There were three major events that took place in the 18 th century. Theses are as follows:
The American revolution
The French revolution and
The Industrial revolution ( age of Enlightment )
From 1780 Britain was transformed by the industrial revolution. Before this time many people use to live in farms and the countryside. After the industrial revolution people started living in towns and w0rking in industries and mining.
In 1707 the act of union was passed. Scotland was united with England and Wales. England became part of great Britain.
In the early 18 th century not many people went to church and religion was not a big thing. Most people went to church on a Sunday however there was a lack of energy in the church.
This changed in the 1730’s. A man called George Whitefield (1714-1770) became a great preacher and the church of England became the main place where many people went. By the end of the 18 th century religious enthusiasm began to revive.
In the 18th century men wore knee-length trouser like garments called breeches and stockings. They also wore waistcoats and frock coats. They wore linen shirts. Both men and women wore wigs and for men three-cornered hats were popular. Men wore buckled shoes.
Women wore stays (a bodice with strips of whalebone) and hooped petticoats under their dresses. Women in the 18th century did not wear knickers.
Fashionable women carried folding fans.
Fashion was very important for the wealthy but poor people's clothes hardly changed at all.
In the early 18th century charity schools were founded in many towns. They were sometimes called Blue Coat Schools because of the colour of the children's uniforms.
Boys from well off families went to grammar schools. Girls from well off families also went to school but it was felt important for them to learn 'accomplishments' like embroidery and music rather than academic subjects.
However non-comformists or dissenters (Protestants who did not belong to the Church of England) were not allowed to attend most public schools. Instead they went to their own dissenting academies.
In the 18 th century there was a distruction of political centuries that had been built from the past centuries. The political parties lost their power and were taken over.
By the middle of the 18th century, both Whigs (A member of an 18th- and 19th-century British political party that was opposed to the Tories) and Tories found themselves changed from what they had been .
Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata
Rachmaninov’s Piano Concerto
Powerful expression of emotion - not only love, e.g. hate or death
themes relating to dreams, nature, and the mysterious or supernatural
1701 Jethro Tull invents the seed drill 1709 Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the piano 1711 John shore invents the turning fork 1712 Thomas Newcomen patents the steam engine 1717 Edmond Halley invents the diving bell 1722 French C.Hopffer patents the fire extinguisher 1724 Gabriel Fahrenheit invents first thermometer 1733 John Kay invents the first flying shuffle 1752 Benjamin Franklin invents the first lightening rod 1755 Samuel Johnson publishes first English dictionary 1767 Joseph Priestly invents carbonated water 1769 James Watt invents first improved steam engine 1784 Joseph Brama invents a safety lock 1776 David Bushnell invents a submarine 1775 Alexander Cummings invents the flush toilet 1792 The first ambulance 1796 Edward Jenner creates a small pox vaccination 1799 Alessandro Volta invents the first battery
A movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that marked the reaction in literature, philosophy, art, religion, and politics
Love of nature
An interest in the past
Interest in human rights
Interest in the gothic
leading to the story Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.
Born in 1797 to William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft
Her mother died shortly after Mary was born
Shelley learned about her mother only through writings her mother left behind, including A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) which said that women should have the same educational opportunities as rights in society as men.
Avid reader and scholar and knew through her father some of the most important men of the time (William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
Married Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1816 and listened intently to his intellectual conversations with others
On a visit in Switzerland to Lord Byron, she was challenged to write a story. She had heard Byron and Shelley (her husband) discussing “the nature of the principle of life and whether there was any chance of its ever being discovered.” From this conversation, she had the “waking dream” which eventually became the novel Frankenstein .
Frankenstein is generally categorized as a Gothic novel, a genre of fiction that uses gloomy settings and supernatural events to create and atmosphere of mystery and terror.
Shelley adds to her development of the plot with the use of psychological realism.
Gothic literature derives its name from its name from the similarities to the gothic medieval cathedrals. The word ‘gothic’ comes from ‘Goth,’ the name of the one of the barbaric German tribes that invaded the Roman Empire.
The arches and spires of gothic cathedrals reach nearly to the sky; and the cathedrals are covered with wild carvings to show the conflicts with supernatural forces – demons, angels and monsters.
Like Gothic architecture, Gothic literature focuses on humanity’s fascination with the unknown, and the frightening, inexplicable aspects of the universe and the human soul. Gothic literature pictures the human condition as an ambiguous mixture of good and evil powers that cannot be understood completely by human reason.
The Gothic perspective conceives of the human condition as a paradox—humans are divided in the conflict between opposing forces in the world and in themselves.
The Gothic themes of the struggle between good and evil in the human soul, and the existence of unexplainable elements in humanity and the cosmos, are prominent themes in Frankenstein .
There were many famous poets in the 18 th century. This was the time when people started reading poems of all genres from different poets, not only wealthy ones.
The main famous poets were:
There were many famous writers in the 18 th century. They include: