project on research methodology n data analysis
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bachelor of management project contains information about brand product research n data analysis

bachelor of management project contains information about brand product research n data analysis

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  • 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As long journey of B.M.S.course draws to an end we are over whelmed withfeelings of gratitude for all those who have made it possible for us to reach thisstage. Some have helped us directly and some indirectly but one and all of them weare of our success in completing this course. There have been many speed breakers in route but all these people have helpedto make the road sooth, helped us to speed on towards the goal. It is faith that givesus strength, it is faith that leads us onwards, it is faith that brings us success, andwe bow to the GOD who is the inner self and seek his blessings for completing thiscourse. First and foremost our heartfelt thanks go to our guide Prof. R.R.shah, ShriM.D. shah Mahila College, T.S. Bafna road, Malad west, Mumbai400064. For hisguidance in the subject and technical knowledge this task would have remainedincomplete. For inspiration, constant motivation and unceasing support, positive thinking,encouragement at all times, our special thanks goes to Smt.Bharati Akshay Naik,director of Janseva Samiti, c/o Shri M. D. Shah Mahila college, Malad WestMumbai 400064, who has been a pillar of strength through the ups and downsthroughout our life also who have been a source of inspiration to me my team andto move further to meet my academic aims. Our further thank to the following staff of Shri.M.D.Shah Mahila College, Themanagement of janseva samiti. Dr.Deepa Sharma, Principal the teaching, library,administrative staff, support staff and students. Similarly, we express our gratitude to the Management, coordinator ProfessorR.R.SHAH SIR Smt. Bharti A Naik and all the staff of Shri m.d. shah mahilacollege, malad west Mumbai 400064. 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONIt is the emotional and psychological relationship you have with your customers. Strong brandselicit thoughts, emotions, and sometimes physiological responses from customers. Examine thefollowing logos:Simply looking at these logos elicits an emotional response. You had thoughts and feelings abouteach company. In fact, when you looked at the A flac logo, you probably heard the duck in yourmind saying "Ah Flack." When starting your own business, one of your most important concernsis to develop your companys face to the world. This is your brand. It is the companys name,how that name is visually expressed through a logo, and how that name and logo extendthroughout an organizations communications. A brand is also how the company is perceived byits customers — the associations and inherent value they place on your business.A brand is also a kind of promise. It is a set of fundamental principles as understood by anyonewho comes into contact with a company. A brand is an organizations "reason for being"; it ishow that reason is expressed through the various communications to its key audiences, includingcustomers, shareholders, employees, and analysts. A brand should also represent the desiredattributes of a companys products, services, and initiatives. Apples brand is a great example.The Apple logo is clean, elegant, and easily implemented. Notice that the company has alteredthe use of the apple logo from rainbow-striped to monochromatic. In this way they keep theirbrand and signal in a new era for their expansive enterprise. Think about how youve seen thebrand in advertising, trade shows, packaging, product design, and so on. Its distinctive and it alladds up to a particular promise. The Apple brand stands for quality of design and ease of use. 2
  • 3. Products and services have become so alike that they fail to distinguish themselves by theirquality, efficacy, reliability, assurance and care. Brands add emotion and trust to these productsand services, thus providing clues that simplify consumers’ choice.(2) These added emotions and trust help create a relationship between brands and consumers,which ensures consumers’ loyalty to the brands.(3) Brands create aspiration lifestyles based on these consumer relationships. Associating oneselfwith a brand transfers these lifestyles onto consumers.(4) The branded lifestyles extol values over and above the brands’ product or service categorythat allow the brands to be extended into other product and service categories. Thus, savingcompanies, the trouble and costs of developing new brands while entering new lucrative markets.(5) The combination of emotions, relationships, lifestyles and values allows brand owners tocharge a price premium for their products and services, which otherwise are barelydistinguishable from generics.A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products,services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed. A brand nameis the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept. Branding is the process of creating anddisseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well asto individual product and service names.Brands are usually protected from use by others by securing a trademark or service mark from anauthorized agency, usually a government agency. Before applying for a trademark or servicemark, you need to establish that someone else hasnt already obtained one for your name. Brandsare often expressed in the form of logos, graphic representations of the brand. In computers, arecent example of widespread brand application was the "Intel Inside" label provided tomanufacturers that use Intels microchips .A companys brands and the publics awareness ofthem is often used as a factor in evaluating a company. Corporations sometimes hire marketresearch firms to study public recognition of brand names as well as attitudes toward the brands.Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line,or brand. It seeks to increase the products perceived value to the customer and thereby increasebrand franchise and brand equity. Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level ofquality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the sameproduct. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products morefavorable. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The value of thebrand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer. This can resultfrom a combination of increased sales and increased price, and/or reduced COGS (cost of goodssold), and/or reduced or more efficient marketing investment. All of these enhancements mayimprove the profitability of a brand, and thus, "Brand Managers" often carry line-managementaccountability for a brands P&L (Profit and Loss) profitability, in contrast to marketing staff 3
  • 4. manager roles, which are allocated budgets from above, to manage and execute. In this regard,Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more strategic role thanMarketing alone. Brand evaluation in the process of building and sustaining brandsA new role for brands—at the core of business 4
  • 5. The time has come to recognize a new role for brands—and the brand team—at the core ofbusiness. As shown in the Brand Core Model below, brand building is moving to a crucialposition at the strategic center of business operations. At this vital confluence of company,product and customer, the brand team provides the vision and the platforms to create new formsof value, and to create and grow the customers that will drive the business forward. Brand Core ModelCreating value at the coreThe Brand Core Model illustrates how brands have moved from symbols and slogans at theperiphery of business to a value-creating activity at the heart of the enterprise. Brand practicebelongs at the company core because the brand logic of creating customers shapes the alliedfields of marketing, product development and customer development. From this central position,the brand team emerges as a key player in determining how customers are created, and howcustomers can be grown into new market opportunities.Brand as the hub of a value network 5
  • 6. Within the brand-centric enterprise, the brand is the core of a value creation process and the hubof a value network, feeding the innovation pipeline within the company, and between thecompany and its customers. This new brand environment differs radically from that of traditionalbrands. The brands produced are action-based. They’ve moved beyond the symbols, gestures andidentities of conventional brand campaigns. These new brands are digitally enabled platformsand programs of value innovation. They pump value through the company, into the customer,and back again, gaining power and reach via network effects. While old brands beg for attention,these new brands join their customers as allies, directly adding pop and pulse to their lives.Brands move from periphery to coreFor most companies, this will be a dramatic new role for brands and the brand team. It marks theprogress of brands from a communication layer on the periphery of business to a valueinnovation engine at the core.In this process, brands are finally emerging as a strategic business practice in their own right.They’re no longer a subset of marketing, advertising, design, packaging or communications.Brand strategy can drive the business. Brand practice brings its own vision, platform logic,customer creation process, methodology, tools and resources.Brands reinventedFrom their new locus, brands are situated to reinvent themselves, sloughing off antiquated, top-down approaches for a new fusion of culture, technology and social software. They’re free tomorph to customer needs, large or small, from a panorama of the possible to pocket-size, a pin,or a pixel. As we’ve said before: “Brands are tools that enable customers to interoperate with theuniverse. The genius of brands is that they have no limits. The value of brands is that throughthem, customers have no limits.”A new role for the brand teamThe Brand Core Model illustrates the central importance of the brand team. Through acollaborative process, the brand team brings together company vision, business priorities,platform logic and freewheeling creativity, all focused on creating and growing customers. Therole of the team is to guide and augment value innovation through the company, and thenthrough the customer, insuring that resulting customer growth can return new forms of valueback to the business.Brand central: how it works 6
  • 7. The Brand Core Model illustrates how innovation and value are co-created by groups inside andoutside the company, mediated by the brand. The brand provides a collaborative framework forvalue innovation, cutting across internal divisions and other boundaries, and speeding innovationto market.At the intersection of Company and Product, the brand shapes Marketing by defining theplatforms and programs that will create and grow the customers to grow the business. Brandplatforms and programs become the structure for marketing imagination.At the intersection of Product and Customer, the brand shapes Innovation in three ways: 1) byproviding clear brand platform and customer platform direction to R&D, product developmentand engineering; 2) by helping develop cost-effective, high-value prototypes, and 3) by enlistingcustomer initiative and intelligence to augment the innovation process.At the intersection of Customer And Company, the brand shapes Value by using collaborativemethods and value networks to establish an exclusive context of mutual (company/customer)value. This helps synchronize brand platform deliverables with customer platform needs.Because the brand is committed to creating customer freedoms, it does not lead to backwaterpools where innovation stagnates in an attempt to contain customers. 7
  • 8. ProductThe most common brand is that associated with a tangible product, such as a car or drink. Thiscan be very specific or may indicate a range of products. In any case, there is always a unifyingelement that is the brand being referred to in the given case.Individual productProduct brands can be very specific, indicating a single product, such as classic Coca-Cola. It canalso include particular physical forms, such as Coca-cola in a traditional bottle or a can.Product rangeProduct brands can also be associated with a range, such as the Mercedes S-class cars or allvarieties of Colgate toothpaste.ServiceAs companies move from manufacturing products to delivering complete solutions andintangible services, the brand is about the service.Service brands are about what is done, when it is done, who does it, etc. It is much more variablethan products brands, where variation can be eliminated on the production line. Even incompanies such as McDonalds where the service has been standardized down to the eye contactand smile, variation still occurs.Consistency can be a problem in service: we expect some variation, and the same smile everytime can turn into an annoyance as we feel we are being manipulated. Service brands need a lotmore understanding than product brands. 8
  • 9. OrganizationOrganizations are brands, whether it is a company that delivers products and services or someother group. Thus Greenpeace, Mercedes and the US Senate are all defined organizations andeach has qualities associated with them that constitute the brand.In once sense, the brand of the organization is created as the sum of its products and services.After all, this is all we can see and experience of the organization. Looking at it another way, theflow also goes the other way: the intent of the managers of the organization permeatesdownwards into the products and the services which project a common element of that intent.PersonThe person brand is focused on one or a few individuals, where the branding is associated withpersonality.IndividualA pure individual brand is based on one person, such as celebrity actor or singer. The brand canbe their natural person or a carefully crafted projection.Politicians work had to project a brand that is attractive to their electorate (and also work hard tokeep their skeletons firmly in the cupboard). In a similar way, rock stars who want to appear coolalso are playing to a stereotype.GroupNot much higher in detail than an individual is the brand of a group. In particular when this is asmall group and the individuals are known, the group brand and the individual brand overlap, forexample in the way that the brand of a pop group and the brand of its known members arestrongly connected.Organizations can also be linked closely with the brand of an individual, for example Virgin isclosely linked with Richard Branson.EventEvents have brands too, whether they are rock concerts, the Olympics, a space-rocket launch or atown-hall dance.Event brands are strongly connected with the experience of the people attending, for examplewith musical pleasure or amazement at human feats. 9
  • 10. Product, service and other brands realize the power of event brands and seek to have their brandsassociated with the event brands. Thus sponsorship of events is now big business as one brandtries to get leverage from the essence of the event, such as excitement and danger of car racing.GeographyAreas of the world also have essential qualities that are seen as characterizations, and hence alsohave brand. These areas can range from countries to state to cities to streets and buildings.Those who govern or represent these geographies will work hard to develop the brand. Cities, forexample, may have de-facto brands of being dangerous or safe, cultural or bland, which will beused by potential tourists in their decisions to visit and by companies in their decisions on whereto set up places of employment.Brand equity refers to the marketing effects or outcomes that accrue to a product with its brandname compared with those that would accrue if the same product did not have the brand name.And, at the root of these marketing effects is consumers knowledge. In other words, consumersknowledge about a brand makes manufacturers/advertisers respond differently or adoptappropriately adept measures for the marketing of the brand The study of brand equity isincreasingly popular as some marketing researchers have concluded that brands are one of themost valuable assets that a company has Brand equity is one of the factors which can increasethe financial value of a brand to the brand owner, although not the only one Measurement 10
  • 11. There are many ways to measure a brand. Some measurements approaches are at the firm level,some at the product level and still others are at the consumer level.Firm Level: Firm level approaches measure the brand as a financial asset. In short, a calculationis made regarding how much the brand is worth as an intangible asset. For example, if you wereto take the value of the firm, as derived by its market capitalization - and then subtract tangibleassets and "measurable" intangible assets- the residual would be the brand equity. One highprofile firm level approach is by the consulting firm Inter brand. To do its calculation, Interbrand estimates brand value on the basis of projected profits discounted to a present value. Thediscount rate is a subjective rate determined by Inter brand and Wall Street equity specialists andreflects the risk profile, market leadership, stability and global reach of the brandProduct Level: The classic product level brand measurement example is to compare the price ofa no-name or private label product to an "equivalent" branded product. The difference in price,assuming all things equal, is due to the brand. More recently a revenue premium approach hasbeen advocatedConsumer Level: This approach seeks to map the mind of the consumer to find out whatassociations with the brand that the consumer has. This approach seeks to measure the awareness(recall and recognition) and brand image (the overall associations that the brand has). Freeassociation tests and projective techniques are commonly used to uncover the tangible andintangible attributes, attitudes, and intentions about a brand. Brands with high levels of awarenessand strong, favorable and unique associations are high equity brands 11
  • 12. Define the vision. Before moving ahead with the web site, create a brand positioning statement.“This isn’t just, ‘What kind of web site do we want to be?’ This is ‘Who are we?’” says HarleyManning, vice president at Forrester Research in Cambridge, Mass., a technology and marketresearch firm that advises on the effects technology has on consumers and businesses. Goodbrand statements typically include the company’s mission, vision and values. “It’s succinct. It’stypically something that will fit on a page easily,” he says.Build a brand worth believing in. “Do you so believe in what you’re creating that you wouldtrademark it?” says Andrea Fitch, president and CEO of Red Carpet Creations, Inc., and nationalpresident of the Society for Marketing Professional Services, both based out of Alexandria, Va.Really consider what kind of brand could represent the business through the next decade. “Don’thave a logo that in five years you’re going to be tired of and discard for another,” she says.Remember, the web site is the brand. “A web site is not just a communication medium,”Manning says. “It is actually a channel that must deliver on the promise.” Essentially, a web siteshould embody the promise that it makes to customers. If, for instance, a business claims to beinnovative, the web site should look fresh and modern.Create a cohesive experience between all mediums. Before she launched her company’s newweb site, Fitch made sure it would be an event that her potential clients would never forget. RedCarpet Creations mailed 4,000 silver tubes containing scrolls that looked like rolled-up carpet.Inside the scrolls was an announcement about the web site’s launch. Once online, the web sitewas an extension of the invitations because it followed through on the themes of red carpetimagery and references to visitors being treated like a VIP. Customers should easily be able torecognize the company’s brand, whether it is print, online or some other form of media, Manningsays.Don’t sacrifice creativity. Once the brand’s guidelines are established, creative choices mustbring those attributes to life, Manning says. Don’t let the company’s brand become sodominating that there is no room for new thoughts and ideas. Brand should be the jumping-offpoint for interesting ideas, not the place where every new idea dead-ends. Fitch stresses that asense of fun and whimsy will only enhance the likelihood that people will take an interest in theweb site.Don’t communicate brand at the expense of delivering. While a web site can be a significanttool for building brand awareness, clarity and functionality are paramount. “Just be careful not tolet the communication about your brand get in the way of delivering your message,” Manningsays. People should be able to understand how to navigate the site without knowing a thing aboutthe company’s catch phrases. “You can’t frustrate and annoy people into liking your brand,” hesays.Listen to the customers: They determine a brand’s true value. Pay attention to customerfeedback about the site because, ultimately, it’s the customers’ opinion that counts. When itcomes to building a brand, a company can incorporate everything from signature colors to catchphrases, but at the end of the day, it’s the consumer who decides what a brand is really worth.“It’s not what you say [about] yourself, it’s what others say of you,” Fitch says. IMPORTANCE OF BRAND 12
  • 13. Branding is a very powerful component in business. The brand must have a logo to makebranding easier and more possible. The consumers decide if they will buy a product or use aservice based on how they view the brand. The brand itself tells us or let us imagine how good orbad the product is even if we never tasted it before! All that brand promotion and advertisingreally do tell us how great a brand can be (like Nike). Once a customer likes your brand he/shewill definitely come back for repeated services or products. The qualities of the product orservices are ensured through the customers minds from the brand image. Brand is not onlyconvenient for businesses for repeated customer purchase but also easier for customers to filterout the countless generic items. Brand gives consumers the reason to buy it and wastes less timefor consumer to choose. There are ways to improve a brand from advertising such as viralcampaign (more trustworthy), online ads, print ads and commercials. Another way is to improveyour product or services that will reinforce the brand. This is a good way to promote your brandby always being in the cutting edge or “customer’s first image”. The qualities of your productsand services will reinforce the brand. Advertise as much as possible to spread that message andmake it into a cult brand. Branding doesn’t only benefit the business but you as well (yes I meanit). The brand you choose reflects who you are and expresses yourself on what you like to do andbe able to join the community of like minded people. Branding is a win: win situation for boththe businesses and the loyal customers. Advantages of BrandsA strong brand offers many advantages for marketers including: • Brands provide multiple sensory stimuli to enhance customer recognition. For example, a brand can be visually recognizable from its packaging, logo, shape, etc. It can also be recognizable via sound, such as hearing the name on a radio advertisement or talking with someone who mentions the product. • Customers who are frequent and enthusiastic purchasers of a particular brand are likely to become Brand Loyal. Cultivating brand loyalty among customers is the ultimate reward for successful marketers since these customers are far less likely to be enticed to switch to other brands compared to non-loyal customers. • Well-developed and promoted brands make product positioning efforts more effective. The result is that upon exposure to a brand (e.g., hearing it, seeing it) customers conjure up mental images or feelings of the benefits they receive from using that brand. The reverse is even better. • This “benefit = brand” association provides a significant advantage for the brand that the customer associates with the benefit sought. • Firms that establish a successful brand can extend the brand by adding new products under the same “family” brand. Such branding may allow companies to introduce new products more easily since the brand is already recognized within the market. Brand Limitations 13
  • 14. Ideally, a good brand serves to enhance a sound infrastructure with a solid reputation. Brandingis not a magic wand; it cannot provide a quick fix to a company’s problems or compensate forany shortcomings. Branding will help very little if your internal operations and culturalpersonality are opposite what you are trying to convey to the outside audience. Your internalbrand personality is just as important as the external message. The average customer is not goingto purchase a product or service without feeling comfortable with the company offering it.Consumers have become alert to the “fluff” in advertising. They are also on the lookout forcompanies that outright lie. When-not if – the public finds out it has been deceived, the companyin question will have to deal with a backlash-and the damage may very well be permanent. Thebest way to maintain good public relations during the brand building process is to run an ethicalbusiness. Public relations involve sharing information with the public, and that creates problemswhen you have something to hide. So…make sure you’re not running your brand in a way thatrequires you to keep secrets from any of your publics-customers, employees, shareholders, andso on.No matter how persuasive your ad campaign or how hard-working your sales staff may be,neither can move an inferior product, coupled by a poor image, off the shelves. If a companydoes not does not live up to consumer expectations, negative word-of-mouth will eventually beits undoing. An eye-catching logo that represents an uninspired company or a substandardproduct will be quickly sniffed out by savvy buyers. In this case, branding can work to drivecustomers away. Consumer brand preferenceThe essence of being in business by any business outfits is to produce for sales and profits. Inorder to remain in business an organization must generate enough sales from its products tocover operating costs and post reasonable profits. For many organizations, sales estimate is thestarting point in budgeting or profit planning. It is so because it must be determined, in mostcases, before production units could be arrived at while production units will in turn affectmaterial purchases. However, taking decision on sales is the most difficult tasks facing manybusiness executives. This is because it is difficult to predict, estimate or determine with accuracy,potential customers’ demands as they are uncontrollable factors external to an organization.Considering, therefore, the importance of sales on business survival and the connection betweencustomers and sales, it is expedient for organizations to engage in programmes that can influenceconsumers’ decision to purchase its products. This is where advertising and brand managementare relevant. Advertising is a subset of promotion mix which is one of the 4ps in the marketingmix i.e. product, price, place and promotion. As a promotional strategy, advertising serve as amajor tool in creating product awareness and condition the mind of a potential consumer to takeeventual purchase decision. Advertiser’s primary mission is to reach prospective customers andinfluence their awareness, attitudes and buying behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keepindividuals (markets) interested in their products. To succeed, they need to understand whatmakes potential customers behave the way they do. The advertisers goals is to get enoughrelevant market data to develop accurate profiles of buyers-to-find the common group (andsymbols) for communications this involves the study of consumers behaviour: the mental and 14
  • 15. emotional processes and the physical activities of people who purchase and use goods andservices to satisfy particular needs and wants (Arens, 1996). Proctor et al. (1982) noted that theprincipal aim of consumer behaviour analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular waysunder certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behaviour,especially the economic, social and psychological aspects which can indicate the most favouredmarketing mix that management should select. Consumer behaviour analysis helps to determinethe direction that consumer behaviour is likely to make and to give preferred trends in productdevelopment, attributes of the alternative communication method etc. consumer behavioursanalysis views the consumer as another variable in the marketing sequence, a variable thatcannot be controlled and that will interpreted the product or service not only in terms of thephysical characteristics, but in the context of this image according to the social andpsychological makeup of that individual consumer (or group of consumers). Economic theoryhas sought to establish relationships between selling prices, sales achieved and consumer’sincome; similarly, advertising expenditure is frequently compared with sales. On otheroccasion’s financial accounting principles maybe applied to analyses profit and losses.Management ratios, net profit before tax, liquidity and solvency ratios can all be investigated.Under the situations the importance of the consumer’s motivations, perceptions, attitudes andbeliefs are largely ignored. The consumer is assumed to be “rational” that is, to react in thedirection that would be suggested by economic theory and financial principles. However, it isoften apparent that consumer behaviours does not fall neatly into these expected patterns. It is forthese reasons that consumer behaviour analysis is conducted as yet another tool to assess thecomplexities of marketing operations. The proliferation of assorted brands of food drinks in thecountry has led to the cut-throat competition for increased market share being witnessedcurrently among the operations in the food drink industry. Today, in Nigeria, there exists morethan twenty brands of food drink both local and foreign, out of which two, namely CadburyNigeria Plc’s Bournvita and Nestle Nigeria Plc’sMilo keenly compete for market leadership.There are quite a host of up-coming and low-price localized brands in small sachets with “Vita“suffixes springing up in every nook and cranny of the country. Existing and popular brands,therefore, face intense competition with the “affordable” localized” “Vitas” with high sugarcontent targeted at the low-income groups. It is, therefore, imperative for the more establishedbrands like Bournvita to employ brilliant advertising and branding strategies to influenceconsumers’ behaviours in order to continue to enjoy and maintain market leadership. Given thecompetitive environment in the food and beverages sub sector of the economy and the highpotential of advertising in helping companies realize and retain their position this paper examinethe influence of advertising on a leading company in the food and beverages subsector as a casestudy.RURAL BRAND PREFERENCE DETERMINANTS ININDIA 15
  • 16. This study was done in two Indian states with the objective of exploring the dynamics ofbranding in rural India. The study was done through sample survey using structuredquestionnaire. The sample size for the study was 354. The measurement was done on brandpreference at overall level for three product families namely FMCG (Fast moving consumergoods), consumer durables and agro inputs. Preference for various aspects of brands was alsomeasured. The objective was to establish the determinants of brand preference in rural India forFMCG, durables and agro inputs and to find out whether any differential exists across productfamilies. The collected data was analyzed using regression analysis. Findings indicated that goodquality, value for money and sense of identity with brand were likely to act as key determinantsof a FMCG brand in rural India. Better finish and good looks, recommendations from retailerswere found be key determinants of a consumer durable brand in rural India. Only value formoney emerged as significant determinant for an agro input brand in rural India. The paperdiscusses why a brand preference in rural India is limited to these attributes only and what ruralbranding means in the current context. Brand loyaltyBrand loyalty, in marketing, consists of a consumers commitment to repurchase or otherwisecontinue using the brand and can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service orother positive behaviors such as word of mouth advocacy.Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however. Customers may repurchase a branddue to situational constraints (such as vendor lock-in), a lack of viable alternatives, or out ofconvenience. Such loyalty is referred to as "spurious loyalty". True brand loyalty exists whencustomers have a high relative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited throughrepurchase behavior. This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm: customers are willingto pay higher prices, they may cost less to serve, and can bring new customers to the firm. Forexample, if Joe has brand loyalty to Company A he will purchase Company As products even ifCompany Bs are cheaper and/or of a higher quality.An example of a major brand loyalty program that extended for several years and spreadworldwide is Pepsi Stuff. Perhaps the most significant contemporary example of brand loyalty isthe dedication that many Mac users show to the Apple Company and its products.From the point of view of many marketers, loyalty to the brand — in terms of consumer usage— is a key factor: Factors influencing brand loyalty 16
  • 17. It has been suggested that loyalty includes some degree of pre-dispositional commitment towarda brand. Brand loyalty is viewed as multidimensional construct. It is determined by severaldistinct psychological processes and it entails multivariate measurements. Customers perceivedvalue, brand trust, customers satisfaction, repeat purchase behaviour, and commitment are foundto be the key influencing factors of brand loyalty. Commitment and repeated purchase behaviourare considered as necessary conditions for brand loyalty followed by perceived value,satisfaction, and brand trust. Fred Reichheld, one of the most influential writers on brand loyalty,claimed that enhancing customer loyalty could have dramatic effects on profitability. Among thebenefits from brand loyalty — specifically, longer tenure or staying as a customer for longer —was said to be lower sensitivity to price. This claim had not been empirically tested untilrecently. Recent research found evidence that longer-term customers were indeed less sensitiveto price increases.Industrial marketsIn industrial markets, organizations regard the heavy users as major accounts to be handled bysenior sales personnel and even managers; whereas the light users may be handled by thegeneral sales force or by a dealer.Portfolios of brandsAndrew Ehrenberg, then of the London Business School said that consumers buy portfolios ofbrands. They switch regularly between brands, often because they simply want a change. Thus,brand penetration or brand share reflects only a statistical chance that the majority of customerswill buy that brand next time as part of a portfolio of brands they favour. It does not guaranteethat they will stay loyal.Market inertiaOne of the most prominent features of many markets is their overall stability — or inertia. Thus,in their essential characteristics they change very slowly, often over decades — sometimescenturies — rather than over months. This stability has two very important implications. The firstis that those who are clear brand leaders are especially well placed in relation to their competitorsand should want to further the inertia which lies behind that stable position. This, however, stilldemands a continuing pattern of minor changes to keep up with the marginal changes inconsumer taste (which may be minor to the theorist but will still be crucial in terms of thoseconsumers purchasing patterns as markets do not favour the over-complacent). These minorinvestments are a small price to pay for the long term profits which brand leaders usually enjoy.The second, and more important, is that someone who wishes to overturn this stability andchange the market (or significantly change ones position in it), massive investments must beexpected to be made in order to succeed. Even though stability is the natural state of markets,sudden changes can still occur, and the environment must be constantly scanned for signs ofthese. 17
  • 18. WHAT IS PRODUCTIn marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want orneed In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are purchased asraw materials and sold as finished goods. Commodities are usually raw materials such as metalsand agricultural products, but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the openmarket. In project management, products are the formal definition of the project deliverables thatmake up or contribute to delivering the objectives of the project. In general usage, product mayrefer to a single item or unit, a group of equivalent products, a grouping of goods or services, oran industrial classification for the goods or services. A related concept is sub product, asecondary but useful result of a production process.Tangible and Intangible Products 18
  • 19. Products can be classified as tangible or intangible. A tangible product is any physical productthat can be touched like a computer, automobile, etc. An intangible product is a non-physicalproduct like an insurance policy.In its online product catalog, retailer Sears, Roebuck and Company divides its products intodepartments, and then presents products to shoppers according to (1) function or (2) brand. Eachproduct has a Sears’s item number and a manufacturers model number. The departments andproduct groupings that Sears’s uses are intended to help customers browse products by functionor brand within a traditional department store structure.Sizes and colorsA catalog number, especially for clothing, may group sizes and colors. When ordering theproduct, the customer specifies size, color and other variables. Example: you walk into a storeand see a group of shoes and in that group are sections of different colors of that type of shoe andsizes for that shoe to satisfy your need.Product lineA product line is "a group of products that are closely related, either because they function in asimilar manner, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same types ofoutlets, or fall within given price ranges."Many businesses offer a range of product lines which may be unique to a single organization ormay be common across the businesss industry. In 2002 the US Census compiled revenue figuresfor the finance and insurance industry by various product lines such as "accident, health andmedical insurance premiums" and "income from secured consumer loans". Within the insuranceindustry, product lines are indicated by the type of risk coverage, such as auto insurance,commercial insurance and life insurance. 19
  • 20. The Product Life CycleA new product progresses through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity,and decline. This sequence is known as the product life cycle and is associated with changes inthe marketing situation, thus impacting the marketing strategy and the marketing mix.The product revenue and profits can be plotted as a function of the life-cycle stages as shown inthe graph below: Product Life Cycle DiagramIntroduction StageIn the introduction stage, the firm seeks to build product awareness and develop a market for theproduct. The impact on the marketing mix is as follows: • Product branding and quality level is established and intellectual property protection such as patents and trademarks are obtained. • Pricing may be low penetration pricing to build market share rapidly, or high skim pricing to recover development costs. • Distribution is selective until consumers show acceptance of the product. • Promotion is aimed at innovators and early adopters. Marketing communications seeks to build product awareness and to educate potential consumers about the product. 20
  • 21. Growth StageIn the growth stage, the firm seeks to build brand preference and increase market share. • Product quality is maintained and additional features and support services may be added. • Pricing is maintained as the firm enjoys increasing demand with little competition. • Distribution channels are added as demand increases and customers accept the product. • Promotion is aimed at a broader audience.Maturity StageAt maturity, the strong growth in sales diminishes. Competition may appear with similarproducts. The primary objective at this point is to defend market share while maximizing profit. • Product features may be enhanced to differentiate the product from that of competitors. • Pricing may be lower because of the new competition. • Distribution becomes more intensive and incentives may be offered to encourage preference over competing products. • Promotion emphasizes product differentiation.Decline StageAs sales decline, the firm has several options: • Maintain the product, possibly rejuvenating it by adding new features and finding new uses. • Harvest the product - reduce costs and continue to offer it, possibly to a loyal niche segment. • Discontinue the product, liquidating remaining inventory or selling it to another firm that is willing to continue the product. Product Positioning StrategiesPositioning is what the customer believes about your product’s value, features, and benefits; it isa comparison to the other available alternatives offered by the competition. These beliefs tend tobased on customer experiences and evidence, rather than awareness created by advertising orpromotion. 21
  • 22. Marketers manage product positioning by focusing their marketing activities on a positioningstrategy. Pricing, promotion, channels of distribution, and advertising all are geared to maximizethe chosen positioning strategy.Generally, there are six basic strategies for product positioning:1. By attribute or benefit- This is the most frequently used positioning strategy. For a light beer,it might be that it tastes great or that it is less filling. For toothpaste, it might be the mint taste ortartar control.2. By use or application- The users of Apple computers can design and use graphics more easilythan with Windows or UNIX. Apple positions its computers based on how the computer will beused.3. By user- Face book is a social networking site used exclusively by college students. Face bookis too cool for MySpace and serves a smaller, more sophisticated cohort. Only college studentsmay participate with their campus e-mail IDs.4. By product or service class- Margarine competes as an alternative to butter. Margarine ispositioned as a lower cost and healthier alternative to butter, while butter provides better tasteand wholesome ingredients.5. By competitor- BMW and Mercedes often compare themselves to each other segmenting themarket to just the crème de la crème of the automobile market. Ford and Chevy need not apply.6. By price or quality- Tiffany and Costco both sell diamonds. Tiffany wants us to believe thattheir diamonds are of the highest quality, while Costco tells us that diamonds are diamonds andthat only a chump will pay Tiffany prices.Positioning is what the customer believes and not what the provider wants them to believe.Positioning can change due the counter measures taken at the competition. Managing yourproduct positioning requires that you know your customer and that you understand yourcompetition; generally, this is the job of market research not just what the entrepreneur thinks istrue. PRODUCT DESIGNChanges in design are largely dictated by whether they would improve the prospects of greatersales, and this, over the accompanying costs. Changes in design are also subject to culturalpressures. The more culture-bound the product is, for example food, the more adaptation isnecessary. Most products fall in between the spectrum of "standardization" to "adaptation"extremes. The application the product is put to also affect the design. In the UK, railway engineswere designed from the outset to be sophisticated because of the degree of competition, but inthe US this was not the case. In order to burn the abundant wood and move the prairie debris,large smoke stacks and cowcatchers were necessary. In agricultural implements a mechanizedcultivator may be a convenience item in a UK garden, but in India and Africa it may be essential 22
  • 23. equipment. As stated earlier "perceptions" of the products benefits may also dictate the design.A refrigerator in Africa is a very necessary and functional item, kept in the kitchen or the bar. InMexico, the same item is a status symbol and, therefore, kept in the living room.Factors encouraging standardization are:i) economies of scale in production and marketingii) consumer mobility - the more consumers travel the more is the demandiii) technologyiv) image, for example "Japanese", "made in".The latter can be a factor both to aid or to hinder global marketing development. Nagashima1(1977) found the "made in USA" image has lost ground to the "made in Japan" image. In somecases "foreign made" gives advantage over domestic products. In Zimbabwe one sees manyadvertisements for "imported", which gives the product, advertised a perceived advantage overdomestic products. Often a price premium is charged to reinforce the "imported means quality"image. If the foreign source is negative in effect, attempts are made to disguise or hide the factthrough, say, packaging or labelling. Mexicans are loathing taking products from Brazil. Byputting a "made in elsewhere" label on the product this can be overcome, provided the productsare manufactured elsewhere even though its company maybe Brazilian.Factors encouraging adaptation are:i) Differing usage conditions. These may be due to climate, skills, level of literacy, culture orphysical conditions. Maize, for example, would never sell in Europe rolled and milled as inAfrica. It is only eaten whole, on or off the cob. In Zimbabwe, kapenta fish can be used as arelish, but wilt always be eaten as a "starter" to a meal in the developed countries.ii) General market factors - incomes, tastes etc. Canned asparagus may be very affordable in thedeveloped world, but may not sell well in the developing world.iii) Government - taxation, import quotas, non tariff barriers, labelling, health requirements. Nontariff barriers are an attempt, despite their supposed impartiality, at restricting or eliminatingcompetition. A good example of this is the Florida tomato growers, cited earlier, whosuccessfully got the US Department of Agriculture to issue regulations establishing a minimumsize of tomatoes marketed in the United States. The effect of this was to eliminate the Mexicantomato industry which grew a tomato that fell under the minimum size specified. Some non-tariffbarriers may be legitimate attempts to protect the consumer, for example the ever stricterrestrictions on horticultural produce insecticides and pesticides use may cause African growers aheadache, but they are deemed to be for the public good.iv) History. Sometimes, as a result of colonialism, production facilities have been establishedoverseas. Eastern and Southern Africa is littered with examples. In Kenya, the tea industry is acolonial legacy, as is the sugar industry of Zimbabwe and the coffee industry of Malawi. Thesefacilities have long been adapted to local conditions. 23
  • 24. v) Financial considerations. In order to maximize sales or profits the organization may have nochoice but to adapt its products to local Pressure. Sometimes, as in the case of the EU, suppliers are forced to adapt to the rules andregulations imposed on them if they wish to enter into the market. PRODUCT DECSIONIn decisions on producing or providing products and services in the international market it isessential that the production of the product or service is well planned and coordinated, bothwithin and with other functional area of the firm, particularly marketing. For example, inhorticulture, it is essential that any supplier or any of his "out grower" (sub-contractor) cansupply what he says he can. This is especially vital when contracts for supply are finalized, asfailure to supply could incur large penalties. The main elements to consider are the productionprocess itself, specifications, culture, the physical product, packaging, labelling, branding,warranty and service.Production processThe key question is, can we ensure continuity of supply? In manufactured products this mayinclude decisions on the type of manufacturing process - artisanal, job, batch, and flow line or 24
  • 25. group technology. However in many agricultural commodities factors like seasonality,perishability and supply and demand have to be taken into consideration. A checklist ofquestions on product requirements for horticultural products as an example Quantity and qualityof horticultural crops are affected by a number of things. These include input supplies (or lack ofthem), finance and credit availability, variety (choice), sowing dates, product range andinvestment advice. Many of these items will be catered for in the contract of supply.SpecificationSpecification is very important in agricultural products. Some markets will not take produceunless it is within their specification. Specifications are often set by the customer, but agents,standard authorities (like the EU or ITC Geneva) and trade associations can be useful sources.Quality requirements often vary considerably. In the Middle East, red apples are preferred overgreen apples. In one example French red apples, well boxed, are sold at 55 dinars per box, whilstnot so attractive Iranian greens are sold for 28 dinars per box. In export the quality standards areset by the importer. In Africa, Maritim (1991), found, generally, that there are no consistentstandards for product quality and grading, making it difficult to do international trade regionally.CultureProduct packaging, labeling, physical characteristics and marketing have to adapt to the culturalrequirements when necessary. Religion, values, aesthetics, language and material culture allaffect production decisions. Effects of culture on production decisions have been dealt withalready in chapter three.Physical productThe physical product is made up of a variety of elements. These elements include the physicalproduct and the subjective image of the product. Consumers are looking for benefits and thesemust be conveyed in the total product package. Physical characteristics include range, shape,size, color, quality, quantity and compatibility. Subjective attributes are determined byadvertising, self image, labelling and packaging. In manufacturing or selling produce,cognizance has to be taken of cost and country legal requirements.Again a number of these characteristics is governed by the customer or agent. For example, inbeef products sold to the EU there are very strict quality requirements to be observed. In fishproducts, the Japanese demand more "exotic" types than, say, would be sold in the UK. None ofthe dried fish products produced by the Zambians on Lake Kariba, and sold into the Lusakamarket, would ever pass the hygiene laws if sold internationally. In sophisticated markets likeseeds, the variety and range is so large that constant watch has to be kept on the new strains andvarieties in order to be competitive.PackagingPackaging serves many purposes. It protects the product from damage which could be incurredin handling and transportation and also has a promotional aspect. It can be very expensive. Size, 25
  • 26. unit type, weight and volume are very important in packaging. For aircraft cargo the packageneeds to be light but strong, for sea cargo containers are often the best form. The customer mayalso decide the best form of packaging. In horticultural produce, the developed countries oftendemand blister packs for mange touts, beans, strawberries and so on, whilst for products likepineapples a sea container may suffice. Costs of packaging have always to be weighed againstthe advantage gained by it.Increasingly, environmental aspects are coming into play. Packaging which is non-degradable -plastic, for example - is less in demanded. Bio-degradable, recyclable, reusable packaging is nowthe order of the day. This can be both expensive and demanding for many developing countries.LabellingLabelling not only serves to express the contents of the product, but may be promotional(symbols for example Cashel Valley Zimbabwe; HJ Heinz, Africafe, Tanzania). The EU is nowputting very stringent regulations in force on labelling, even to the degree that the pesticides andinsecticides used on horticultural produce have to be listed. This could be very demanding forproducers, especially small scale, ones where production techniques may not be standardized.Government labelling regulations vary from country to country. Bar codes are not widespread inAfrica, but do assist in stock control. Labels may have to be multilingual, especially if theproduct is a world brand. Translation could be a problem with many words being translated withdifficulty. Again labelling is expensive, and in promotion terms non-standard labels are moreexpensive than standard ones. Requirements for crate labelling, etc. for internationaltransportation will be dealt with later under documentation. Product StrategyProduct Strategy is perhaps the most important function of a company. It must take in accountthe capabilities in terms of engineering, of production, of distribution (sales) existing in thecompany or of time to acquire them (by hiring or by mergers). It must evaluate the customer’sexpectations at the time of delivery. It must guest mate the competition (including new entrants)probable moves to enter the same market.Product strategy by Bull appeared sometimes erratic and not coordinated, especially during theperiods where product lines run independently. However, it has been dominated by very oldtrends rooted in the Sales Network during the 1950s defining Bulls market around the businessapplications, and fighting against the sole IBM as competitor.So, the company adopted its version of IBMs business model, following IBM with a variabledelay, in the domain of products, price and market following. Sometimes new opportunitiesappeared and some innovative products were developed, (e.g. time-sharing in GE time, smartcard applications) but they faded as marginalized by the Sales Network. In fact, the SalesNetwork was not conscious of the pressure it exerted on Planning and Engineering. Often, itfocalized on IBMs short term moves, ignoring the reasons for those moves (sometimes due tolegal constraints, sometimes by internal fighting inside IBM, other times because othercompetitors move). 26
  • 27. While IBMs influence on Bull was extremely important, the reverse existed sometimes (1).Dispute between IBM World Trade and IBM US domestic may have been fueled by some worryof IBM European salesmen about some Bulls (and GEs or Honeywells) products.The capability of Bull to match IBMs offer on the market never existed. Before the GEs merger,Bull did not address the US market directly and by consequence excluded itself from the marketsegments needing the quantities only addressed by a worldwide market (such as large scientificcomputers). Another market that was ignored (knowledgeably) early was the small scientificmarket; its margins did not match the corporate model.Bull never did a comparable investment to IBMs in the technology area. Each time it (or itsAmerican associates) tries a significant move, the success did not reward it. The reasons of thefailure were multiple: overestimation of the return on investment, lack of a long term perspective(that existed in architecture and software), size of market. Some more specific problems weredue to the lack of experience in fundamental physics, themselves related to the isolation of theengineers.For historical reasons related to the acquisition of a park of customers and for "political" reasons,Bull did not succeed to shut down a product line before the 1990s. Its resource limitations did notallow to embark in the simultaneous developments of more than one or a couple of compatibleprocessors at the same time. Product Planning had to prepare several product line plans and toinvent models within each product line to match the competition prices and performances.Models were developed from a single engineering design with the same manufacturing cost byslowing down the processor clock or adding dummy cycles and/or by reducing the"connectivity" of the system.When the performances exceeded IBMs target, the system was not sold at full speed to avoid therisk of undercutting IBM future announcements price and keeping some reserve power to reactagainst a competition "mid-life kicker".New higher models were also created by unleashing the design constraints after one year. Newlower models were created by slowing down a bit already shipped processors.This strategy worked well as far as the manufacturer controlled completely the customerconfiguration by leasing the systems. The first evolution of the model was the advent of clone’smanufacturers. They obviously attacked IBMs market but GE, Honeywell and Bull strategistsordered to take all measures, sometimes detrimental to product and service costs, toescape cloners. The architecture or the assembler of the machines remained confidential, sourceand object code of programs was secrete, network architecture was not available even toperipheral suppliers, peripheral interfaces were modified and the differences kept in vaults... Bullargued to the persons objecting the strategy (suppliers, other manufacturers, customers ) that itwould respect the "de jure" standards (such as ISOs or ANSIs) but that it did not have to followthe "de facto" standards (such as IBMs). That changed in the 1980s when "Open Systems"became Bulls religion.Another IBM decision impacted the business model, it was unbundling. While the IBM pricingwas more or less related to development and manufacturing costs, adopting the same price forBulls items where software, for instance, was reproduced in far smaller number of copies, lead 27
  • 28. to a disconnect between decisions to produce and customers acceptation. Especially in the late1970s and the 1980s, Bull embarked in many developments with a very low production rate, butthey were asked to match the IBMs catalog. Later, in the late 1980s, the competition with opensystems, lead to some re-bundling of the offer (the word was "packaging") where for instanceassociate a purchased data base system with a memory bank and even an additional processor.Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establishfacts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research)is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement ofhuman knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Researchcan use the scientific method, but need not do so.Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity.This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature andthe properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific researchis funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, includingmany companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according totheir academic and application disciplines. 28
  • 29. WHAT IS RESEARCH?Research is an often-misused term, its usage in everyday language very different from the strictscientific meaning. In the field of science, it is important to move away from the looser meaningand use it only in its proper context. Scientific research adheres to a set of strict protocols andlong established structures. Often, we will talk about conducting internet research or say that weare researching in the library. In everyday language, it is perfectly correct grammatically, butin science, it gives a misleading impression. The correct and most common term used in scienceis that we are conducting a literature review.Research must be systematic and follow a series of steps and a rigid standard protocol. Theserules are broadly similar but may vary slightly between the different fields of science.Scientific research must be organized and undergo planning, including performing literaturereviews of past research and evaluating what questions need to be answered. 29
  • 30. Any type of ‘real’ research, whether scientific, economic or historical, requires some kind ofinterpretation and an opinion from the researcher. This opinion is the underlying principle, orquestion, that establishes the nature and type of experiment.The scientific definition of research generally states that a variable must be manipulated,although case studies and purely observational science do not always comply with this norm. Types of ResearchThere are many different types of research methods, also called research designs that are used bypsychologists in trying to find things out about behavior. This is just a quick aid to theidentification of research designs. In real life, some studies may combine the features of severalresearch designs or may contain elements not included below.Experiment: Participants randomly assigned to different groups being studied. Groups aretreated differently in one or a few very specific ways--the independent variable. Behaviorresulting from this treatment difference is measured--the dependent variable. If one group gets aspecific treatment and ones does not, usually the treated group is called the experimental groupand other groups are called control groups. Conditions other than the independent variable areheld as constant as possible for all groups. These constant conditions are called controls. If 30
  • 31. participants are their own control group, that is, they receive both research treatments; the designis called a within-subjects experiment. Conclusions can be taken to indicate a cause and effectrelationship between the independent and dependent variables. Because of this, the experimentis in a class by itself and it is a very special type of research procedure.Quasi-experiment: Participants achieve membership in different groups as a result ofcharacteristics other than random assignment, for example: gender, age, socioeconomic status,athletic ability, or ethnic identification. A link may be found between one or more of thesecharacteristics and some outcome variables, but cause and effect relationships are not clearlyidentified. Without random assignment to groups, a researcher cannot clearly demonstrate cause.Correlation study: In the most general sense, a correlation study investigates the relationshipbetween two variables. Usually the data are reported as correlation coefficients. Strength anddirection (positive or negative) of relationships can be demonstrated by correlation studies butcausal links remain an open question.Longitudinal study: A longitudinal study follows a group composed of the same people acrossa period of the life span. The behavior of these individuals is observed and/or measured atseveral intervals over time in an attempt to study the changes in their behavior. Longitudinalstudies may cover a short time, such as a few weeks, or a long time, such as the entire life span.Longitudinal studies may additionally employ other methods, such as quasi-experimental or corelational approaches, but the defining characteristic is that the same people are studiedrepeatedly across time.Cross sectional study: A cross sectional study usually examines groups of different people whobelong to different age groups as a means of studying behavior development across part or all ofthe life span. These studies can usually be done more easily and quickly than longitudinal studiesbut the resulting data may be of lower quality. More rarely, the term cross sectional may be usedto describe studies which divide and examine segments of society based on variables other thanage, such as income, educational level or family size.Survey: A survey is a structured list of questions presented to people. Surveys may be writtenor oral, face to face or over the phone. It is possible to cheaply survey large numbers of people,but the data quality may be lower than some other methods because people do not always answerquestions accurately.Interview: An interview may be highly structured or it may involve less structured narrative. Itmay include survey methodology. It usually involves people responding orally to questions ortalking about their thoughts on a topic.Case study: A case study involves extensive observations of a few individuals. Data collectionmay include watching behavior, interviews and record searching. Case studies may be 31
  • 32. retrospective and/or prospective. Usually case studies are employed where the behavior orsituation is so rare that other methods, involving larger groups of participants, are not possible.Naturalistic observation: Naturalistic observations can range from unstructured observationsof humans or other animals to situations involving hypothesis testing or some manipulations of anatural setting. If you wanted to know if males are likely to hold doors open for females, youcould watch until you had seen a number of natural occurrences of this, or you could get afemale helper to follow males into buildings and watch to see what happens. It can be difficult toprecisely define the natural setting, particularly when the participants are humans. Placing anactual research procedure into this category or others can involve a judgment call which might bedebatable.Demonstration: An unsystematically engineered observation of behavior, sometimes involvingonly one participant. The demonstration is remarkably common in the history of psychology,even though it provides only very weak evidence. It is not a recognized research method but it isa term which can be quite useful as a descriptor for studies that seem to employ no establishedmethod. RESEARCH METHODSThe goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms(although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidenceResearch can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary researchIn social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can beapplied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research 32
  • 33. Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research The hourglassmodel starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information throughthe methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in theform of discussion and results.1) QUALITATIVE RESEARCHQualitative research is a method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines,traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. Qualitativeresearchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons thatgovern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making,not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, ratherthan large samples.Data Collectionqualitative researchers may use different approaches in collecting data, such as the groundedtheory practice, narratology, storytelling, classical ethnography, or shadowing. Qualitativemethods are also loosely present in other methodological approaches, such as action research oractor-network theory. Forms of the data collected can include interviews and group discussions,observation and reflection field notes, various texts, pictures, and other materials.Qualitative research often categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing andreporting results. Qualitative researchers typically rely on the following methods for gatheringinformation: Participant Observation, Non-participant Observation, Field Notes, ReflexiveJournals, Structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, Analysis of documents and materialsIn the academic social sciences the most frequently used qualitative research approaches includethe following: 1. Ethnographic Research, used for investigating cultures by collecting and describing data thatis intended to help in the development of a theory. This method is also called “ethnomethodology” or "methodology of the people". An example of applied ethnographic research isthe study of a particular culture and their understanding of the role of a particular disease in theircultural framework. 2. Critical Social Research, used by a researcher to understand how people communicate anddevelop symbolic meanings. 33
  • 34. 3. Ethical Inquiry, an intellectual analysis of ethical problems. It includes the study of ethics asrelated to obligation, rights, duty, right and wrong, choice etc. 4. Foundational Research, examines the foundations for a science, analyses the beliefs anddevelops ways to specify how a knowledge base should change in light of new information. 5. Historical Research, allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of thepresent condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues andproblems. Historical research helps us in answering questions such as: Where have we comefrom, where are we, who are we now and where are we going? 6. Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research, based or “grounded” in the observationsor data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, including quantitativedata, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys. 7. Phenomenological Research, describes the “subjective reality” of an event, as perceived bythe study population; it is the study of a phenomenon. 8. Philosophical Research, is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specificfield of study or profession, the best qualified individual in any field of study to use anintellectual analyses, in order to clarify definitions, identify ethics, or make a value judgmentconcerning an issue in their field of study.2) Quantitative marketing researchQuantitative marketing research is the application of quantitative research techniques to thefield of marketing. It has roots in both the positivist view of the world, and the modern marketingviewpoint that marketing is an interactive process in which both the buyer and seller reach asatisfying agreement on the "four Ps" of marketing: Product, Price, Place (location) andPromotion.As a social research method, it typically involves the construction of questionnaires and scalesPeople who respond (respondents) are asked to complete the survey. Marketers use theinformation so obtained to understand the needs of individuals in the marketplace, and to createstrategies and marketing plans.Typical general procedureSimply, there are five major and important steps involved in the research process: 1. Defining the Problem. 2. Research Design. 3. Data Collection. 34
  • 35. 4. Analysis. 5. Report Writing & presentation.A brief discussion on these steps is: 1. Problem audit and problem definition - What is the problem? What are the various aspects of the problem? What information is needed? 2. Conceptualization and operationalization - How exactly do we define the concepts involved? How do we translate these concepts into observable and measurable behaviours? 3. Hypothesis specification - What claim(s) do we want to test? 4. Research design specification - What type of methodology to use? - examples: questionnaire, survey 5. Question specification - What questions to ask? In what order? 6. Scale specification - How will preferences be rated? 7. Sampling design specification - What is the total population? What sample size is necessary for this population? What sampling method to use?- examples: Probability Sampling:- (cluster sampling, stratified sampling, simple random sampling, multistage sampling, systematic sampling) & Non probability sampling:- (Convenience Sampling, Judgment Sampling, Purposive Sampling, Quota Sampling, Snowball Sampling, etc. ) 8. Data collection - Use mail, telephone, internet, mall intercepts 9. Codification and re-specification - Make adjustments to the raw data so it is compatible with statistical techniques and with the objectives of the research - examples: assigning numbers, consistency checks, substitutions, deletions, weighting, dummy variables, scale transformations, scale standardization 10. Statistical analysis - Perform various descriptive and inferential techniques (see below) on the raw data. Make inferences from the sample to the whole population. Test the results for statistical significance. 11. Interpret and integrate findings - What do the results mean? What conclusions can be drawn? How do these findings relate to similar research? 12. Write the research report - Report usually has headings such as: 1) executive summary; 2) objectives; 3) methodology; 4) main findings; 5) detailed charts and diagrams. Present the report to the client in a 10 minute presentation. Be prepared for questions. Research methods 35
  • 36. 1. Causal ResearchWhen most people think of scientific experimentation, research on cause and effect is most oftenbrought to mind. Experiments on causal relationships investigate the effect of one or morevariables on one or more outcome variables. This type of research also determines if one variablecauses another variable to occur or change. An example of this type of research would bealtering the amount of a treatment and measuring the effect on study participants.2. Descriptive ResearchDescriptive research seeks to depict what already exists in a group or population. An exampleof this type of research would be an opinion poll to determine which Presidential candidatepeople plan to vote for in the next election. Descriptive studies do not seek to measure the effectof a variable; they seek only to describe.3. Relational ResearchA study that investigates the connection between two or more variables is considered relationalresearch. The variables that are compared are generally already present in the group orpopulation. For example, a study that looked at the proportion of males and females that wouldpurchase either a classical CD or a jazz CD would be studying the relationship between genderand music preference. SCOPE OF RESEARCH 1. National innovative capacity: modeling, measuring and comparing national capacities 2. Designing efficient incentive systems for invention and innovation: intellectual propertyrights, prizes, public subsidies 3. Research in EPFL labs: new economics of science 4. New R&D methods and the production of reliable knowledge in sectors which laggedbehind 5. New models of innovation: open, distributed systems and the role of users 6. Other issues to be developed 36
  • 37. 1 - National innovative capacity: modeling, measuring and comparing national capacitiesNational innovative capacity is the ability of a country to produce and commercialize a flow ofinnovative technology over the long term. It depends on: • The strength of a nations common infrastructure (basic research, education and training, intellectual property protection, R&D tax policies, venture capital, and so forth); • The cluster-specific innovation environment (one or many clusters involving particular factor (input) conditions; a local context that encourages investment in innovation-related activity; vigourous competition among locally based rivals; sophisticated local customers; presence of capable local suppliers and related companies). • The quality of linkages (relationship between the common innovation infrastructure and industrial clusters).This research strand aims at building innovation indexes and measuring various dimensionsof national innovation capacities. For instance: • Strategic capacity: it deals with the ability to mobilize and concentrate resources under some centralized decision making processes to achieve a critical scientific or technological objective. • Revolutionary capacities: it deals with the ability to shift resources out of areas of lower and into areas of higher productivity and greater yield. This is a capacity to manage transitions. The difficulty is that such a capacity involves various dimensions which can be conflicting (see Mowery and Simoe, 2001).2 - Designing efficient incentive systems for invention and innovation: intellectual property rights, prizes, public subsidiesOne central problem in the economics of knowledge is the design of incentive systems that bothreward inventors/knowledge producers and encourage dissemination of their output. Severalscholars have described the two regimes that allocate resources for the creation of newknowledge: one is the system of granting intellectual property rights, as exemplified by modernpatent and copyright systems, the other is the open science regime, as often found in the realm ofpure scientific research and sometimes in the realm of commercial technological innovation,often in infant industriesA large range of issues have to be addressed to elucidate the problem of designing efficientincentive systems: • What is the best solution in case of particular kind of new technologies (genomics, software, data bases)? 37
  • 38. • What is the nature of the tension that arises when the two systems come up against each other? • How designing proper incentive systems to encourage research and innovation in areas of high social return and low private profitability (orphan drugs, malaria and other tropical diseases)? • In what condition a prize-based reward system provides a more efficient solution than granting intellectual property rights? • Is there an economic case for granting intellectual property rights in the domain of research tools, instruments, basic knowledge?3 – Research in EPFL labs: new economics of scienceCEMI will be at the forefront of the College to develop and undertake research in the field of"economics of science" with EPFL as the main case. In this perspective, several topics areobvious: • Assessing the impact of organizational practice on the productivity of university technology transfer offices • Measuring the social value of basic research and the local spillovers (regional impact). Accounting for the effects associated with mobility • Scale, scope and spillovers: the determinants of research productivity in several fields • Exploring the role of patents in knowledge transfer from EPFL • Exploring the effect of the patenting of research tools and biomedical innovation: transfer opportunities and social costs • Access policy for large scale research instrument, data bases.All these topic should give rise to research design (research question, data collection, analysis) inclose collaboration with the other EPFL Schools (life science, basic science, computer science,engineering science) in order to benefit from the great opportunity to be located in an Institute ofTechnology. These projects will be designed in close collaboration with Jan-Anders Manson,vice-president for Innovation and Knowledge Transfer.4 - New R&D methods and the production of reliable knowledge in sectors which lagged behindUnequal access to pertinent knowledge bases may well constitute an important conditionunderlying perceptible differences in the success with which different areas of Endeavour arepursued within the same society and the pace at which productivity advances in different sectors 38
  • 39. of the economy during a given historical epoch. Today, it remains astonishing to observe thecontrast between fields of economic activity where improvements in practice are closelyreflecting rapid advances in human knowledge - such as is the case for information technologies,transportation, and certain areas of medical care (surgery and drug therapy) - and other areaswhere the state of knowledge appears to be far more constraining. The fact is that knowledge isnot being developed to the same degree in every sector. A major policy concern is to understandthe factors at the origin of such uneven development, and to implement a proper strategy in orderto fill the gap between sectors with fast knowledge accumulation processes and those in whichthese processes remain weak.To summarize, rapid and effective creation of know-how is most likely to occur when thefollowing conditions converge (Nelson, Seminar at CREA, Paris, 2004): • Practice in the field needs to be well specified, sustainable, replicable, imitable; • There needs to be ability to learn from experience and experiment; • The ability to experiment offline, with less expense than that would be involved in online experimentation, and to gain reliable information relevant to online use, greatly facilitates progress. • A strong body of "scientific" knowledge greatly facilitates effective offline experimentation, and also quick and reliable evaluation of varying practice online.Part of the problem in sectors which are lagging behind deals with the limited ability to conductexperiments. The main research issue here is to analyze the impact of new experimental methodsand design (essentially based on random assignment), which have the potential to profoundlytransform the way reliable knowledge is produced in these sectors. For instance, one of the mostsignificant developments in modern medicine has been the randomized controlled trial (RCT),the significance and use of which grew rapidly after its application to tuberculosis in the 1940s.Today the RCT is widely treated as the evidential gold standard for demonstrating what worksand what is medical best practice. Education might be the next sector to be profoundlytransformed through the application of RCTs. The growth of RCTs as an approach in educationalresearch has been pushed forward by three important factors: computers, statistical techniques(effect sizes and meta-analyses) and demand for accountability in both practice and research.There is, therefore, a favorable context. The question is whether this new feature can change andtransform the way knowledge is produced and distributed in a sector like education.5 – New models of innovation: open, distributed systems and the role of usersThis project involves the contribution of users in the innovation process not only in terms ofsending market signals (which is normally what users are supposed to do to help producer-innovators), but also in terms of actively contributing to the modification of the product. 39
  • 40. This project emphasizes, therefore, the functional source of innovation: while an innovation isconsidered a manufacturers innovation when the developer expects to benefit by selling it, aninnovation is a user innovation when the user expects to benefit by using it.This research aims at understanding the capabilities and limitations of user innovation processes,which involve quite often an open and distributed system (in which innovations may be freelyrevealed to other users). Its advocates claim that user innovation, involving freely revealing, is anefficient means of producing socially desirable innovation and maximizing "spillovers," orknowledge transfer / leakage. The generation of innovation by users may be a complement or itmay compete with innovations produced by manufacturers. In its role as a complement, userinnovation may extend the diversity of products without endangering market positions ofmanufacturers and may help manufacturing firms to mitigate information asymmetry problemsvis-à-vis future market needs. As a competitor, user innovation may offer products that bettermeet user needs.The model involves two major deviations from the private investment model of innovation,which assumes that manufacturers innovate in products and processes to improve theircompetitive position and that returns to innovation result from excluding other manufacturersfrom adopting it. First, users of technologies, rather than manufacturers, are often the innovators.Second, user-innovators often freely reveal the proprietary knowledge they have developed attheir private expense.A host of empirical studies, mainly conducted by Eric von Hippel, his research group at MIT andhis colleagues, show that user innovation is an important economic phenomenon. It constitutesthe main source of knowledge in some sectors or an important contributor in others.Deepening our understanding of the conditions leading to user innovation and of its economicimpact is, therefore, a relevant issue: (i) for a better assessment both of intangibles andintellectual capital at the firm level and of innovation capacities at the national level; and (ii) fora better understanding of some new organizational forms, such as user communities, whichappear to be becoming more relevant in a knowledge society. Thus our main research questionsare the following: • What are the different channels through which user innovations influence the economy and how should manufacturers adapt and respond to user innovations? • What kinds of learning processes / dynamic capabilities do user innovations enable across product / technological generations? • What kind of policy issues and challenges pertain to user innovation? Given the fact that user innovations contribute significantly to productivity growth and national competitiveness, what kinds of policy should be devised to promote them. 40
  • 41. 6 - Other issues to be developedThe economics of knowledge policy:While it is relatively easy to provide a long list of policy recommendations which are of somerelevance in the context of the knowledge economy (on patent, ICT, education), it is far moredifficult to develop the welfare economics of knowledge investment in order to build aframework for addressing policy issues.Methodology for the optimal allocation of R&D funds to new technologies:How does the R&D manager maximize the probability of developing a commercial abletechnology over a specific period.Tea is the most popular non-intoxicating beverage in the world enjoyed by the rich and pooralike. Tea drinking was quite common in China as early as the 6th century B.C. Over a period oftime this habit was picked up by neighboring countries in South East Asia, such as Japan.Western nations started importing tea from China only in the 17th century. The Britishdeveloped India as a sourcing base in the 19th century to reduce their dependence on China.During the late 19th century and early 20th century, tea cultivation became popular in othercolonies like Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Malawi, Kenya, etc. In the last four decades, world productionhad a growth of 3% pa, which decelerated to 1.5% pa in the last decade. Tea is a caffeinated hotbeverage, an infusion made by steeping the dried leaves or buds of the shrub Camellia sinensis inhot water. In addition, tea may also include other herbs, spices, or fruit flavors.The word "tea" is also used, by extension, for any fruit or herb infusion; for example, "rosehip tea" or "camomile tea". In cases where they contain no tea leaves, some people prefer to call these beverages "tisanes" or "herbal teas" to avoid confusion. This article is concerned with the "true" tea, Camellia sinensis. The tea plant is one of the Camellia family (Camellia Sinensis) which is indigenous to China and India. The leaves are stiff, shiny and pointed, and the flowers, which resemble the buttercup in shape, are white with golden stems. The plant requires a warm, wet climate with at least 50 inches (135mm) of rain a year and well-drained soil. It grows at varying altitudes up to 7,000 feet. The 41
  • 42. quality of tea depends on climatic conditions. At higher altitudes the growth of the plants isslower and the crops smaller, but the quality will generally be better. Only the bud and two topleaves from each stalk are picked for processing. Like wine, each crop reflects the character of the region in which it is grown. Soil, climate, the amount of rain and time of the year the tea is plucked influences its character. China is credited with originating tea cultivation, and tea plants now grow in about30countries. However the best quality teas come from India.Tea is the agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of the Camelliasinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. "Tea" also refers to thearomatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves bycombination with hot or boiling water, and is thecommon name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself.After water, tea is the most widely-consumedbeverage in the world. The four types of tea mostcommonly found on the market are black tea, oolongtea, green tea and white tea, all of which can be madefrom the same bushes, processed differently, and, in 42
  • 43. the case of fine white tea, grown differently. Pu-erh tea, a post- fermented tea, is also often usedmedicinally. The term "herbal tea" usually refers to an infusion or tisane o leaves , flowers, fruit, herbs or other plant material that contains no Camellia sinensis. The term "red tea" eitherrefers to an infusion made from the South African rooibos plant; there are over 3000 varieties oftea, not including botanicals and fruit infusions. To be a tea, it must come from the camelliasinensis plant. There are several varieties of this plant, producing many types of teas. Typesdepend on the manufacturing and crafting of the leaf. The flavor profiles and quality change yearto year, like wine, and is influenced by soil, temperature, rainfall, elevation and other elements innature. Even the botanicals growing nearby can affect the flavors of the tea.First introduced to India, by the silk caravans travelling from the Orient to Europe, tea hasbecome an intrinsic part of daily life. As it turned out, Camellia sinensis also grew wild in India,and natives had long cultivated and consumed it as a nourishing part of their daily diet, both inpickled form as a vegetable, and as a sort of soup. Eventually they combined the leaves withbuffalo or yaks milk, and added ginger and spices such as cardamom. In the seventeenth century, the natives use of the plant was reported by a European traveler who wrote of his refreshments while in India: "we took only tea which is commonly used all over the Indies, not only among those of the country, but also among the Dutch and the English who take it as a drug". Discovery of the Indian tea bush was regarded by the British as exciting news. Envious of Chinas monopolyon tea, and resentful of the money they had to spend on their habit, the British had long wished 43
  • 44. to be able to grow their own tea. The British saw the Indian jat as inferior to the Chinese bush, but thought that the evidence of local plants indicated good soil for transplanting Chinese seedlings. They immediately procured some seedlings of the Chinese variety and undertook to grow them in the Assam valley and the mountainous Darjeeling region. Fourteen years later, and after many unsuccessful attempts were made, the British resigned themselves to growing the native jat. Popularly known as Chai Today, the upper classes drink tea with milk and sugar, in the Britishcolonial manner, while the most common type of tea consumed is a blend of black tea,buffalo milk, sugar, and spices such as Cardamom, Cinnamon, Ginger and Cloves. Theaddition of milk and spices was initially intended to enhance the flavor of poor tea. Duringcolonial times, almost all of the good grade tea was intended for export, or at least reservedfor British subjects, and the Indians got only what was left-over. Indias busy city streetsare lined with tea stalls, where people sit on low benches, drinking chai from small glasscups, and chatting with their neighbors. At train stations, vendors or chai wallahas, hawksmall clay cups of spiced, milky to weary travelers. When empty, the clay cups are dashedon the ground, both returning the offering to the earth, and ensuring that no one fromdifferent castes will drink from the same cup. The Origins of Indian Tea 44
  • 45. Long before the commercial production of tea started in India in the late 1830s, the tea plant wasgrowing wild in the jungles of north east Assam. In 1598, a Dutch traveller, Jan Huyghen vanLinschoten, noted in a book about his adventures that the Indians ate the leaves as a vegetablewith garlic and oil and boiled the leaves to make a brew. In 1788, the British botanist, JosephBanks, reported to the British East India Company that the climate in certain British-controlledparts of north east India was ideal for tea growing. However, he seems to have missed the factthat the plant was a native to Bengal and suggested transplanting tea bushes from China. But hisidea was ignored. In 1823 and 1831, Robert Bruce and his brother Charles, an employee of theEast India Company, confirmed that the tea plant was indeed a native of the Assam area and sentseeds and specimen plants to officials at the newly established Botanical Gardens in Calcutta.But again, nothing was done - perhaps because the East India Company had a monopoly on thetrading of tea from China and, as they were doing very nicely, probably saw no reason to spendtime and money elsewhere. But in 1833, everything changed. The company lost its monopolyand suddenly woke up to the fact that India might prove a profitable alternative. A committeewas set up, Charles Bruce was given the task of establishing the first nurseries, and the secretaryof the committee was sent off to China to collect 80,000 tea seeds. Because they were still notsure that the tea plant really was indigenous to India, committee members insisted on importingthe Chinese variety.The seeds were planted in the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta and nurtured until they were sturdyenough to travel 1000 miles to the newly prepared tea gardens. Meanwhile, up in Assam, CharlesBruce and the other pioneers were clearing suitable areas of land on which to developplantations, pruning existing tea trees to encourage new growth, and experimenting with thefreshly plucked leaves from the native bushes to manufacture black tea. Bruce had recruited twotea makers from China and, with their help, he steadily learnt the secrets of successful teaproduction the conditions were incredibly harsh. The area was remote and hostile, cold in winterand steamy hot in summer. Tigers, leopards and wolves constantly threatened the lives of theworkers, and the primitive settlements of the tea workers were subject to regular raids by localhill tribes. But they persevered and gradually the jungle was opened up, the best tea tractscultivated under the light shade of surrounding trees, and new seedlings planted to fill gaps andcreate true tea gardens.The first twelve chests of manufactured tea to be made from indigenous Assam leaf wereshipped to London in 1838 and were sold at the London auctions. The East India Company wroteto Assam to say that the teas had been well received by some "houses of character", and therewas a similar response to the next shipment, some buyers declaring it "excellent". Havingestablished a successful industry in Assams Brahmaputra valley, with factories and housingsettlements, the Assam Tea Company began to expand into other districts of north east India.Cultivation started around the town of Darjeeling in the foothills of the Himalayas in the mid1850s. By 1857, between 60 and 70 acres were under tea and, whereas the China variety of thetea plant had not liked the conditions in Assam, here at elevations of 2500 to 6000 feet, it grewwell. The company pushed on into Terai and Dooars and even into the remote Kangra valley,800 miles west of Darjeeling.In the south western tip of the country, experimental plantings hadbeen made in 1835, while the first nurseries were being established in Assam, and by the mid1850s tea was growing successfully alongside coffee. The climate of the Nilgiri Hills, or BlueMountains, seemed to suit the plant, and the area under tea steadily expanded in 1853, Indiaexported 183.4 tons of tea. By 1870, figure had increased to 6,700 tons and by 1885, 35,274 tons. 45
  • 46. Today, India is one of the worlds largest producers of tea with 13,000 gardens and a workforceof more than 2 million people.In one popular Chinese legend, Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China and inventorof agriculture and Chinese medicine was drinking a bowl of boiling water some time around2737 BC when a few leaves were blown from a nearby tree into his water, changing the color.The emperor took a sip of the brew and was pleasantly surprised by its flavor and restorativeproperties. A variant of the legend tells that the emperor tested the medical properties of variousherbs on him self, some of them poisonous, and found tea to work as an antidote. Shennong isalso mentioned in Lu Yus famous early work on the subject, Cha Jing. A similar Chinese legendgoes that the god of agriculture would chew the leaves, stems, and roots of various plants todiscover medicinal herbs. If he consumed a poisonous plant, he would chew tea leaves tocounteract the poison.A rather gruesome legend dates back to the Tang Dynasty. In the legend, Bodhi dharma, thefounder of Chan Buddhism, accidentally fell asleep after meditating in front of a wall for nineyears. He woke up in such disgust at his weakness that he cut off his own eyelids. They fell tothe ground and took root, growing into tea bushes. Sometimes, another version of the story istold with Gautama Buddha in place of Bodhi dharma. 46
  • 47. Whether or not these legends have any basis in fact, tea has played a significant role in Asianculture for centuries as a staple beverage, a curative, and a status symbol. It is not surprising,therefore, that theories of its origin are often religious or royal in nature.1717 Thomas Twining converted Toim’s Coffee House into the golden Lyon, thefirst teashop in London.1776 England sent the first opium to China. Opium addiction in China funded theescalating demand for tea in England. Cash trade for the drug increased until theopium wars began in 1839.1835 The East India Company established experimental tea plantations in Assam,India.1834 An Imperial Edict from the Chinese Emperor closed all Chinese ports toforeign vessels until the end of the First Opium War in 1842.1838 A small amount of Indian tea sent to England was eagerly consumed due toits novelty.1840 After noon tea was "invented" by Anna, Duchess of Bedford (1783 – 1857),wife of the 7th Duke as "a way to quell the inevitable hunger pangs between lunchand dinner".1856 Tea was planted in many areas of Darjeeling.1857 Tea plantations were started in Ceylon, though their tea would not beexported until the 1870’s.1869 A deadly fungus wiped out the coffee crop in Ceylon, shifting preference fromcoffee to tea.1869 The Suez Canal opened, making the trip to China shorter and moreeconomical by steamship. 47
  • 48. 1870 Twinning’s of England began to blend tea for consistency.1876 Glasgow grocer, Thomas Lipton opens his first teashop. 1953 World’s first instant tea is introduced TYPES OF TEA WHITE TEAThis tea is the unopened bud of the tealeaf. After the bud is picked, it is withered and the moisture is allowed to evaporate and dry. It is very high in antioxidants and low in caffeine. When the buds are picked, the tea farmers lose the leaves that make popular and marketable teas. This is why white tea is rare and expensive. A true white tea is only produced in Fujian China and has a silvery and fuzzy appearance. YELLOW TEA This tea is rarely found in the states. It is a green tea with yellow leaves that were encouraged to turn yellow by the stir-frying stage of the tea making process. We now carry yellow tea. GREEN TEA This tea is high in antioxidants, Vitamin C and other vitamins and minerals. The freshly picked leaves are allowed to dry, then are heated to stop the oxidation. This tea has antioxidants and more caffeine than white tea. China greens have a smoky or toasty flavor and green teas from Japan have a grassy or herbal taste OOLONG Pronounced woo long. Oolongs or Black Dragon, which is its literal translation, is sometimes referred to as semi-fermented and is manufactured in China and Taiwan. The leaves are processed immediately after plucking. They are wilted in the sunlight, shaken in bamboo baskets to bruise the edges, then shaken again and spread out to dry until the leaf turns slightly yellow. We have two categories of oolong- fragrant and amber. Fragrant is closer to a green tea and has notes of flowers and 48
  • 49. Amber is closer to a black tea with notes of riped fruit. Our Bao Zhong is a fragrant oolong and our Amber and Plum are Amber oolongs. PUERH This is a compressed tea produced only in China. This tea has health benefits reputed to aid in digestion and weight loss. It also helps to lower cholesterol Puerh is shaped into nests, bricks, and balls or sold loose. We carry Tu cha, shaped like bird’s nest. This tea is actually a living organism and improves with age. It has an earthy flavor and the recipe is highly guarded. During the Ming dynasty, anyone found trespassing where the tea was produced would be killed. BLACK The methods of producing a black tea vary greatly from country to country. This tea is fully oxidized and is very high in caffeine. There are 4 steps involved in the production of this tea; withering, rolling, oxidizing and firing or drying. It loses some of its vitamins, trace minerals and antioxidants from the manufacturing process. SCENTED These teas are scented with the addition of flowers or herbs and can be a white, green, oolong or black tea. We carry a White Jasmine that has been scented multiple times with the fresh blossoms of jasmine. To scent the tea, the tealeaves are layered with jasmine, orchids or other blossoms and herbs. They are left overnight and the next day the blossoms are removed. The tealeaf is very porous and picks up the scent of the blossom. FLAVORED Most teas varieties can be flavored, but a rare and complex tea should be enjoyed with no flavors added. Flavors can come from the addition of fruits, essence and herbs. MATE This plant grows in Argentina and is consumed throughout South America. It is high in caffeine and slightly bitter. The traditional way of consuming this beverage is in a gourd with a bombilla straw. Many people can be seen in the streets of Buenos Aries sipping on their bombilla. 49
  • 50. ART TEA These are unusual teas produced in the tiny villages in China. It takes an entire day just to make 20 pieces. The shape can be balls or flowers made with many leaves tiedtogether with silk thread. Ours opens up like a flower when steeped in hot water, revealing 3 chrysanthemums. The following blends are called infusions. These are concoctions from herbs and fruits and are also referred to as tisanes. These do not have actual tealeaves from the camellia sinensis plant. HERBAL INFUSIONS An herbal can be a blend of roots, bark, flowers, leaves,and stems to produce a beverage with many healthbenefits. Most are caffeine-free. ROOIBOS This is a beverage made from the red bush from the legume family that grows in the Cedarburg Mountain Region 150 West of Cape Town, South Africa. Rooibos is Dutch for red bush and is pronounced ROY BOSS. It has the most antioxidants known to man and is rich in minerals and vitamins. It has antiviral and antibacterial properties and helps to protect the DNA from free radicals. FRUIT INFUSIONS These tisanes were developed in Europe and consist of apples, rosehips, hibiscus and a myriad of other fruits and botanicals. This is a great beverage for kids because it is high in vitamin c and is caffeine-free. Fruit infusion can be enjoyed hot or iced and you can even freeze into pops. 50
  • 51. MANUFACTURE OF TEA COMPANY IN INDIAIndia is one the largest Tea producer in the world. Indian tea is the finest quality in theworld. Tea is being cultivated in the high ranges of North and South India and the bestquality known as CTC and Orthodox Assam Tea respectively. The consumption is above 600Million Kg mark per year. The market consists of both Leaf Teas and Dust Teas both in theCTC and Orthodox Grades, with the Southern markets consuming more Dust Teas. The exportmarket for Indian Teas is mainly in the Russian and CIS countries with 90 Million Kgs of thetotal exports in 1998 going to these countries. This is equivalent to 43% of Indias Tea exports.The other countries for Indias Tea exports include most of the European Countries, U.S.A.,Japan, West Asia and the Asia Pacific Region. In fact there is hardly any country where IndianTea is not found. Girnar Group Tea exporters. Dharampal Satyapal Tea Group Shivnath Rai Harnarain Exporters of rice, tea K Manibhai & Co Producer and exporter of tea Kangra Offering hand picked Kangra Green Gold tea. Cygnet India Pvt. Ltd Blenders and exporters of tea. Aarkay Industries Manufactures and exports of tea Jayalakshmi Group Processors and exporters tea QuickSpice Offers online ordering of Indian teas Tea Trend Home page of the Indian tea business Tata Tea Limited Instantant tea in Tata brand-name. Bharti Global Industries International trading in tea Pvt. Ltd Manjushree Plantations Producer and exporter of tea Prasad Business Services A exporter and trader in Indian coffee. International Export Manufacturers and traders of tea. Corporation Apple Valley Tea Manufacturers and exporters of assam tea Industries 51
  • 52. Premiers Tea India Ltd. Manufacturer and exporter of tea from India.New Horizon Cafe & Pub Serving South Indian food, tea, coffee. India Coffee House Metro area Indian community business and activity. Darjeeling Tea Network Containing details on Darjeeling Tea and estates. Nand Impex Private Provides a selection of consumer and bulk teas. Limited Saint Augustine Tea sells cassina tea, a traditional Southeast Indian tea Company Wholesaler and distributor of premium Ceylon and Elmstock Tea Company Indian teas. Producer, blender, packer, and exporter of North and D.C. Ghose & Co. South Indian teas Exporters of basmati and long grain rice, tea, spices, Shrilalmahal Group and agro products Offers Genies Tea, blended authentic Indian tea with an Vivant International array of flavoursSinar Mas Agro Resources & Technology Corp. Manufacturer and exporter of tea (SMART) Aarkay Group Manufacturer of tea machinery Agarmet Tea Exporter of Darjeeling, Assam & Nilgiri tea Asian Tea Exports Manufacturer of green & black teaBalmer Lawrie & Co Tea garden management agents Carritt Moran Tea brokers Dhunseri Tea Tea processor & exporter Goodricke Tea producer Jalinga Tea Estate Manufacturer and exporter of organic tea & herbal 52
  • 53. tea Saharia Group Tea processors, traders and plywood producer Limtex Tea producer and exporterPRODUCTION OF TEAIn 2003, world tea production was 3.15 million tonnes annually. The largest producer was India,followed by China, followed by Kenya and Sri Lanka.Percentage of total tea production in 2003 Tea not grown in significant quantities Less than 5%. From 5 to 10%. More than 10%Plantation and processingBotanically, tea is a tree. For commercial farming, tea is grown as a bonsai, by repeated pruningand clipping. Tea bushes get ready for commercial plucking in 5 years and takes about 7 years toreach maturity. Tea bushes have a life span of over 100 years. Productivity is high in the first 30-50 years. The processing involves the crushing of leaves, which leads to controlled fermentationof the present liquor. The processed tea (referred to as "made tea" in the industry) is sold eitherloose or in packets. 53
  • 54. Value AdditionThe most popular form of value addition is selling branded tea. This involves not only thepacking of tea but also blending of other varieties to maintain consistency of taste. To arrive at ablend, expert tea tasters sample hundreds of liquors.Convenient drinks like instant tea (soluble tea powder), tea bags (bags are dipped in hot water),ready to drink (served in cans) and flavored tea (with vanilla, strawberry flavor) are becomingpopular in developed countries like the USA and Japan. Tea production certificationThere are a number of bodies that independently certify the production of tea. Tea fromcertified estates can be sold with a certification label on pack. The most importantcertification schemes are Rainforest Alliance,Fairtrade, UTZ Certified, and Organic. Allthese schemes certify other crops (like coffee, cocoa and fruit) as well. RainforestAlliance certified tea is sold by Unilever brands Lipton and PG Tips in Western Europe,Australia and the US. Fairtrade certified tea is sold by a large number of suppliersaround the world. UTZ Certified announces a partnership in 2008 with Sara Leebrand Pickwick tea.Production of organic tea is rising; 3,500 tonnes of organic tea were grown in 2003. Themajority of this tea (about 75%) is sold in France, Germany, Japan, the UnitedKingdom and the United States. 54
  • 55. The Benefits of TeaThe amazing health benefits of tea. So much in fact, that its often difficult to separate fact fromfiction. What are the scientifically recognized benefits of tea? The following is a brief synopsisof the latest findings.AgingIf you are the type to fret over the appearance of wrinkles, age spots and other signs of growingold, oolong tea may be the answer to your worries. In a recent experiment carried out jointly byresearchers from the US, Taiwan and Japan, mice which were fed tea displayed fewer signs ofaging than mice that were fed water. The Straits Times, Sept. 24, 01AllergiesThe wonder cup just got even more wonderful. Green tea, rich in antioxidant treasures thatprotect against heart disease and cancer, now shows promise as an allergy fighter. In laboratorytests, Japanese researchers have found that the antioxidants in green tea block the biochemical 55
  • 56. process involved in producing an allergic response. Green tea may be useful against a wide rangeof sneeze-starting allergens, including pollen, pet dander, and dust. Prevention, April 2003ArthritisGreen tea cate chins are chondro protective and consumption of green tea may be prophylacticfor arthritis and may benefit the arthritis patient by reducing inflammation and slowing cartilagebreakdown. The Journal of Nutrition, Mar 2002Green tea may be useful in controlling inflammation from injury or diseases such as arthritis.Boston Globe, April 26, 99Bone StrengthTea flavonoids may be bone builders. A report in this weeks Archives of Internal Medicinelooked at about 500 Chinese men and women who regularly drank black, green, or oolong tea formore than 10 years. Compared with non habitual tea drinkers, tea regulars had higher bonemineral densities, even after exercise and calcium-which strengthen bones-were taken intoaccount. U.S. News & World Report, May 20, 2002Cancer"Tea is one of the single best cancer fighters you can put in your body," according to MitchellGaynor, MD, director of medical oncology at the world-renowned Strong Cancer PreventionCenter in New York City and co-author of Dr. Gaynors Cancer Prevention Program. People whodrink about 4 cups of green tea a day seem to get less cancer. Now we may know why. In recenttest-tube studies, a compound called EGCG, a powerful antioxidant in tea, inhibited an enzymethat cancer cells need in order to grow. The cancer cells that couldnt grow big enough to divideself-destructed. It would take about 4 cups of green tea a day to get the blood levels of EGCGthat inhibited cancer in the study. Black tea also contains EGCG, but at much lowerconcentrations. Prevention, Aug 1999CholesterolTea can lower bad cholesterol levels. Researchers at the Beltsville Human Nutrition ResearchCenter in Beltsville, Maryland, asked test subjects to eat low-fat, low-calorie prepared meals anddrink five cups of caffeinated tea or caffeinated and non-caffeinated placebos that mimicked thelook of tea. Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol dropped 10 percent among thetest subjects who drank tea. Vegetarian Times, Jan 2003Heart DiseaseDrinking black tea may lower the risk of heart disease because it prevents blood from clumpingand forming clots. In a recent study, researchers found that while drinking black tea, theparticipants had lower levels of the blood protein associated with coagulation. Better Nutrition,Jan 2002Better to be deprived of food for three days than tea for one,Ó says a Chinese proverb. Researchis showing it may just be true. Dr. Kenneth Mukamal of Bostons Beth Israel Deaconess MedicalCenter reported that out of 1,900 heart-attack patients, those who drank two or more cups a dayreduced their risks of dying over the next 3.8 years by 44 percent. Newsweek, May 20, 2002Weight LossTrying to lose weight? Reach for a cup of green tea instead of a diet beverage. Compared to theplacebo and caffeine, green tea extract consumption produced a significant 4% increase in 24-hour energy expenditure. If you consume 2,000 calories per day and dont gain or lose weight(youre in energy balance), an increase of 4% would translate roughly into an 80-calorie daily 56
  • 57. difference. Over a year, this could result in 89 pounds of weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nov 1999 Recent evidence shows that in the battle of fat loss, green tea may be superior to plain caffeine. Disadvantages:• if overconsumption, may cause kidney damage• can irritate your stomach• drinking eight or nine daily duplicates the symptoms of ulcer• slows the digestion process• creates gas• causes diarrhea and constipation• affects respiratory and heart function• overexcites the nervous system and causes palpitations If the level of caffeine is very high in our body, then it can cause insomnia, nausea or frequent urination. Frequently taking the tea can affect the liver and also kidney. The products derived from the tea contains large amount of polyphenols which are harmful to our health. It is advisable to reduce the intake of such tea or completely eliminate from the diet especially for the pregnant women. Sometimes it may cause problem in the growth of the child and may develop complications. This is because the compound EGCG is very harmful to the body. There is another component named methotrexate in the tea which is also harmful to the body as it is very reactive with the enzyme named as DHFR. This enzyme is very useful to fight against the cancerous cells. EXPORT AND IMPORT Tea is one of the most refreshing and popular beverages of the world. India is one the largest Tea producer, exporter and consumer in the world. Indian tea is the finest quality in the world. It is being cultivated in the high ranges of Northern and Southern India and the best quality tea are CTC and Orthodox Assam Tea. The consumption is above 600 Million kgs per year. The market consists of both Leaf and Dust Teas both in the CTC and Orthodox Grades. There have been considerable rise in the domestic production as well as export figures since the past few years. Tea production and exports Jan-Apr 2005 Jan-Apr 2004 yoy % (mn kg) Production Exports Production Exports Production Exports North India 94.1 20.2 76.1 23.1 23.7 (12.6) 57
  • 58. South India 55.7 32.6 51.2 26.0 8.8 25.4All India 149.8 52.8 127.3 49.1 17.7 7.5Source: Indian Tea AssociationExportsIndia is the largest producer of tea and ranks fourth in terms of total tea exporters in the world. Tea Exports from India(Rs mn) Jan-Apr 05 Jan-Apr 04 yoy (%)North India 2,448 2,568 (4.7)South India 2,136 1,684 26.9All India 4,585 4,252 7.8 Country-wise export of tea from India during 2005-06ImportsDuring Jan-Mar 2005, tea imports into India increased to 4.56mn kg from 2.91mn kg in Jan-Mar2004. Vietnam was the major exporter at 1.78mn kg. 58
  • 59. Tea Imports to India Jan-Mar 05 Jan-Mar 04 Inc/Dec Countries (mn kg) (Rs/kg) (mn kg) (Rs/kg) (mn kg) Indonesia 0.47 58.42 0.59 62.88 (0.12) Nepal 0.22 55.55 0.73 50.47 (0.51) Sri Lanka 0.05 92.74 0.40 97.72 (0.35) Vietnam 1.78 36.44 0.60 26.88 1.18 Kenya 0.45 68.95 0.57 80.98 (0.12) Others 1.59 50.08 0.02 N/A N/A Total 4.56 45.53 2.91 59.39 1.65 Source: Indian Tea AssociationThe special incentives to boost the tea exports of Rs 930 mn will bring in the much neededsupport for the tea industry, which was currently facing oversupply. The fund would be releasedfrom the corpus of Rs 1.4bn created from collection of additional excise duty (AED) over twoand a half years.Global Tea Production: In 2007, China was the largest producer of tea followed by India, Kenya,and Sri Lanka. Graph 1 on the next page shows the production volume of the world’s major teaproducersGlobal Tea Exports: In 2007, Kenya was the largest exporter of tea followed by Sri Lanka,China, and India. The following graph shows the export statistics for the world’s major teaexporters. 59
  • 60. Though, India is the second largest producer of tea in the world, the domestic consumption of teais quite high, resulting in India’s exports being only the fourth largest.Highest Per Capita Consumption Markets for Tea in 2007: Turkey, Ireland, U.K., Poland,Russia, and Japan had the highest per capita consumption rates for tea in 2007. As can be seenfrom Graph 5 below, the average per capita consumption of tea in Russia was 1.3 kg, which wasfar greater than the average per capita consumption of tea both globally (0.3 kg) and in India (0.7kg).Global Tea IndustryTea, as a farm crop, is more subject to geographical and natural environment. Worldwide, morethan 60 countries produce tea. According to the statistics form the Food and AgriculturalOrganization (FAO), global tea planting area totaled around 2.90M hectares by the end of 2008,and is growing at an annual rate of 3.0%. In 2008, the total production of tea stood at 3.75M 60
  • 61. within global reach, about 80.0% of which was produced by five countries -- India, China,Kenya, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.At present, black tea accounts for a 70.0% or so market share of all kinds of tea in the world. Itsoutput is expected to increase annually by 1.9% worldwide to 3.10M tons per year in 2017according to FAO forecast. In the meanwhile, green tea is likely to enjoy a more rapid annualoutput growth rate of 4.5% to 1.57M tons per year.Washing and everything related to washing has developed significantly since the beginning ofhistory. Now a day’s people are using laundry detergents, synthetic detergents, washingmachines, dryers and there are plants to treat the wastewater of washing. While in the prehistorypeople used to have only water and used rivers and streams as water supply, defecated in nature 61
  • 62. and their wastes had a low impact on the environment. Even though all these developments seemvery familiar and normal to us nowadays, you may have asked this already to yourself: “How didwe come to this level in washing?”The answer to this question is a long and interesting story, the “History of Washing”, startingfrom prehistory till the21st century. Frescoes in Pompeii show how important laundry was forthe Romans. Laundry was not done at home, at least not by the wealthier Romans. It was done atthe public “fulleries” – the equivalent of the modern Laundromat – by workers called “fullones.”“The large fulleries have several features in common. They contain a large hall with very largebasins in the floor, communicating with one another. In these basins clothes were put to soak andcleaned. Along three sides of the hall are pressing-bowls, usually made of terracotta, often thelower half of a dolium. Here the material was further cleaned, by workers who ’jumped‘or’danced‘on the clothes (the so-called saltus fullonicus; Seneca, Epistulae 15,4), while they leanedon small walls on either side. Detergents were used, such as the creta fullonica (fuller’s earth)that was stored in small bowls. It helped remove the grease and enhanced the colours. Urine,collected in public urinals, was used for bleaching, and so was sulphur, which was burned underwooden frames over which the cloth was suspended. After the pressing, the material was taken tothe basins again, for the removal of the detergents. Fullers were organized into powerful Guilds.Clothes were cleaned by treading (fulling) in stone bowls containing clay and ammoniated water.After rinsing once, the bowls were filled once more and the clothes were rinsed again. Dryingtook place on bell-shaped wire frames under which sulphur was burned.” (From the OstiaAnctica web site). The Roman laundries were not a healthy work Environment: workers wereconstantly exposed to polluted, foul-smelling air and their skin was in constant contact withchemicals in the water. As a result they ran a high risk of developing work-related illnesses. Theancient Greeks used only water, with out soap, for laundry. 62
  • 63. The middle of the 19th century witnessed the appearance of the first mechanical washingmachines. Typically a closed tub with wooden paddles (agitators later made of metal) allowedlaundresses to work In an upright position and not get their hands wet so much. Laundry was nolonger the laborious and Time consuming ritual it had been in the past. The dirt and bad smellsthat accompanied overcrowding in the cities were less and less acceptable to people, and this ledto steady scientific progress. But before Washing machines were generally in use, large townsinstalled large public wash-houses or laundries. The fixed tub with a hand-propelled rotatingagitator was the forerunner of the rotating tub (gyrator) machine. The forerunner of the moderndrum machine that extracts the water during a rapid spin cycle would not appear until into the20th century. Laundry remained a ritual in the U.S. throughout the 19th century. A writtentestimony by a late-19th century author in Practical Housekeeping reads: “Laundry and cookinggo hand in hand . . . On washing and ironing days, it is inadvisable to cook steak or fry fish, dueto the smell. In addition, no spinach, split peas, green beans (which need stringing), or stewedapples [should be prepared] because these all take too long to prepare and time should be givento the laundry. More suitable dishes would be potatoes, pasta, rice and corn, with a dessert ofbaked apples with cream: Quick, easy and very tasty.” Developments in laundry products didn’tkeep pace with the technological advances in washing machines: Until the end of the 19thcentury, people still washed their clothes with soap flakes. Synthetic detergents would not appearfor another 10 to 20 years, during World War I. The first electric washing machine was producedin the 1908. It featured a top-mounted electric motor-driven agitator. Towards 1920, newmachines were fitted with a horizontal cylinder. But this did not prevent manual machines fromprospering. At the end of the 1940s, electric machines were fitted with an impeller. During the1950s, a heating element and automatic spin cycle were added (some machines had separatespinners, alongside the wash drum). The 1960s saw the advent of automatic machines which, atthe touch of a button, wash, rinse and spin in the same drum, at first mounted vertically, and laterhorizontally (“front loaders”).By the end of the 20th century, washing machine technology hadcontinued to evolve. Electromechanical controls (knobs) had been replaced by electronic ones(push-buttons). The newer machines required less water and newer laundry products workedbetter at lower temperatures, rendering the laundry process more energy-efficient. Concentratedlaundry products required less transport, less shelf-space and less packaging. New wash cyclesappeared, such as. Those for silk, wool and delicates, and short wash. In some developingcountries, even today, manual practices still exist, as shown in these photographs of people inIndia, doing the laundry on the banks of the Ganges, and of people on the African continent.Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a substance which is a type of detergent (cleaningagent) that is added when one is washing laundry to aid in getting the laundry cleaner. Laundrydetergent has traditionally been a powdered or solid granular, but the use of liquid laundry 63
  • 64. detergents has gradually increased over the years, and the popularity of liquid detergent nowrivals that of solid detergent. Some brands also manufacture laundry soap in tablets anddissolvable packets, so as to eliminate the need to measure soap for each load of laundry. Insome countries where washing clothes by hand is more popular, detergent bars are more popular.Recently, environmentally friendly detergents have experienced a surge in popularity. Detergentmay also be sold in pellets in some brands of laundry ball, although many others do not containdetergent. Soap substitute plants are also used as laundry detergents. Proctor & Gamble IndiaProcter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American company based in Cincinnati, Ohio that manufactures awide range of consumer goods. In India Proctor & Gamble has two subsidiaries: P&G Hygiene andHealth Care Ltd. and P&G Home Products Ltd. P&G Hygiene and Health Care Limited is one of Indiasfastest growing Fast Moving Consumer Goods Companies with a turnover of more than Rs. 500 crores. Ithas in its portfolio famous brands like Vicks & Whisper. P&G Home Products Limited deals in FabricCare segment and Hair Care segment. It has in its kitty global brands such as Ariel and Tide in the FabricCare segment, and Head & Shoulders, Pantene, and Rejoice in the Hair Care segment.Procter & Gambles relationship with India started in 1951 when Vicks Product Inc. India, a branch ofVicks Product Inc. USA entered Indian market. In 1964, a public limited company, Richardson HindustanLimited (RHL) was formed which obtained an Industrial License to undertake manufacture of Mentholand de mentholated peppermint oil and VICKS range of products such as Vicks VapoRub, Vicks CoughDrops and Vicks Inhaler. In May 1967, RHL introduced Clearasil, then Americas number one pimplecream in Indian market. In 1979, RHL launches Vicks Action 500 and in 1984 it set up an AyurvedicResearch Laboratory to address the common ailments of the people such as cough and cold.In October 1985, RHL became an affiliate of The Procter & Gamble Company, USA and its name waschanged to Procter & Gamble India. In 1989, Procter & Gamble India launched Whisper - thebreakthrough technology sanitary napkin. In 1991, P&G India launched Ariel detergent. In 1992, TheProcter & Gamble Company, US increased its stake in Procter & Gamble India to 51% and then to 65%.In 1993, Procter & Gamble India divested the Detergents business to Procter & Gamble Home Productsand started marketing Old Spice Brand of products. In 1999 Procter & Gamble India Limited changed thename of the Company to Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Limited.P&G Home Products Limited was incorporated as 100% subsidiary of The Procter & Gamble Company,USA in 1993 and it launched launches Ariel Super Soaker. In the same year Procter & Gamble Indiadivested the Detergents business to Procter & Gamble Home Products. In 1995, Procter & Gamble HomeProducts entered the Hair care Category with the launch of Pantene Pro-V shampoo. In 1997 Procter &Gamble Home Products launches Head & Shoulders shampoo. In 2000, Procter & Gamble HomeProducts introduced Tide Detergent Powder - the largest selling detergent in the world. In 2003, Procter& Gamble Home Products Limited launched Pampers - worlds number one selling diaper brand.Today, Proctor & Gamble is the second largest FMCG Company in India after Hindustan Lever Limited. 64
  • 65. Type of detergentLaundry detergent: Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a substance which is a type ofdetergent (cleaning agent) that is added when one is washing laundry to aid in getting the laundrycleaner. Laundry detergent has traditionally been a powdered or solid granular, but the use ofliquid laundry detergents has gradually increased over the years, and the popularity of liquiddetergent now rivals that of solid detergent. Some brands also manufacture laundry soap intablets and dissolvable packets, so as to eliminate the need to measure soap for each load oflaundry. In some countries where washing clothes by hand is more popular, detergent bars aremore popular. Detergent may also be sold in pellets in some brands of laundry ball, althoughmany others do not contain detergent. Soap substitute plants are also used as laundry detergents.olid laundry detergent is commonly sold in paperboard cartons, corrugated fiberboard boxes andplastic tubs as a powder, although compressed tablets are also available. In many parts of theworld, laundry detergent is also sold in single-use packets or sachets. This single use allows theconsumer to buy the detergent they need for the day rather than having to spend a larger amountupfront. The size of the boxes can vary from small single-use boxes sold from vending machinesin land romats to large economy-size boxes. For domestic use, powder detergent is generally soldby volume in box sizes of around 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and 3 kilograms (6.6 lb). In some cases,plastic measuring scoops have been included inside the boxes.quid detergent is sold in plastic bottles, usually high-density polyethylene or sometimes PET orother kinds. Again, various sizes are available. On large-size bottles, a handle to carry the bottleis often pre-formed as part of the bottle. The bottle caps are often made large enough so they canbe used as cups for measuring out the liquid detergent; however this can make the cap very largeas the dosage can be as much as 120 millilitres DIFFERENT TYPE OF DETERGENT 65
  • 66. FENA (P) LIMITED (Formerly known as Syndet & Chemical Industries Limited) is a professionally managed, fast growing company engaged in manufacturing, marketing and exporting leading brands of Detergents, Scourers and Personal products. FENA (P) LIMITEDs high quality standards and competitive pricing provide outstanding value for money to the customer through over 1, 000 Redistribution Stockists servicing approximately 700, 000 retail outlets nation -wide backed by multi -location manufacturing facilities. Our products enjoy an excellent presence in the popular segment of detergents industry in India as per the latest retail audit survey reports available. Established in 1976 as a first generation entrepreneurial venture , the organization has achieved a consistently high rate of growth year after year - today providing employment to over 1, 000 personnel. The organization is forever committed to building core strengths of superior qualities, competitive prices, wide distribution and servicing, scientific approach, commitment to R&D and modern professional management practices. We are offering detergent powders which ensure superior cleaning actions. These have special active dirt removing agents that keep dirt in suspension and avoid redeposit ion of dirt stuck on the clothes. Our powders can be provided to our clients in attractive packaging at competitive prices. Tide is the name of a popular laundry detergent on the market in Canada, the United States, Morocco and other countries. It is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. Tide is marketed under various sub-brands, such as 2x Ultra Tide. First introduced in test markets in 1946 with national distribution reached in 1949, Tide was voted as "Americas Washday Favorite". It quickly gained dominance in the detergent market, dwarfing the sales of other P&G products, such as Ivory Snow, as well as the competition from Rinso.Nirma is one of the most recognizable Indian brands. Its story is a classic example of the success of Indian entrepreneurship in the face of stiff competition. Nirma took on the might of giant multinationals and wrote a new chapter in the Indian corporate history. Starting as a one-man operation in 1969, today, Nirma has about 14, 000 employee-base and annual turnover of more than Rs. 25, 00 crores. Rin is a very old and famous brand name for the detergent soups and 66
  • 67. even the detergent powder. It cleans all the clothes nicely and has a very good smell. Now there is a new detergent powder introduced by the same company and it is called as Rin Super detergent powder. This detergent powder is much better than the previous one and is very effective for cleaning the dirty clothes.a product by HUL. Superior cleaning in a choice of Two Fragrances – Ariel Spring Clean & Ariel Fresh Clean another Breakthrough Innovation from Ariel for the Indian Family Ever wished that your clothes could smell mesmerizing and fragrant like your perfumes? Procter & Gamble, the makers of leading international fragrances such as Hugo Boss, Lacoste, Old Spice and Valentino now make your wish come true, with the launch of Ariel in a choice of two exciting fragrances – Ariel Spring Clean with a floral fragrance, and ArielFresh Clean with a refreshing fragrance. The two unique fragrances of Ariel now offers Indianconsumers an unbeatable combination of ‘superior cleaning’ and ‘a choice of fragrances’ withthe launch of Ariel Spring Clean and Ariel Fresh CleanNEW DELHI, Dec 22: The countrys leading detergent maker Hindustan Lever Ltd (HLL) has admitted that its `Wheel brand of detergent and cake contains no lemon (nimbu), despite its aggressive ad campaign `nimbu ke saath. Wheel, which has been advertised with the punch line "Nimbu ke saath. Bedaag safai, super safai" (with lemon, spotless cleanliness, super cleanliness), comes packaged in a distinct green and yellow wrapper, with a lemon prominently displayed on it. Interestingly, HLL had earlier maintained that "lemon has been part of the brand (Wheel) since 1992 and as such consumers instantaneously associate this key ingredient as part of their brand, asevidenced through consumer research."Kanpur Trading Companys Ghadi detergent which has a dominant 40 per cent share in Uttar Pradesh [Images ] and 10 per cent nationally, sending shivers down the spines of executives at both Nirma and Hindustan Lever. Or look at Jyothi Laboratories, the makers of Jiva herbal soap and Ujjala fabric whitener. The herbal soap is cleaning up in the marketplace even as HLLs Ayush herbal offerings are floundering. And Ujjala is beating Reckitt Benckisers Robin Blueblack and blue. And CavinKares brands -- Chik and Fairever -- continue their forward marchA wide range of detergent powder, which is suitable for both hand and machine washing ofcotton, synthetic, blended and other type of clothes. Composed from harmless chemicals, our 67
  • 68. ranges of detergent powder have outstanding stain removability and meet with Europeanbenchmarks. We provide these detergent powders in different sizes and appropriate packaging’sto meet the requirements of our clients.Surf Excel, launched in 1954, is one of the oldest detergent powders in India. Initially, the brandwas positioned on the clean proposition of “washes whitest”. However, with the emergence ofnumerous local detergent manufacturers and the entry of other global brands, This is in line withthe global communication platform of Dirt Is Good, which is a communication strategy ofUnilever for its premium detergent products, sold under various brand names; such as Omo inBrazil and Persil in UK and France. Today, Surf Excel leads the Premium Fabric Wash Categoryin India. Some of the other major detergent products of Unilever in IndiaMr. White was introduced in India in the mid range category as "White Giant" by the Indiansubsidiary of Henkel AG & Co. KGaA, Germanys No.1 detergent company. After the re launch,the brand grew in volumes significantly because of greater consumer interest.The product was even more enhanced by adding green speckles to the existing blue speckles.The purpose of green speckles was to push the dirt from clothes down to the bottom of the bucket while that of blue speckles was to enhance whiteness. VANISH Shakti O2 and VANISH Whites are international brand names of stain removers. They work with the bleaching action of oxygen that is released when VANISH is mixed in water. VANISH is mild on cloths yet very effective in removing most types of stains on laundry. Henko an Eco-friendly detergent powder and seems to be a specialformulation of Henkel of Germany. This is now made in India for Indian market and Henkel Spic marketsit. Henko Stain Champion is with power pearls to add value to the product. Power pearls is nothing but an additive to improve detergency of the product. It’s pretty good especially for all types of cloth. We are using this detergent for our normal use since long, from the day it is available in our town. 68
  • 69. We found the most authoritative toothpaste recommendations at Consumer Reports, whereeditors test 41 toothpastes for stain removal, abrasiveness and fluoride content. the Australianequivalent to Consumer Reports, compares toothpastes only for their whitening ability. Muchmore informal comparison reviews at Grist and Slate magazines evaluate toothpastes mostly fortaste, texture and the way the mouth feels after brushing - as do most consumer-written reviewspublished at sites such as and We also found good informationfrom dentists who post articles and recommendations to blogs and oral-health websites. Readingtoothpaste reviews quickly reveals that consumers and dentists seem to have different prioritieswhen choosing toothpaste. Most people look for good flavor, thickness (neither too runny nor toohard) and pleasant texture. People also want the mouth to feel clean after brushing, with sweetbreath, and for teeth to look not only unstained, but as white as possible. Dentists, on the otherhand, say the best toothpaste is the one that protects teeth from cavities, softened enamel andplaque. If not removed at least every 24 hours, plaque hardens into tartar, which builds up andmakes teeth and gums even more susceptible to decay - resulting in a negative cycle that cancause first gingivitis, then serious periodontal disease. In turn, quite a few experts believe thatperiodontal disease may cause systemic problems, including heart problems.Where dentists and consumers do agree is that the best toothpaste should do no harm. We foundquite a few complaints from sufferers with sensitive teeth, canker sores or problems with the softtissues of the mouth. Just because toothpaste prevents cavities does not mean it wont irritateyour teeth, gums or the lining of your mouth. Crest Pro-Health toothpaste , designed to controltartar, gets an especially high number of complaints from users. Some complain that the stannousfluoride stains their teeth, while others are sensitive to its tartar-control ingredient, sodiumhexameta phosphate. Quite a few dentists recommend avoiding tartar-control toothpastes sincethey can contribute to oral problems. In most mouths, tartar only builds up if plaque is left on theteeth for 24 hours or longer. 69
  • 70. Toothpaste -- we use it every single day. In fact, Americans brush their teeth nearly 200 billiontimes a year and spend more than 1.6 billion dollars on it. But, have you ever wondered exactlyhow it helps our teeth? And how do we go about choosing which ones right for us? Toothpasteis not a relatively modern phenomenon. In fact, as long ago as 3000-5000 BC Egyptians made adental cream by mixing powdered ashes of oxen hooves with myrrh, burned egg shells, pumice,and water. Unfortunately, these early Egyptians didnt have toothbrushes but used chew sticks toapply their dental cream. In 1000 AD Persians added burnt shells of snails and oysters along withgypsum. Unfortunately, at this point, toothpaste was still reserved for the rich. In 18th centuryEngland a tooth cleaning "powder" containing borax was sold in ceramic pots. One of theproblems, which lasted well into the twentieth century, was that they were often very abrasive,causing damage to teeth.Prior to WWII, toothpaste was packaged in small lead/tin alloy tubes. The inside of the tube wascoated with wax, however, it was discovered that lead from the tubes leached into the product. Itwas the shortage of lead and tin during WWII that led to the use of laminated (aluminum, paper,and plastic combination) tubes. At the end of the twentieth century pure plastic tubes were used.The breakthrough that transformed toothpaste into the crucial weapon against tooth decay wasthe finding that fluoride could dramatically reduce cavities. Dr. William Engler tested 400preschool children and discovered a dramatic reduction in dental cavities among children treatedwith fluoride. This study, along with many others done around the world, led to the widespreadintroduction of fluoride in the 1950s. 70
  • 71. Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush to clean and maintain the aestheticsand health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis and deliver active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). Some dentist recommendations include brushing your teeth at least twice a day, if not more. In most or all developed countries, usage after each meal is encouraged by dentists. However when cleaning teeth witha toothbrush with toothpaste, the essential cleaning is done by the mechanical brushing, and notby the active toothpaste chemicals. Most toothpaste contains trace amounts of chemicals whichmay be toxic when ingested; it is not intended to be swallowedThe development of toothpaste began as long ago as 300/500BC in China and India. Accordingto Chinese history, a learned man, Huang-Ti, studied the care of teeth and claimed different typesof pain felt in the mouth could be cured by sticking gold and silver needles into different parts of the jaw and gum. It was theories such as these that led to the development of dental cream. First attempts at tooth cleaning included using abrasives such as crushed bone, crushed egg and oyster shells, which were used to clean debris from teeth. Tooth powders were the first noticeable advance and were made up of elements like powdered charcoal, powdered bark and some flavouring agents. This would be applied to teeth using a simple stick.Toothpowder or dentifrice was first available in Britain in the late eighteenth century. It came ina ceramic pot and was available either as a powder or paste. The rich applied it with brushes andthe poor with their fingers.Modern toothpastes were developed in the 1800s. A dentist called Peabody was the first to addsoap to toothpaste in 1824. Chalk was first added to toothpaste by John Harris in the 1850s. In 71
  • 72. 1873, toothpaste was first mass-produced into nice smelling toothpaste in a jar. In 1892, Dr.Washington Sheffield of Connecticut was the first to put toothpaste into a collapsible tube.Sheffields toothpaste was called Dr. Sheffields Creme Dentifrice. Advancements in syntheticdetergents (after World War II) replaced the soap used in toothpaste with emulsifying agentssuch as Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Sodium Ricinoleate.The 1960s saw the introduction of fluoride into toothpaste. This development was followed inthe 1980s with the addition of soluble calcium fluoride to fluoride toothpastes. It is thereforewithin the last thirty years that toothpastes contain the two ingredients - calcium and fluoride.Nowadays, there are controversial views on the effectiveness and safety of fluoride toothpaste.For those who are safety conscious, the use of natural toothpaste might be a better choice.Early toothpastesThe earliest known reference to toothpaste is in a manuscript from Egypt in the 4th century A.D.,which prescribes a mixture of iris flowers However, toothpastes or powders did not come intogeneral use until the 19th century. The Greeks, and then the Romans, improved the recipes fortoothpaste by adding abrasives such as crushed bones and oyster shells. In the 9th century,the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab is known to have invented a type of toothpaste,which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain. The exact ingredients of this toothpaste arecurrently unknown, but it was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste". It isnot known whether these early toothpastes were used alone, were to be rubbed onto the teethwith rags, or were to be used with early toothbrushes such as neem tree twigs or miswak. It isknown that these twigs were used by Indians from ancient times. Neem tree twigs are said tohave good medicinal effects.Tooth powderTooth powders for use with toothbrushes came into general use in the 19th century in Britain.Most were homemade, with chalk, pulverized brick, or salt as ingredients. An 1866 HomeEncyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal, and cautioned that many patented toothpowders that were commercially marketed did more harm than good. Recently, homemade toothpowders are made by mixing 3 parts baking soda(cleanser) thoroughly with 1 part salt (theabrasive). A homemade version of toothpaste can be made by mixing 3 parts baking soda and 1part salt with: 3 teaspoons of glycerin, 10-20 drops of flavoring and 1 drop of food coloring. MODERN TOOTHPASTE 72
  • 73. An 18th century American and British toothpaste recipe containing burnt bread has been found.Another formula around this time called for dragons blood (a resin),cinnamon, and burnt alum.By 1900, a paste made of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda was recommended for use withtoothbrushes. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpassthe popularity of tooth-powder until World War I. In 1892, Dr. Washington Sheffield of NewLondon, Connecticut, manufactured toothpaste into a collapsible tube. Sheffields toothpaste wascalled Dr. Sheffields Creme Dentifrice. He had the idea after his son traveled to Paris and sawpainters using paint from tubes. In New York City in 1896, Colgate & Company Dental Creamwas packaged in collapsible tubes imitating Sheffield. Fluoride was first added to toothpastes in1914, and was criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1937. Fluoridetoothpastes developed in the 1950s received the ADAs approval. To develop the first ADA-approved fluoride toothpaste, Procter & Gamble started a research program in the early 1940s. In1950, Procter & Gamble developed a joint research project team headed by Dr. Joseph Muhler atIndiana University to study new toothpaste with fluoride. In 1955, Procter & Gambles Crestlaunched its first clinically proven fluoride toothpaste. On August 1, 1960, the ADA reportedthat "Crest has been shown to be an effective anti cavity (decay preventative) dentifrice that canbe of significant value when used in a conscientiously applied program of oral hygiene andregular professional care." Countries limit and suggest different amounts of fluoride acceptablefor health. Much of Africa has a slightly higher percentage than the U.S.Toothpaste in India 73
  • 74. Aim toothpasteAquafreshBlanXClose-UpColgateComplete toothpasteCrestCupridentDarlieDruideElmexEuthymolFluorideFresh BreathGleemIpanaJanina Whitening ToothpasteMacleansMentadentOral-BPepsodentRembrandt (whitening)Sensodyne (marketed for individuals with sensitive teeth; trademark of GlaxoSmithKline)Shane toothpasteSignalSquigleThe Natural DentistThera BreathToms of MaineUltra BriteZendiumZephyrToothpaste Brands in Other Countries:Dabur, Vicco vajradanti, IndiaClose-UpHiGeen ToothpastesMeridol, IsraelPerla, CubaNanosensitiveHCA, GermanySolidox, NorwayStomatol, SwedenVademecum, SwedenHappee, PhilippinesBeam, PhilippinesCandida, SwitzerlandLion, JapanPlidenta, CroatiaZirodent, Croatia 74
  • 75. Hygienic Toothpaste Daxal Cosmetics Private Ltd., An Iso 9001:2000 Company Is The Manufacturer Of An Array Of Health Care ... Supplier : Daxal Cosmetics Private Limited Lovedent Bhavi Recently Introduced `Lovedent` Brand Toothpaste Range To Cater The Needs Of Those Volume Buyers, Who Are Not Interested In A Part... Supplier : Bhavi Group Of Companies Meswak Toothpaste Bajaj Groups Is A Renowned Name In International Trade And The Leading Manufacturer And Exporter Of An Extensive Range Of Herbal Cosmet... Supplier : Surya InternationalToothpasteChoice Laboratories Is An Indian Company,Which Offers Personal Hygiene Products. ItManufactures A Complete Range OfToothpaste For Ad...Supplier : Choice Laboratories 75
  • 76. Ajanta Tooth PasteAjanta Associates Pvt. Ltd. Offers Ajanta Tooth Paste.They Offer Toothpastes, Which Are Used To CleanThe Teeth. This Product Can Prom...Supplier : Ajanta Associates Pvt. Ltd.,Herbal Tooth PowderShri Sanmati Udhyog Offers Herbal Tooth Powder. The CompanyManufactures Natural Tooth Powder From 100% NaturalIngredients With No Syn...Supplier : Shri Sanmati UdhyogTooth Paste With Ems SaltsJ.L Morison [India] Ltd Offers Tooth PasteWith Ems Salts. J.L Morison [India] LtdSupplies Health Car...Supplier : J.L Morison (India) Ltd. 76
  • 77. Kids Toothpaste Colgate - Palmolive Offers Kids Toothpaste. This Toothpaste Strengthens Teeth And Fights Cavity. Its Light Foaming Action Makes Brushin... Supplier : Colgate - Palmolive (India) Ltd.Calcium Enriched Herbal ToothpasteGoran Pharma P. Ltd. Offers Calcium Enriched Herbal Toothpaste.Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Is Iso 9001:2000 ...Supplier : Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Toothpaste With Decay Protection Properties Colgate - Palmolive Offers Colgate Strong Toothpaste. The Features Of The Toothpaste Are As Follows: Spreads Around And Penetrates... Supplier : Colgate - Palmolive (India) Ltd. 77
  • 78. Dental Cream Or ToothpasteThe Himalaya Drug CompanyManufactures Dental Cream OrToothpaste. The Himalaya DrugCompany Is An Iso...Supplier : The Himalaya Drug Co.Private Label ToothpasteBhavi Manufactures And Supply A Range OfToothpaste [Dental Cream]. They Offers ThePrivate Label Toothpaste. They Are BasicallyManufa...Supplier : Bhavi Group Of CompaniesNimboo ToothpasteS. K. G. Cosmetices Offers Nimboo Toothpaste. The CompanyManufactures Toothpaste Under The Brand Name "Nimboo". ThisToothpaste Is Mad...Supplier : S. K. G. Cosmetices 78
  • 79. Toothpaste With Advanced Whitening Formula Colgate - Palmolive Offers Toothpaste For White And Healthy Teeth. Colgate Advanced Whitening Formula Contains Microcrystals That Gentl... Supplier : Colgate - Palmolive (India) Ltd.• Product: Crest Pro-Health EnamelShield toothpaste, Keyingredient: Stannous fluoride Supplier: Crest Pro-Health Enamel 79
  • 80. Amar Clove Gel Amar Clove Gel: Clove has always been Natures best gift for the well being of teeth. Amar brings for you all the goodness of clove in gel toothpaste with all its natural anti bacterial, anti septic and disinfectant properties. Clove based Amar gel provides resistance against plaque and cavity formation.. Supplier: AMAR Remedies Limited Vicco Vajradanti Paste In 1952 by late Shri K.V.Pendharkar , the VICCO Group has em erged today as makers of the best internationally known products of the Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of natural medicines. Having production units at Dombivli , Nagpur and Goa in India Supplier: vicco pvt ltd Neem Gel Toothpaste Herbal protection for gums and teethIndication: Herbal protection for gums and teeth.Supplier: BAPS Swaminarayan Herbal Care 80
  • 81. Anchor toothpaste Tooth Paste Manufacturers Anchor, Tooth Paste Manufacturers Supplier:Anchor Health & Beautycare Pvt Ltd, Pepsodent toothpaste Pepsodent Complete Care toothpastes Supplier : Hindustan unilever pvt .ltd Glister toothpaste Glister Toothpaste is a revolutionary that offers seven benefits. Multi-action Multi-Action Toothpaste with Sylodent fluoride toothpaste Amway Glister supplier : ToothpasteBabool Toothpastedabur India Limited Is The Manufacturer Of Babool Toothpaste.Dabur India Limited Is An Iso 9002 Certified Company. T...Supplier : Dabur India Limited 81
  • 82. Babool Toothpowder Balsara Group Offers Babool Toothpowder. This Is An Attractively Packaged Tooth Powder With The Ayurvedic And Medicinal Properties Of The Babul Tree `... Supplier : Dabur India LimitedPromise Clove ToothpasteBalsara Group Offers Promise Clove Toothpaste.Promise Toothpaste Is Unique Toothpaste ContainingNatural And Time-tested Clove Oil. The Scientificall...Supplier : Dabur India LimitedNon-Fluoridated Calcium ToothpasteGoran Pharma P. Ltd. Offers Non-FluoridatedCalcium Toothpaste. Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Is Iso9001:2000 ...Supplier : Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Herbal Tooth Gel Paste Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Manufactures Herbal Tooth Gel Paste. Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Is Iso 9001:2000 And Ha... Supplier : Goran Pharma P. Ltd. Herbal Red Toothpowder Dabur India Limited Offers Herbal Red Toothpowder. Dabur India Limited Is An Iso 9002 Certified Compan... Supplier : Dabur India Limited 82
  • 83. Natural Herbal Toothpaste Dabur Offers Babool. A Natural Herbal Tooth Paste Containing The Ayurvedic And Medicinal Value Of The Babool Tree. The Babool Extracts PreventPromise Anti-Cavity Toothpaste Sweelin... Supplier : Dabur India LimitedDabur India Limited Is The Manufacturer Of PromiseAnti-Cavity Toothpaste. Dabur India Limited Is An I...Supplier : Dabur India LimitedBENEFITS OF USING ORGANIC TOOTHPASTE- Through cleansing -- essential oils like mint or menthol provides an antibacterial effect that promotegreater dental hygiene. This makes it far superior to the over the counter toothpastes.- Dental Protection -- tooth decay slows down the clay purifies the mouth with continued use creates abarrier to Viruses and harmful corrosive bacteria. 83
  • 84. - Superior Whitening - Clay toothpaste whitens teeth to a near brilliant shine in a very short period oftime.- Healing properties - People who suffer from gingivitis, mouth ulcers and wounds in the mouth mayfind that using organic tooth paste helps diminish these problems.- Fresh breath - People often worry that organic products don’t work as well as mainstream ones. Thefact is, in many cases the opposite is true. For example, the wonderful natural ingredients found inorganic toothpaste can freshen the breath and keep it that way for hours. Data analysis Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes. Business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing on business information. In statistical applications, some people divide data analysis into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis, and confirmatory data analysis. EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. All are varieties of data analysis. Data analysis is a practice in which raw data is ordered and organized so that useful information can be extracted from it. The process of organizing and thinking about data is key to understanding what the data does and does not contain. There are a variety of ways in which people can approach data analysis, and it is notoriously easy to manipulate data during the analysis phase to push certain conclusions or agendas. For this reason, it is important to pay attention when data analysis is presented, and to think critically about the data and the conclusions which were drawn. Raw data can take a variety of forms, including measurements, survey responses, and observations. In its raw form, this information can be incredibly useful, but also overwhelming. Over the course of the data analysis process, the raw data is ordered in a 84
  • 85. way which will be useful. For example, survey results may be tallied, so that people can see at aglance how many people answered the survey, and how people responded to specific questions.In the course of organizing the data, trends often emerge, and these trends can be highlighted inthe write-up of the data to ensure that readers take note. In a casual survey of ice creampreferences, for example, more women than men might express a fondness for chocolate, andthis could be a point of interest for the researcher. Modeling the data with the use of mathematicsand other tools can sometimes exaggerate such points of interest in the data, making them easierfor the researcher to see. Charts, graphs, and textual write-ups of data are all forms of dataanalysis. These methods are designed to refine and distill the data so that readers can gleaninteresting information without needing to sort through all of the data on their own. Summarizingdata is often critical to supporting arguments made with that data, as is presenting the data in aclear and understandable way. The raw data may also be included in the form of an appendix sothat people can look up specifics for themselves.When people encounter summarized data and conclusions, they should view them critically.Asking where the data is from is important, as is asking about the sampling method used tocollect the data, and the size of the sample. If the source of the data appears to have a conflict ofinterest with the type of data being gathered, this can call the results into question. Likewise, datagathered from a small sample or a sample which is not truly random may be of questionableutility. Reputable researchers will always provide information about the data gatheringtechniques used, the source of funding, and the point of the data collection in the beginning ofthe analysis so that readers can think about this information while they review the analysis. Datais a precursor to data analysis, and data analysis is closely linked to data visualization and datadissemination. The term data analysis is sometimes used as a synonym for data modeling, whichis unrelated to the subject of this article.The process of data analysisData analysis is a process, within which several phases can be distinguished. • Data cleaning • Initial data analysis (assessment of data quality) • Main data analysis (answer the original research question) • Final data analysis (necessary additional analyses and report) Data collectionWe face problems in various fields of our life, which force us to think and discover theirsolutions. When we are genuinely serious about the solution of a problem faced, a thinkingprocess starts. Statistical Thinking or Statistical Inquiry is one kind of thinking process whichrequires evidence in the form of some information, preferably quantitative, which is known asdata/statistical information. In a statistical inquiry, the first step is to procure or collect data. 85
  • 86. Every time the investigator may not start k r n the very beginning. He must try to use what othershave already discovered, lhis will save us in cost, efforts and time. As discussed in data implyrelated quantitative information. They are collections of number of related observations with apredetermined goal. We can collect information on the number of T.V. sets sold by a particularsalesman or a group of salesmen, on weekdays in different parts of Delhi to study the pattern ofsales, lean days, and effect of competitive products, income behavior and other related matters.The information thus collected is called a data set and’ a single observation a data point. Alltypes of information collected without proper aim or objective is of no use. For example, Johnsheight is 56" or monthly wage of Mr. X on 1st January 2004were Rs. 15000/- are not data. Notall quantitative information is statistical. Isolated measurements are not statistical data. Statistics(that is in singular sense) Concerned with collection of data relevant to the solution of aparticular problem. According to Simpson and Kafka (Basic Statistics),"Data have no standing inthemselves; they have n basis for existence only where there is a problem".PURPOSE OF DATA COLLECTION By now you have known that data could be classified in the following three ways:a) Quantitative and Qualitative Data.b) Sample and Census Data.c) Primary and Secondary data.(ij Quantitative and Qualitative data: Quantitative data are those set of information which arequantifiable and can be expressed in some standard units like rupees, kilograms, liters, etc. Forexample, pocket money of students of a class and income of their parents can be expressed in somany rupees; production or import of wheat can be expressed in so many kilograms or lakhquintals; consumption of petrol and diesel in India as so many lakh liters inOne year and so on. Qualitative data, on the other hand, are not quantifiable, that is, cannot beexpressed in standard units of measurement like rupees, kilograms, litres, etc.This is becausethey are features, qualities or characteristics like eye colours, skin complexion, honesty, goodor bad, etc. These are also referred to as attributes. In this case, however, it is possible to countthe number of individuals (or items) possessing a particular attribute.b) Sample and Census Data: It was discussed in Section 1.2.3 of Unit 1 that data can be collectedeither by census method or sample method. Formation collected through sample inquiry is calledsample data and the one collected through census inquiry is called census data. Populationcensus data are collected every ten years in India.c) Primary and Secondary Data: As discussed very briefly in Section 1.2.2, primary data arecollected by the investigator through field survey. Such data are in raw form and must be refinedbefore use. On the other hand, secondary data are extracted from the existing published orunpublished sources, that i% from the data already collected by others. Collection of data is the 86
  • 87. first basic step towards the statistical analysis of any problem. The collected data are suitablytransformed and analyses to draw conclusions about the population.COLLECTION OF DATACollection of reliable and sacient data statistical information is a pre-requisite of Any statisticalinquiry. This and the subsequent Sections of this Unit are devoted to data collection techniques.Statistical Inquiry - Planning’ and ConductCollection of reliable and sacient data requires a carell planning and executionof a statistical survey. If this is not so then the result obtained may be misleading or incompleteand hence useless. They may even do more harm than good. In the following Section an attemptis made to explain planning aspect. Statistical data can be collected Gather by a survey or byperforming an experiment. Surveys are more popular in social sciences like economics andbusiness. In Physical sciences experimentation is more commonly used method of investigation.Data collected by observing various individuals or items, included in a survey, are of Yachted bya large number of uncontrollable factors. For example, wages in a country are affected by a lot offactors like skill, education and sex of worker; training and experience; and in some countrieseven on race to which a worker Belongs. In India low caste and historically underprivilegedpeople like sweepers It is interesting to note that even the data obtained through experiments inphysical sciences are affected by a large number of uncontrollable factors in spite of the fact thatsuch experiments are conducted under controlled conditions. The uncontrollable factors, in thiscase, may arise due to the bias of the person(s) conducting the experiment, nature and accuracyof measuring instrument, etc. Any statistical survey consists of two stages: 1. Planning Stage 2. Executing StagePlanning Stage - Requisites of a Statistical InquiryBefore collecting data through primary or secondary source, the investigator has to complete thefollowing preliminaries.a) What are the objective / aim and scope of the inquiry?Unless the investigator answers this question most satisfactorily, (s) he cannot proceed in theright direction and can go astray. Both money and efforts will be lost if data, not relevant toinquiry, are collected. Not only this, one must also be clear about how much data are requiredand hence ensure that only the necessary data get collected. For example, if we want to collectdata on pattern of wheat production in a particular state, we need to collect data on the type ofland, agricultural inputs, educational levels of farmers involved, presence or absence of defectsof land tenure system, availability and cost of agricultural finance, nature of marketing, etc.b) What shall be the source of information?The investigator has to make a choice between primary sources, where he himself collects thedata, or secondary source, where he lays his hand on already collected Data’s hat is, theinvestigator has to make a choice between: 87
  • 88. 1) Census or Sample inquiry. In census method (s) he examines each and every tem 1 individualof the population whereas in sample method (s) he examines only the item 1 individual includedin the sample. For example, in census method(s) he examines each and every person in a village,but in sample method, (s) he examines only a limited number of persons.2) Direct or Indirect inquiry, In a direct inquiry the observations can be directly obtained inquantitative terms as for example, sales of T.V. sets and the advertisement cost in rupees. On theother hand, in an indirect inquiry, like intelligence of a group of students, marks secured by themare used to judge their intelligence.3) Original or Repetitive inquiry. An inquiry conducted for the first time is it undertaken overand over again, it is repetitive. For example, population census in India is conducted every 10years. All these inquiries must be related.4) Open or Confidential inquiry. In open inquiry the results are made public, as for example, thepopulation and national income data. On the other hand, the results of many governmentinquiries are kept confidential for reasons of national security, as for example, data on defense,atomic energy, space research and development, etc.d) What shall be the statistical units of investigation or counting?A statistical unit is an attribute or a set of attributes conventionally chosen so that individuals orobjects possessing them may be counted or measured for the purpose of enquiry. Thus astatistical unit is a characteristic or a set of characteristics of an individual or item that areobserved to collect information. For example, various characteristics of a person may be hisheight, weight, income, etc. The definition of a statistical unit means the specification of thecharacteristics of an individual or item on which data are to be collected. It must be pointed outthat the result of observation of a statistical unit may be a number which is obtained-either bycounting or by measurement.Execution StageThis stage comes after the planning stage, where the plan is put in operation.It includes:1) Setting up the central administrative machinery which prepares a’ format of questions relatingto the inquiry, called a questionnaire or a question schedule. It decides the setting up of branchoffices to cover large geographical 2) Selection and Training of field staff called interviewers or investigators or research staff orenumerators. They will approach the respondents in different ways as explained in SectionInvestigators should be properly trained, should be honest and hard working. Any error at thisstage will jeopardize the whole process of investigation giving misleading results. To obtain thebest possible results h m a survey, it is desirable to have the field staff who is familiar with thelanguage of the respondents and have patience and tact of dealing with them.3) Supervision of field staff is a must to ensure that information is actually obtained from therespondents rather than that the questionnaires are fictitiously filled up in hotel rooms. Further,there must be some experts to make clarification3 on problems faced by the investigators in the 88
  • 89. field work. While conducting field surveys the problem of non--response is common. Thisincludes:a) Non-availability of the listed respondent. Here in no case thisre~~ondent be replaced byanother because it may spoil the random character of sample and the results of investigation arelikely to become biased.b) Due to non-response, a part or certain questions of the questionnaire may remain unansweredor partly answered. These should not be replaced or tempered with by the investigator.4) After the data have been arranged, the next job is to analyses the same. The Methods of doingthis are hlly described in later Blocks. Now-a-days Computers are available to do this job.5) After analysis of data, now is the turn for writing a detailed report mentioningThe main findings of survey statistical inquiry. The main conclusions drawn and policyrecommendations are duly recorded at the end of this report.GENDER OF RESPONDENT:-GENDER NUMBER %MALES 72 36FEMALES 128 64TOTAL 200 100AGE WISE:-AGE NUMBER %18-25 25 12.526-35 65 32.536-45 50 2545-55 35 17.556-65 20 10OTHERS 5 2.5TOTAL 200 100OCCUPATIONAL WISE:- 89
  • 90. OCCUPATION NUMBERSTUDENT 60HOUSE WISE 80BUSINESSMEN 40WORKING WOMEN 20TOTAL 200Qualification wise:-Category Number %Graduate 25 12.5Under Graduate 45 22.5HSC 30 15.0SSC 20 10.0Other 30 15Un Educated 50 25Total 200 100GENDER OF RESPONDENT:-GENDER NUMBER %MALES 72 36FEMALES 128 64TOTAL 200 100 90
  • 91. Notes : In these research we have taken a sample servey of 200 people means males are 72 andfemale are 128 and percentage is 36%(males)& 64% (females).AGE WISE:-AGE NUMBER %18-25 25 12.526-35 65 32.536-45 50 2546-55 35 17.556-65 20 10OTHERS 5 2.5TOTAL 200 100 91
  • 92. AGE WISE Other 5 56-65 20 46-55 35 36-45 50 26-35 65 18-25 25Notes : In these research we have taken a sample servey of 200 people means males are 72 andfemale are 128 and percentage is 36%(males)& 64% (females)and different age group .OCCUPATIONAL WISE:-OCCUPATION NUMBERSTUDENT 60HOUSE WISE 80BUSINESS MEN 40WORKING WOMEN 20TOTAL 200 92
  • 93. Occupational Wise 20, 10% 60, 30% 40, 20% student house wife business men working women 80, 40%Notes : In these research we have taken a sample survey of 200 people means students are 60,house wife are 80, business men are 40 and working women are 20 and percentage is 20% forworking women; 60-30% for students; 40% for business men and 80-40% for house wifes.Qualification wise:-Category Number %Graduate 25 12.5Under Graduate 45 22.5HSC 30 15.0SSC 20 10.0 93
  • 94. Other 30 15Un Educated 50 25Total 200 100Notes : In these research we have taken a sample survey of 200 people means based onqualification i.e. graduate pupil are 12.5%; undergraduate pupil are 22.5%; HSC are about 15%;SSC are about 10%; and uneducated pupil are 25%.BRAND PERFRENCE OF THE CONSUMER Brand preference of tea TATA TEA 66 SOCIETY 54 TAJ MAHEL 16 TETLEY 6 BROOK BOND 20 RED LABEL 4 GIRNAR 4 PATAKA 6 94
  • 95. COMMENT: During this survey, it was noticed that TATA TEA brand is the highest preferred brand by theconsumer. Society is second highest preferred brand. Then the following brands are Taj mahel,Tetley,Brook bond, Red label, Girnar, Pataka and so on. 95
  • 96. COMMENT: During the survey, it was noticed that brands manufacturer’s name was known to 44%, 39%did not know the name of the manufacturer and 17% know the wrong answer. And 172 pupilwere satisfied by the product and 20 were not satisfied. 96
  • 98. WHEEL 13 HANKO 10 Total 192 Detergent Brand Preference 50 42 TIDE 40 RIN 35 30 28 NIRMA 23 20 MODICARE 20 15 13 MR.WHITE 10 6 10 SURF EXCEL 0 AIREL WHEELCOMMENT:During the survey, it was noticed that consumer mostly prefer, detergent brand is TIDE. airel isthe second highest preferred brand and rin is the third highest brand. 98
  • 99. 99
  • 100. Changes in Brand SHAPE & … PACKAGING COLOUR TASTE TASTE COLOUR 0 50Comments: During the survey, it was noticed that brands manufacturer’s name was known to 50, 100 didnot know the name of the manufacturer and 40 know the wrong answer. 100
  • 102. COMMENTS:-We asked people they use toothpaste the answer we get that 100% people are using. And Colgatetoothpaste is most popular brand among the people and pepsodent is the next preference of theconsumer. People use paste by seeing advertising even they did not know the company ormanufacturer name of the brand 102
  • 103. SATISFIED AND UNSATISFIED 20 NO YES 180 During the survey, it was noticed that brands manufacturer’s name was known to 76, 64 did notknow the name of the manufacturer and 60 know the wrong answer. CHANGES IN BRAND 103
  • 104. COMMENT:Non satisfied consumers think that taste and size of the product should be changed.Conclusion:Television: TV is a very popular platform for advertising. It covers nearly all kind of audienceand of all genders. Print Media Advertising: This is the advertising in which we promote thebusiness through Newspapers, Magazines, Journals and books. This advertising covers all ofpeople who are related directly or indirectly with above said media. This is very popular form ofadvertising as print media is very important. We can further categorize the print media(newspapers) into Entertainment, Careers, Classifieds, technology (Computers, Electronics,defense), Real Estate, Lifestyles, Comics and much more. It also includes hoardings and banners.Internet: The newest and increasingly getting popular form of media is internet. As it is thewidest platform for the advertisers. It covers everything from a needle to a ship. These days moreand more companies are focusing on advertising through internet. Internet advertising comprisesof websites, portals, gadgets, feeds and search engines.To advertise means to inform (seen as the flow of information about a product or service fromthe seller to the buyer). However, advertising does not end with the flow of information alone. Itgoes further to influence and persuades people to take a desired action - like placing an order to 104
  • 105. buy a product. The consumer market has become highly competitive with a new brand beingborn almost everyday. Irrespective of the kind of product you are looking for, be it consumerdurables like refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines or fast moving consumerproducts (FMCG) the number of brands available is truly mind boggling. Naturally it is theprime concern of every marketer to promote their brand as a shade better than the competitors.Advertising comes in handy here.However, simply informing a customer that a brand exists is not enough. Advertising should betargeted towards the prospective audience in such a way that it forms a positive impact on thecustomer and in the process creates brand recognition. • First Time Users of a product - Customers who dont use that product category at all. The aim is to convince them to try that product. • First Time Users of a brand - Consumers who dont use a particular brand but might be using a competitors brand. The aim here is to convince buyers to switch from the competition product to theirs. • Regular users of the brand - Buyers who are using the brand already. The aim is to serve as a reminder of the brands benefits and convince them to continue using it. • Launch a new brand into the market. Irrespective of whom the ad is targeted at, a firm that plans to spend on advertising, must make sure that advertising campaign creates a positive impression of the brand in the minds of the customer, creates a need in them to try the brand and a commitment to continue using it. Suggestion:- The following suggestion are offered to make brand preference efficiency and purposeful. 1. The quality of the various brand of product should improve. 2. They should introduce some new innovative essence or flavor in the product timely. 3. The packaging should be attractive. 4. Quality should maintain with reasonable rate. 5. In sunflower oil the colour of the oil should be little lite. 6. In Sauce there should some more flavor may introduced. 7. The tea should little srong in flavor. 105
  • 106. 8. Advertisement should be more attractive with simple broad headlines so that those who see also read such advertisements. 9. The name of the manufacturing units should be mentioned in the advertisement so the customer can aware of it. 10. Message in the advertisement should be clear and often repeated so that consumer may recollect them...Bibliography A.Web sites: 1. 2. 3. 4. B. News papers 1. Times of India 106
  • 107. 2. Hindustan Times3. Daily News AnalysisC. Magazines1. Brands2. Consumer product3. Data analysis 107
  • 108. 2. Hindustan Times3. Daily News AnalysisC. Magazines1. Brands2. Consumer product3. Data analysis 107