools were founded in
many towns. They were sometimes called Blue Coat
Schools because of the colour of the children's uniforms.
Boys from well off families went to grammar schools. Girls
from well off families also went to school but it was felt
important for them to learn 'accomplishments' like
embroidery and music rather than academic subjects.
However non-comformists or dissenters (Protestants who
did not belong to the Church of England) were not
allowed to attend most public schools. Instead they went
to their own dissenting academies.
In the 18th
century there was a distruction of political
centuries that had been built from the past centuries.
The political parties lost their power and were taken
By the middle of the 18th century, both Whigs (A
member of an 18th- and 19th-century British political
party that was opposed to the Tories) and Tories
found themselves changed from what they had been.
Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata
Rachmaninov’s Piano Concerto
Powerful expression of emotion - not only love,
e.g. hate or death
themes relating to dreams, nature, and the
mysterious or supernatural
invents the seed
patents the steam
invents the diving
patents the fire
John Kay invents
the first flying
invents a safety
invents the flush
creates a small
invents the first
A movement of the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries that
marked the reaction in
literature, philosophy, art,
religion, and politics
oLove of nature
oAn interest in the past
oInterest in human rights
oInterest in the gothic
leading to the story Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.
o Born in 1797 to William Godwin and Mary
o Her mother died shortly after Mary was born
o Shelley learned about her mother only through
writings her mother left behind, including A
Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) which
said that women should have the same
educational opportunities as rights in society as
o Avid reader and scholar and knew through her father
some of the most important men of the time (William
Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
o Married Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1816 and listened
intently to his intellectual conversations with others
oOn a visit in Switzerland to Lord Byron, she
was challenged to write a story. She had
heard Byron and Shelley (her husband)
discussing “the nature of the principle of
life and whether there was any chance of its
ever being discovered.” From this
conversation, she had the “waking dream”
which eventually became the novel
Frankenstein is generally categorized as a Gothic
novel, a genre of fiction that uses gloomy settings
and supernatural events to create and atmosphere
of mystery and terror.
Shelley adds to her development of the plot with
the use of psychological realism.
Gothic literature derives its name from its name
from the similarities to the gothic medieval
cathedrals. The word ‘gothic’ comes from ‘Goth,’
the name of the one of the barbaric German tribes
that invaded the Roman Empire.
The arches and spires of gothic cathedrals reach
nearly to the sky; and the cathedrals are covered
with wild carvings to show the conflicts with
supernatural forces – demons, angels and
Like Gothic architecture, Gothic literature focuses on
humanity’s fascination with the unknown, and the
frightening, inexplicable aspects of the universe and the
human soul. Gothic literature pictures the human
condition as an ambiguous mixture of good and evil
powers that cannot be understood completely by human
The Gothic perspective conceives of the human condition
as a paradox—humans are divided in the conflict between
opposing forces in the world and in themselves.
The Gothic themes of the struggle between good and evil
in the human soul, and the existence of unexplainable
elements in humanity and the cosmos, are prominent
themes in Frankenstein.
There were many famous poets in the 18th
This was the time when people started reading poems
of all genres from different poets, not only wealthy
The main famous poets were:
There were many famous writers in the 18th
Judith Sargent Murray