Chapter 1: Why Study Computers and Digital Technology?<br />Succeeding with Technology: Second Edition<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />2<br />Objectives<br />Define how digital electronics devices and computers are related, a...
Succeeding with Technology<br />3<br />Objectives (continued)<br />Discuss the four primary types of information systems a...
Succeeding with Technology<br />4<br />Objectives (continued)<br />Discuss how computers are used to assist people in thei...
Succeeding with Technology<br />5<br />What is a Computer?<br />Computer<br />Digital electronics device <br />Combines ha...
Succeeding with Technology<br />6<br />Digital Technology<br />Technology<br />Tools, materials, and processes that help s...
Succeeding with Technology<br />7<br />Digital Technology (continued)<br />Byte<br />Group of eight bits  <br />File<br />...
Succeeding with Technology<br />8<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />9<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />10<br />Computer Functions<br />Hardware <br />Tangible components of a computer system or...
Succeeding with Technology<br />11<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />12<br />Types of Computers<br />Personal computer, or PC<br />General-purpose computer des...
Succeeding with Technology<br />13<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />14<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />15<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />16<br />Types of Computers (continued)<br />Supercomputers<br />Most powerful computers ma...
Succeeding with Technology<br />17<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />18<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />19<br />Mobile Digital Devices<br />Mobile computers<br />Include notebooks, tablets, and ...
Succeeding with Technology<br />20<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />21<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />22<br />The Power of Connections<br />Telecommunications<br />Communications that take pla...
Succeeding with Technology<br />23<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />24<br />The Internet<br />The world’s largest public computer network<br />A network of ne...
Succeeding with Technology<br />25<br />Wireless Networking<br />Uses radio signals rather than cables to connect computer...
Succeeding with Technology<br />26<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />27<br />What Can Computers Do?<br />Computers <br />Have no problem carrying out long comp...
Succeeding with Technology<br />28<br />What Can Computers Do?    (continued)<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />29<br />Computing<br />Computational science <br />Applies the combined power of computer ...
Succeeding with Technology<br />30<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />31<br />Automating<br />Automation <br />Involves utilizing computers to control otherwise...
Succeeding with Technology<br />32<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />33<br />Enhancing Communication<br />Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)<br />Popular tech...
Succeeding with Technology<br />34<br />Providing Entertainment<br />Digital media<br />Music, video, graphic art, animati...
Succeeding with Technology<br />35<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />36<br />Managing Information<br />Information overload<br />The amount of information avai...
Succeeding with Technology<br />37<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />38<br />Information Systems<br />Computer system<br />Multiple computers working together ...
Succeeding with Technology<br />39<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />40<br />Types of Information Systems<br />Transaction processing system<br />Used to suppo...
Succeeding with Technology<br />41<br />Using Digital Technologies to Succeed in Your Career – Computer Based Professions<...
Succeeding with Technology<br />42<br />Business and Communications<br />Most businesses <br />Succeed in using technology...
Succeeding with Technology<br />43<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />44<br />Science and Mathematics<br />Scientists are using computers to<br />Analyze string...
Succeeding with Technology<br />45<br />Engineering<br />Engineers use computers<br />In design and operations<br />To mon...
Succeeding with Technology<br />46<br />Sports and Nutrition<br />Computers <br />Have been used in all aspects of sports,...
Succeeding with Technology<br />47<br />Medicine and Health Care<br />Electronic health records (EHRs)<br />Can improve he...
Succeeding with Technology<br />48<br />Criminology, Law Enforcement, and Security<br />Computers <br />Used extensively i...
Succeeding with Technology<br />49<br />Using Digital Technologies to Achieve Personal Goals – Personal Finance<br />Perso...
Succeeding with Technology<br />50<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />51<br />Information Security and the Social Impact of Digital Technologies – Information S...
Succeeding with Technology<br />52<br />The Impact of Digital Technologies on the World<br />Pervasive computing<br />Impl...
Succeeding with Technology<br />53<br />
Succeeding with Technology<br />54<br />Summary<br />Digital electronics device<br />One that stores and processes data as...
Succeeding with Technology<br />55<br />Summary (continued)<br />Four primary types of information systems <br />Transacti...
Succeeding with Technology<br />56<br />Summary (continued)<br />Computers and digital technologies<br />Are playing an in...
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Ch01

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Why Study Computers and Digital Technology?<br />Succeeding with Technology: Second Edition<br />
  2. 2. Succeeding with Technology<br />2<br />Objectives<br />Define how digital electronics devices and computers are related, and provide descriptions of the different types of computers<br />Provide an explanation of the fundamentals of telecommunications, computer networking, the Internet, and wireless networking<br />Describe the five functional areas in which computers assist people most<br />
  3. 3. Succeeding with Technology<br />3<br />Objectives (continued)<br />Discuss the four primary types of information systems and how they are used<br />Discuss how computers are used in a variety of fields, and why studying computer systems can benefit you professionally<br />
  4. 4. Succeeding with Technology<br />4<br />Objectives (continued)<br />Discuss how computers are used to assist people in their life outside of work<br />Define information security, and discuss ways in which digital technologies are impacting humanity<br />
  5. 5. Succeeding with Technology<br />5<br />What is a Computer?<br />Computer<br />Digital electronics device <br />Combines hardware and software to <br />Accept data input, process and store the data, and produce useful output<br />
  6. 6. Succeeding with Technology<br />6<br />Digital Technology<br />Technology<br />Tools, materials, and processes that help solve human problems<br />Digital electronics device<br />Any device that stores and processes bits electronically<br />Bit<br />Data using technologies that can be set to one of two states<br />
  7. 7. Succeeding with Technology<br />7<br />Digital Technology (continued)<br />Byte<br />Group of eight bits <br />File<br />Named collection of instructions<br />Data <br />Items stored on a digital electronics device <br />Information<br />Data organized and presented in a manner that has additional value beyond value of data itself<br />
  8. 8. Succeeding with Technology<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Succeeding with Technology<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Succeeding with Technology<br />10<br />Computer Functions<br />Hardware <br />Tangible components of a computer system or digital device<br />Software <br />Comprises the electronic instructions that govern the computer system’s functioning<br />Special-purpose computers<br />Typically referred to by the type of computing they perform<br />
  11. 11. Succeeding with Technology<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Succeeding with Technology<br />12<br />Types of Computers<br />Personal computer, or PC<br />General-purpose computer designed to accommodate the many needs of an individual<br />Computing platform<br />Computer’s type, processor, and operating system<br />Servers<br />Powerful general-purpose computers<br />Provide information services to numerous users over a computer network<br />
  13. 13. Succeeding with Technology<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Succeeding with Technology<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Succeeding with Technology<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Succeeding with Technology<br />16<br />Types of Computers (continued)<br />Supercomputers<br />Most powerful computers manufactured<br />Harness the strength of hundreds or thousands of processors simultaneously <br />Special-purpose computers <br />Manufactured to serve a specific purpose<br />Include kiosks and embedded computers<br />
  17. 17. Succeeding with Technology<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Succeeding with Technology<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Succeeding with Technology<br />19<br />Mobile Digital Devices<br />Mobile computers<br />Include notebooks, tablets, and handheld PDAs<br />Mobile communications<br />Cell phones and cell phone services are among the fastest growing of digital markets<br />Mobile media<br />Recent years have witnessed an explosion of handheld media devices<br />Launch of the Apple iPod in 2003 brought portable digital music into the mainstream<br />
  20. 20. Succeeding with Technology<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Succeeding with Technology<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Succeeding with Technology<br />22<br />The Power of Connections<br />Telecommunications<br />Communications that take place electronically over a distance<br />Computer network<br />Telecommunications network that connects two or more computers <br />Protocols<br />Rules that allow two or more computers to communicate over a network<br />
  23. 23. Succeeding with Technology<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Succeeding with Technology<br />24<br />The Internet<br />The world’s largest public computer network<br />A network of networks that provides a vast array of services<br />World Wide Web<br />Internet service that provides convenient access to information through hyperlinks<br />Hyperlink<br />Object in a Web document that can be clicked to access related information<br />
  25. 25. Succeeding with Technology<br />25<br />Wireless Networking<br />Uses radio signals rather than cables to connect computers and digital devices to computer networks <br />Wi-Fi<br />Wireless networking standard that connects computers <br />Notebook computers come equipped with Wi-Fi capability<br />
  26. 26. Succeeding with Technology<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Succeeding with Technology<br />27<br />What Can Computers Do?<br />Computers <br />Have no problem carrying out long complicated calculations at lightning speed<br />Can sort through millions or billions of data records in a matter of seconds <br />Areas in which computers can assist you<br />Computation, automation, communications<br />Digital media and entertainment, and information management<br />
  28. 28. Succeeding with Technology<br />28<br />What Can Computers Do? (continued)<br />
  29. 29. Succeeding with Technology<br />29<br />Computing<br />Computational science <br />Applies the combined power of computer hardware and software to solving difficult problems <br />IBM’s Blue Gene/L - world’s fastest supercomputer <br />Has a theoretical peak performance of 360 trillion operations per second<br />Artificial intelligence (AI) <br />Area of computer science that deals with simulating human thought and behavior in computers<br />
  30. 30. Succeeding with Technology<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Succeeding with Technology<br />31<br />Automating<br />Automation <br />Involves utilizing computers to control otherwise human actions and activities<br />Allows people to exceed their natural abilities<br />Empowers those with disabilities<br />Robotics<br />Branch of AI that empowers computers to <br />Control mechanical devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision <br />
  32. 32. Succeeding with Technology<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Succeeding with Technology<br />33<br />Enhancing Communication<br />Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)<br />Popular technology that allows phone conversations to travel over the Internet or other data networks<br />Residential VoIP services (broadband phones)<br />Becoming popular with home users interested in low phone bills and many additional features<br />Residential VoIP subscribers<br />Must have high-speed Internet connection in their home<br />
  34. 34. Succeeding with Technology<br />34<br />Providing Entertainment<br />Digital media<br />Music, video, graphic art, animation, and 3D graphics stored and processed in digital format<br />Computer-generated special effects <br />Make it difficult to tell what is real and what is fabricated in today’s motion pictures<br />Image-based rendering<br />Manipulating virtual movie stars<br />
  35. 35. Succeeding with Technology<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Succeeding with Technology<br />36<br />Managing Information<br />Information overload<br />The amount of information available overpowers one’s ability to manage and use it<br />Computer-based information system (CBIS)<br />Makes use of computer hardware and software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures to manage and distribute digital information<br />Database<br />Collection of data stored on a computer, organized to meet users’ needs<br />
  37. 37. Succeeding with Technology<br />37<br />
  38. 38. Succeeding with Technology<br />38<br />Information Systems<br />Computer system<br />Multiple computers working together over a network towards a common goal<br />Information technology (IT)<br />Can be defined as issues related to the components of an information system<br />Systems development<br />Creating new or modifying existing systems<br />
  39. 39. Succeeding with Technology<br />39<br />
  40. 40. Succeeding with Technology<br />40<br />Types of Information Systems<br />Transaction processing system<br />Used to support and record transactions<br />Management information system (MIS)<br />Used to provide useful information to decision makers<br />Decision support system (DSS)<br />Used to support problem specific decision making<br />Expert system (ES)<br />Can make suggestions and reach conclusions in one particular area of expertise <br />
  41. 41. Succeeding with Technology<br />41<br />Using Digital Technologies to Succeed in Your Career – Computer Based Professions<br />Software engineers<br />Design and develop new programming applications<br />Computer scientists<br />Use computers to help with the software design process<br />Science and Mathematics<br />Scientists are using computers to analyze string theory equations<br />
  42. 42. Succeeding with Technology<br />42<br />Business and Communications<br />Most businesses <br />Succeed in using technology to increase revenues or reduce costs<br />In factories<br />Computers are being used to design and manufacture products, using <br />Computer-assisted design (CAD) and<br />Computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)<br />
  43. 43. Succeeding with Technology<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Succeeding with Technology<br />44<br />Science and Mathematics<br />Scientists are using computers to<br />Analyze string theory equations<br />Forecast weather<br />Hunt for hurricanes<br />Analyze the environmental impact of forest fires, <br />Make detailed maps using geographic information systems (GISs)<br />
  45. 45. Succeeding with Technology<br />45<br />Engineering<br />Engineers use computers<br />In design and operations<br />To monitor and control petroleum refinery operations<br />To make sure that sophisticated refinery towers and systems are efficiently and safely operating<br />To make complex thermodynamics, power consumption, and circuits and signal<br />
  46. 46. Succeeding with Technology<br />46<br />Sports and Nutrition<br />Computers <br />Have been used in all aspects of sports, nutrition, and exercise<br />Used to design football equipment that reduces the chance of permanent paralysis or brain damage <br />Software<br />Can be used to analyze diet and nutrition for athletes <br />
  47. 47. Succeeding with Technology<br />47<br />Medicine and Health Care<br />Electronic health records (EHRs)<br />Can improve health care<br />Can reduce health care costs by billions of dollars annually<br />Medical informatics <br />An area of medicine involved with storing medical records in a digital format on a national database<br />
  48. 48. Succeeding with Technology<br />48<br />Criminology, Law Enforcement, and Security<br />Computers <br />Used extensively in criminology, law enforcement, and security<br />Provide crime fighters with invaluable information on criminals, stolen vehicles, and missing persons<br />Can be used to capture facial thermograms<br />
  49. 49. Succeeding with Technology<br />49<br />Using Digital Technologies to Achieve Personal Goals – Personal Finance<br />Personal finance software such as Quicken<br />Can assist individuals with living within a budget, saving for the future, and investing<br />Personal Research<br />The Web is increasingly used as primary information source for personal questions and needs<br />Personal Relations<br />People are turning to the Web to make new friends and look up old friends<br />
  50. 50. Succeeding with Technology<br />50<br />
  51. 51. Succeeding with Technology<br />51<br />Information Security and the Social Impact of Digital Technologies – Information Security<br />Information security<br />The protection of information systems and the information they manage against <br />Unauthorized access, use, manipulation, or destruction<br />Hacker<br />Individual who subverts computer security without authorization<br />
  52. 52. Succeeding with Technology<br />52<br />The Impact of Digital Technologies on the World<br />Pervasive computing<br />Implies that computing and information technologies are diffused throughout the environment<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Technology is becoming so much a part of the environment that people do not even notice it<br />Digital divide<br />Social and economic gap between those who have access to computers and information technologies and those that do not<br />
  53. 53. Succeeding with Technology<br />53<br />
  54. 54. Succeeding with Technology<br />54<br />Summary<br />Digital electronics device<br />One that stores and processes data as bits, 1s and 0s<br />Telecommunications <br />Forms of communication that take place electronically over a distance<br />Computers excel in five functional areas<br />Computation, automation, communications, <br />Digital media and entertainment, and information management<br />
  55. 55. Succeeding with Technology<br />55<br />Summary (continued)<br />Four primary types of information systems <br />Transaction processing systems (TPS)<br />Management information systems (MIS)<br />Decision support systems (DSS)<br />Expert systems (ES)<br />Computers play an important role in all professions<br />
  56. 56. Succeeding with Technology<br />56<br />Summary (continued)<br />Computers and digital technologies<br />Are playing an increasing role in assisting people to achieve personal goals<br />Information security <br />The protection of information systems and the information they manage <br />

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