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India: a school presentation about the country and its culture.

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  2. 2. Table of Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Name / Location Flag Government Currency Widely known natural and touristic places of India Religion Dress Traditions: Wedding Bollywood Wildlife of India Indian Cuisine and Common Ingredients History Important People Languages / English Language in India / Characteristics and Speaking
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION India is the Seventh-Largest country in South Asia and all we know about this mystical country came from movies and news on television. So, it is why in this presentation we are going to learn more about India; Its origins, natural features, traditions and making more emphasis to the arrival and the importance of the English language in the Hindu culture.
  4. 4. The Republic of India Original name in Hindi (Bhārat Gaṇarājya – Republic of India) Bhārata, is the self-ascribed Sanskrit name for the Indian subcontinentinent.
  5. 5. Location Borders: E=the Bay of Bengal W= the Arabian Sea S= Indian Ocean India is divided in 28 states and 7 Union Territories.
  6. 6. Flags The Indian national flag, represents India's long struggle for freedom. It is a national treasure. It signifies the status of India as an independent republic.
  7. 7. Flags the flag of 1931 was adopted as Indian flag. India saffron, white, and India green. In the middle the 'Chakra' (wheel) with 24 spokes in navy blue.
  8. 8. Government India is the world's largest democracy. It is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India. The federal government comprises three branches: Executive. President, Vice-President and Prime Minister Legislative. the bicameral parliament: the Rajya Sabha ("Council of States") and the Lok Sabha ("House of the People"). Judicial. The Supreme Court. Shri Pranab Mukherjee President Shri Mohammad Hamid Ansari Vice-President Manmohan Singh Prime Minister
  9. 9. Currency The official currency of the Republic of India is the Indian Rupee. In denomination of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000.
  10. 10. Currency Rupee coins are available in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 1000
  11. 11. Natural and Touristic Places of India The Himalayans It is the highest mountain system in the planet, and home to the world's highest peaks.
  12. 12. The Ganges It is the second largest river in the Indian subcontinent (2.510 km). swimming in the Ganges is believed to clean yourself of sins and helps to attain salvation.
  13. 13. The Taj Mahal (Crown of Palaces) Video Taj Mahal (Complete Story within 2.5 minutes) :
  14. 14. Religion 700 650 600 Millions 500 400 307 300 200 100 4 16.5 0 The main Indian religions Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism The main Indian religions are linked by a belief in karma. Life is regarded as a continual cycle of birth, life and re-birth (samasara) and that the deeds or desires of part lives determines ones fate in this and future lives.
  15. 15. Typical dress for women Sari Worn in special occasions Pattu Pavadai or Langa davani Worn by teenagers and Little girls Ghagra Choli or Lehenga Choli Worn in folk dances
  16. 16. Typical dress for Men Dastar Also known as Pagri Panche or Lungi Very traditional garment Dhoti Worn by men in villages Pheta (turban in the state of Maharashtra)
  17. 17. Other Clothing Contemporany Clothing Mysore Peta Worn by kings during formal meetings or festivals Gandhi cap It was popularized by Mahatma Gandhi
  18. 18. Traditions Indian Wedding The ceremonies that take place before the wedding are: •Misri, the ring ceremony, takes place several days before the wedding. Seven married women are called to draw the sign of Lord Ganesha in red powder spread above a bowl of rock sugar, and then prayers are said by the bride, the groom, and their parents. The bride and the groom proceed to exchange flowered garlands and gold rings in front of their priest. •Mehendi takes place the day before the wedding and is an only-ladies ceremony. Patterns drawn with henna are applied to the bride’s hands and feet which symbolize the deepening of bonds with her future husband. This ceremony will often merge with Sagri, also known as the ‘acquaintance party’, where the groom’s female relations visit the bride bearing gifts and flowers to adorn her.
  19. 19. •The Nav-Graha Puja is a ceremony in which the says prayers at the groom and bride’s homes to the Gods of the “nine planets”, •The Ghari Puja, is a ceremony which includes a series of prayers combined with offerings of wheat, coconut, betel nuts, rice and spices for prosperity. The day of the wedding begins with the Haldi ritual in which the bride is cleansed at her home with turmeric powder. This is followed by the Swagatam ceremony, in which her female relatives help her dress in her wedding sari.
  20. 20. Bollywood What is it about? It's a popular nickname for the most popular cinema on the planet: the Hindi-language film industry based in Bombay (AKA Mumbai). Bollywood films are usually musicals and the plots are often melodramatic.
  21. 21. A 2013 Movie of Bollywood Video Lavani - Full Song | Zapatlela 2 | Adinath Kothare, Sonalee Kulkarni:
  22. 22. Wildlife of India Common animals Indian or Asian Elephant Royal Bengal Tiger Lion Tailed Macaque Indian Flying Fox Wild Ass
  23. 23. Wildlife of India Common flowers Bougainvillea Jasmine Roses Marigold Lotus Orchid
  24. 24. Indian Cuisine India cuisine or Indian food encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate and occupations, these cuisines vary significantly from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious and cultural choices
  25. 25. Dishes Jhinga Goa Curry (Indian shrimp in spicy coconut curry) Pakoras Besan Laddu (Savory fritters) (Indian sweet chickpea flour balls) Sambar Shahi Korma (Indian lamb in a creamy nut sauce) (Indian spicy lentil stew)
  26. 26. Common Ingredients Curry Botanical name Murraya Koenigin Sprengel. Widely used in South India Tea World’s largest producer of tea curry in India means a sauce or gravy Commercial production started by the British East India Company Named ‘Curry’ by the British Tea Chai and Masala
  27. 27. Common Ingredients Coffee Sweeten it with sugar and blend it with milk till it is light brown in color It is very popular in the southern When the British levied a heavy tax the nation-wide beverage (tea) in the 19th century, this drove the Indians towards coffee.
  28. 28. History of India 2500 BC Aryan Invasion Invasions The earliest inhabitants, a very advanced civilization which was Indigenous. 1500 BC There were constant invasions from Asia: Alexander the Great, the Scythians, the Huns, the Arabians, Persians and Afghans. The cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harrapa. They came from the grasslands of central Asia and thereby lived a nomadic life based on cattle raising. Various religious groups battled for dominion. (The Hindu, Muslim and Buddhists)
  29. 29. British Rule in India (1600-1947) • It has been said that the British Empire was picked up in a "fit of absence of mind." Nowhere was this more true than in the case of India which gradually came under British rule, not by the efforts of Britain's government, but by those of the British East Indies Company.
  30. 30. The British East Indies Company 1599 Founded by a group of merchants in search of nothing more than “Quiet Trade”. 1600 Portugal was losing control of the East Asian Spice trade. British East Indies Company gained the right to set up trading posts along the coast of India: Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
  31. 31. The Mughal Empire This dynasty had ruled most of India peacefully and tolerantly for a century since the 1500's. However, during the reign of Aurangzeb (16581707) all that changed as he started persecuting Hindus.
  32. 32. The Seven Years War (1756-63) • • • Sepoys The Seven Years War (1756-63). Under the leadership of Robert Clive had virtually ended French involvement in India.
  33. 33. The Effects of the British Dominance While company employees who survived service in India were making their fortunes, the company's loose management was costing it a fortune, forcing it to apply to the Bank of England for a loan in 1773 in order to avoid bankruptcy. As a result, Parliament exercised increasing control over the company, establishing governors-general to oversee its activities. Modern technology (especially railroads) and business methods. The growing number of Christian missionaries. More flexible beliefs of the Hindu majority and the strong beliefs of Indian Muslims
  34. 34. Independence Movement The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, led the independence movement. At first, its goal was to gain more rights for Indians and more say in the British administration. The independence movement of Muslims in India who feared being a minority in a Hindudominated state. They wanted a separate independent Muslim state in the northwest. World War I (1914-18) and World War II (193945) further catalyzed India’s push for independence, since Britain had to rely heavily on Indian recruits to fill its ranks.
  35. 35. Independence Movement Britain promised more political concessions, thus weakening its hold on India, encouraging more demand by Indians, and so on. In 1920, a new leader, Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the voice of the Indian National Congress. Educated in both traditional Indian culture and British schools, Gandhi developed very effective non-violent tactics of resistance while protesting British policies. Finally, in 1947 Britain the region between Hindu India in the South and Muslim Pakistan in the Northwest that also controlled a separate territory, Bangla Desh, in the Northeast.
  36. 36. Important People Mahatma Ghandi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) • He’s considered the father of the Indian independence movement. • Gandhi spent 20 years in South Africa working to fight discrimination. • Satyagraha, a non-violent way of protesting against injustices. • He spent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule from India as well as to better the lives of India's poorest classes.
  37. 37. Gandhi Quotes Video Mahatma Gandhi quotes:
  38. 38. Important People Mother Teresa (August 26, 1910 - September 5, 1997) Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, now known as Mother Teresa, founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Catholic order of nuns dedicated to helping the poor. Begun in Calcutta, India, the Missionaries of Charity grew to help the poor, the dying, orphans, lepers, and AIDS sufferers in over a hundred countries. Mother Teresa's selfless effort to help those in need has caused many to regard her as a model humanitarian.
  39. 39. Important People Kunal Nayyar (April 30, 1981) He’s an India actor born in London, England, and raised in New Delhi, India. He is known for his role as Rajesh Koothrappali on the CBS sitcom The Big Bang Theory.
  40. 40. Languages in India • There are 22 different languages that have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. • Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Guajarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konk ani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskr it, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.
  41. 41. Languages in India 74 14 6 51 13 12 83 46 60 2 29 33 2 71 422 33 37 1 12 2 5 Assasamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Guajarati Hindi Kannada Kashimiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Manipuri Marathi Nepali Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Santhali Sindhi Tamil Telugu Urdu
  42. 42. English Language in India • English is an additional co-official language for Government work, also English has a status of assistant language, • After Hindi it is the most commonly spoken language in India and probably the most read and written language. • English symbolizes in Indians minds, better education, better culture and higher intellect. • English also serves as the communicator among Indians who speak different language. • English is very important in some systems – legal, financial, educational, business – in India. The reason Indians give such importance to English is related to the fact that India was a British colony
  43. 43. The Distinguishing Characteristics of Indian English • Some Indian English speakers had a tendency to drop the -ed ending after /k/ and /t/ (ex: walked became walk) • The consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ tend to be unaspirated. • In some regions, /v/ and /w/ are not distinguished (volleyball is the same as wallyball) • Suffixes tend to be stressed. • Indians also pluralize many English mass nouns and end up with words such as litters, furnitures, and woods. • Indians also shorten many words to create commonly used terms (Enthusiasm = enthu) (fundamentals = funda) “He's a real enthu guy” “She knows her fundas”
  44. 44. When Indians use English, it is often a mixture of English, Hindi, and other languages. Some expressions such as general mai (in general) and ek minute (one minute) are prevalent in Indian English. Other commonly used Hindi terms and expressions include the following: Hindi English Achchaa Bahut Ghotu Koi bat nahi Kya hall hai Teek hai Good A lot One who reads a lot No problem How are you Okay (lit: it is right)
  45. 45. The Sterotype we have about the English in India Video Hollywood Stars Indian:
  46. 46. The use of only and itself to emphasize time and place. “I was in Toledo only” and “Can we meet tomorrow itself?” Reduplication as a way of emphasizing an action or intensifying or extending something. “Come! Come!” and “Sit! Sit” / “hot, hot water” and “long, long hair” The use of the progressive aspect with habitual actions, completed actions, and stative verbs. “I am doing it often” / “I do it often” “Where are you coming from?” / “Where have you come from?” “She was having many sarees” / “She had many sarees”
  47. 47. How actually the English of India sounds Video Kunal Nayyar Wants To Be Hairless As An Olympic Swimmer:
  48. 48. India Some phrases and words used in the daily lives of the Hindu people are: English from India English equivalence Drivery Driver Doing Marketing Going to Shopping What is your good name? Asking for your full name Where are you put up? Where are you currently staying? Timing schedule Intimate with someone Talk an important issue with someone Out of station Out of town
  49. 49. CONCLUSION As we have seen, the English variety in India is clearly influenced by the lifestyle, customs and languages ​of the country itself. Although the recently liberation of India from the British rule, we should not forget the importance that the Hindu people give to English language. It is a remarkable feature in the society: as a linker between people and as an advanced source of knowledge in science, technology and medicine.
  50. 50. Sources • Darlington, R. (2012) A Short Guide to the Indian Political System. (Online) Retrieved from: • From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia: India. Retrieved from: • The President of India Shri Pranab Mukherjee. Retrieved from: • Vice President of India Shri M. Hamid Ansari. Retrieved from: • Prime Minster of India: • India Flag (Online). Retrieved from:
  51. 51. • Historical Flags (2013). Retrieved from: • ma-Gandhi-9305898-1-402.jpg • 12 Animals from India (2010). Retrieved from: • Flower Plants of India (2008). Retrieved from: • Source: • • •
  52. 52. • • • Pictures: and • Indian Rupee. Wikipedia de the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: • World touristic attractions (Online). The best 10 touristic attractions in India. Retrieved from: • Map from: pg • Ganges Picture from:
  53. 53. • Quick Reference (Online). Indian Religions. Retrieved from: • Pictures: • • • • Indian Cuisine. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: • India: Menu of typical dishes (Online). Retrieved from: • Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues – 2001 (2011) Retrieved from: guage/Statement1.htm
  54. 54. • Clothing in India. Wikipedia the free enclyclopedia. Retrieved from: • Pictures: • • • • • • •
  55. 55. • The importance of curry leaves (Online). Retrieved from: • Malhi M. (Online). HISTORY OF CURRY. Retrieved from: • Pictures: • Coffee: • Curry: • Tea: • Picture: • Rosenberg, J (Online) Retrieved from: • Picture: • Rosenberg, J (Online) Retrieved from:
  56. 56. • Biography for Kunal Nayyar(Online) Retrieved from: • Picture: 1._SX281_SY400_.jpg • Source: BW Help: What is Bollywood (Online) Retrieved from: • Thee guide for clueless fans of hindi films (Online) Retrieved from: • Videos: Kunal Nayyar Wants To Be Hairless As An Olympic Swimmer: Mahatma Gandhi quotes: Lavani - Full Song | Zapatlela 2 | Adinath Kothare, Sonalee Kulkarni: Hollywood Stars Indian: • Taj Mahal (Complete Story within 2.5 minutes) : •
  57. 57. • Indian Wedding Traditions (2013). Retrieved from: • Picture: • ve_of_india.jpg