Professional Learning Communities Develop
Effective Integrated Content-Language Instruction
Rita MacDonald, Applied Lingui...
Project CREATE at SMC
Curriculum Reform for the
Education of All Teachers of ELLs
Project CREATE
 OELA National Professional Development Grant
 Year 3 of 5 years
 Goal: revise curriculum for pre-servic...
SMC Curriculum Placements Schools
Program Design Program DesignCourse work Instruction
Elementary Secondary
Teaching Model...
SMC Curriculum Placements Schools
Program Design Program DesignCourse work Instruction
Elementary Secondary
Teaching Model...
Winooski School
District Consists of one elementary, one middle and one high
school. Total student population of 822. 76%...
Integrated Content-
Language Instruction
 Develop teacher knowledge of understanding by design and
differentiated instruc...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Professional Development Plan over 2 Years
Aug.
08
March
09
March –June 09
4 months
Aug. 09 September 09-present
Full scho...
Recommendations
 Need to start where Ts are and work from there.
 PD needs to be integrated into Ts’ planning, teaching ...
References
Echevarria, Vogt and Short. (2008) Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model,
Third Ed...
CREATE website
http://academics.smcvt.edu/CREATE/Default.htm
rmacdonald@smcvt.edu
jnagle2@smcvt.edu
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Mac Donald Tesol 2010, Teaching Acdemic English: Changing Teacher Roles and Implications for Teacher Education

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  • VT does not require ESL courses for teacher ed or for licensing, but we know that today’s Ts need to be prepared to teach in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms
  • VT is a WIDA state, and we’ve incorporated WIDA standards and tools into our SMC curriculum and used them in the PD we’ll be describing today.
    We’ll talk about those as we go along.
  • Explain the model of curriculum reform
    across 2 departments
    Coursework + placements + LEA development w/ 3 partner school districts
    keeps our revision grounded in real classrooms
  • This PD project in this one high-incidence school district is designed to help teachers meet the needs of a rapidly-growing ELL population.
    This school district serves as an important observation and student teaching site for SMC students in both Education and Applied Linguistics.
    Have moved placements from former ‘suburban’ schools to this one high-need district.
  • HIGH NEEDS SCHOOL....similar to urban districts...
    High ELL population—at the tipping point-- up from just 12% 3 years ago—so, need to revise models for instruction
    High percentage of low ses Ss—unusual in VT—again, similar to urban districts
    1: 13 ratio
  • Research shows DI not sufficient for ELLs…….explicit instruction in Academic Language needed…[and for many other Ss, to a lesser extent]
    Therefore, model of integrated C-L instruction.. not to replace ESOL instruction, but situated in C classroom with COLLABORATION of ESL Ts
    We will walk though this process of developing flexible, responsive PD approach —responsive to structural restrictions/impediments of schooling (scheduling, planning time)
  • PD project over the 2 year period…
    Year 1 = 1 W in fall, then another in Spring followed by 4 months of work, embedded to varying degrees to meet the specific needs and opportunities of each school
    Year 2 = kick-off W (repeat of Y1 Fall W), followed by FULL YEAR of monthly work, embedded in varying degrees
    Flexible and responsive to the teachers’ real teaching and learning situations
  • 1. CAN DO = graphic org showing English proficiency levels across 4 domain + Cultural profiles
    2. look at roster, create whole-class Can Do char, showing range of proficiency levels and cultural backgrounds
    3. Then start to develop unit plans for these particular Ss based on DI and UBD
  • Half-day workshop
    More of Eng proficiency levels as they interact with typical classroom activities
    Selected components of SI
    Rationale for increasing the focus on AE for all Ss
    Role of learning objectives as navigational aid for ELLs, how to write effective ones for Ss
  • 4 months of further exploration of these topics, but contextualized by using Ts’ real lesson planning process and products
    Products hoped for were Ts working in groups to develop unit plans to implement in fall of 09.
    Groupings differed, based on schedule and structural constraints
  • K-5 Ts were really under the gun …new science approach + new to UBD… multiple demands, very little common time…met as a 30-person group for 30 minutes once/month
    PDers need to be flexible to meet real demands of:
    school schedules,
    union contracts,
    multiple T responsibilities and
    Ts expressed and changing needs
  • K-5 –whole school, 30 Ts, working on developing inquiry-based science + UBD + SIOP/DI…hope for spread of strategies to other content areas
    MS– ELLs clustered into one team, with new teams to be trained in successive years.. based on needs of Ss—Ss were graduating from newcomer into mainstream, needed team up and running
    HS—disciplinary level teams to develop unit plans to start in fall...to be followed thru implementation through PLC cohort...revise and develop more unit plans
  • Didn’t re-teach, just facilitated a review of concepts from previous fall
    Desired outcome --- Ts update unit plan based on new, updated info about their Ss
  • K-5 = traditional workshop
    MS = all bottom-up, Ts have id’d need and process, during school time...Ts bring issues and Qs
    HS = top-down PLC dictated by state...differential effects for Ts + after school...still, able to create opportunities for investigation of S work
  • K-5: no shared planning time; ESL Ts ‘push in’ to classroom, but are not co-teaching
    MS: Andrea works in planning AV + DI + lang sx
    HS: plan and teach together
  • Desired outcomes are being met
    Strategies are spreading to other content areas
  • Moved from initial separation of C/L…. to more authentically integrated C=L approach...just beginning to use SFL
  • CONTENT: Take Ts where you find them...
    move from basic knowledge (WIDA standards and tools, chart, ACCESS scores) ..
    increase awareness of AE (SIOP, Zwiers) as pertains to content but not really getting into L...
    more sophisticated analysis of the construction of meaning trough discourse (SFL)...
    INTEGRATED INTO Ts’ PLANNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM...BUT all done using THEIR curric planning tools, their lessons, their unit plan formats
    PD Responsiveness: embed it into context of school...work w teams of Ts during school day.. Don’t add another demand...therefore PD must be flexible ...intense front-loading helped, but need ongoing focus with Ts working on THEIR practice and THEIR lessons
  • Mac Donald Tesol 2010, Teaching Acdemic English: Changing Teacher Roles and Implications for Teacher Education

    1. 1. Professional Learning Communities Develop Effective Integrated Content-Language Instruction Rita MacDonald, Applied Linguistics rmacdonald@smcvt.edu James Nagle, Education jnagle2@smcvt.edu
    2. 2. Project CREATE at SMC Curriculum Reform for the Education of All Teachers of ELLs
    3. 3. Project CREATE  OELA National Professional Development Grant  Year 3 of 5 years  Goal: revise curriculum for pre-service teachers so that all teachers graduating SMC are equipped for today’s culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms Work with three partner school districts
    4. 4. SMC Curriculum Placements Schools Program Design Program DesignCourse work Instruction Elementary Secondary Teaching Model Shared responsibility, collaboration, integrated content and language instruction
    5. 5. SMC Curriculum Placements Schools Program Design Program DesignCourse work Instruction Elementary Secondary Teaching Model Shared responsibility, collaboration, integrated content and language instruction
    6. 6. Winooski School District Consists of one elementary, one middle and one high school. Total student population of 822. 76% qualify for free and reduced lunch.  26% are ELL with 22 languages spoken and most of the ELLs are recently arrived refugees in the last three years.  All but three of the sixty teachers are HQT.  All grades (3-8 & 11) have been identified as needing improvement in math and language arts.
    7. 7. Integrated Content- Language Instruction  Develop teacher knowledge of understanding by design and differentiated instruction (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006)  Integrate content and language instruction for elementary science, middle school social studies and high school core content courses (VT Grade Expectations; WIDA, 2008; Zweirs, 2008)  Create teacher learning communities that plan, teach and assess integrated content and language instruction (Little, 2006) and are customized to the school’s particular needs and responsive to the realistic constraints of schooling
    8. 8. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math
    9. 9. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district- wide ½-day district -wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math • English Proficiency Scores (WIDA ACCESS) • Can Do charts for entire class • Cultural profiles • Choose unit to plan DI
    10. 10. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math • Understanding proficiency levels • Strategies & tools for differentiated instruction • ‘Apprenticing’ students into Academic English • Writing clear Content and Language Objectives
    11. 11. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math CONTEXTUALIZED SAME TOPICS • Understanding proficiency levels • Strategies & tools for differentiated instruction • “Apprenticing’ students into Academic English • Writing clear Content and Language Objectives PRODUCTS differentiated lesson/unit plans for Fall 09
    12. 12. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Ts also learning methodology of inquiry-based science + UBD basics
    13. 13. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Ts also learning methodology of inquiry-based science + UBD basics Difference in Teacher Products K-5: 2-3 lesson plans with some Content Objectives, some differentiation MS: Ancient Civilizations course developed within three teacher team with ELL teacher as consultant HS: Unit plan designed in core content courses for implementation in Fall 2009
    14. 14. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district- wide ½-day district -wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math REITERATION OF FALL 08 • English Proficiency Scores (WIDA ACCESS) • Can Do charts for entire class • Cultural profiles • Revise unit based on UPDATED class profile
    15. 15. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded/TLC, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math
    16. 16. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math
    17. 17. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Varied Process = Varied Outcomes
    18. 18. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Varied Outcomes •Meet monthly, 30 Ts at once, 30 minutes •Effective differentiation across English proficiency levels (WIDA 2-5) •Widespread use of SIOP strategies in Science, spreading to other lessons •Beginning to use UBD learning objectives effectively •Increased focus on Academic English, explicit language instruction (strategies from SIOP and Zwiers)
    19. 19. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Varied Outcomes •Eclipse team meets weekly, 90 minutes, to review progress of Ancient Civilizations course, modify lesson and unit plans based on analysis of student work •Team meets with ELL teacher & SMC professor monthly to analyze student performance on formative & summative assessments (WIDA levels 2-5) •Over 2009-10, teachers move from cursory knowledge of WIDA standards and MPIs to developing specific MPIs and language objectives for unit and lesson plans
    20. 20. Professional Development Plan over 2 Years Aug. 08 March 09 March –June 09 4 months Aug. 09 September 09-present Full school year W W Varied W Varied K-5 2 days district -wide ½-day district- wide Workshop- 30 m/twice/month All K-5 1-day district- wide Workshop, 30 m /month + observation MS Embedded-2h/month 1 team Embedded, 2 h/month HS Embedded- 2h/month Departments PLC, 1 h/month •student work •Text analysis ESL:CT Collaboration (shared planning or teaching) K-5 only @ event only @ event only @ workshops @ event only @ workshops MS Began co-planning for instruction Co-planning for instruction HS Planning @ workshop Co-teaching science & math Varied Outcomes •Faculty discuss unit and lesson plans for WIDA language proficiency levels of 2-5 – modifying lessons with differentiated resources and formative assessments •Faculty analyze student work, specifically writing samples, to modify writing instruction •All core content faculty (language arts, math, history, science) meet monthly with ELL faculty as department teams to review and develop unit and lesson plans using Zweirs’ strategies for language structure and vocabulary •Currently, in monthly meetings faculty conduct discourse analysis on
    21. 21. Recommendations  Need to start where Ts are and work from there.  PD needs to be integrated into Ts’ planning, teaching and assessment programs, using their tools and formats.  PD needs to be responsive to the context of the school. Work with teachers during the school day. Intensive front-loading of information can be a start, but PD needs to be embedded into teachers’ work with their curriculum and lessons.
    22. 22. References Echevarria, Vogt and Short. (2008) Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model, Third Edition. Pearson Fang, Z. & Schleppegrell, M. (2008). Reading in secondary content areas: A language-based pedagogy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Tomlinson, C. A. & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Vermont Grade Level Expectations for content area and grade level http://education.vermont.gov WIDA Standards for Language Standards www.wida.us Winooski School District (2009). The Report on the Effectiveness of the Winooski School District.
    23. 23. CREATE website http://academics.smcvt.edu/CREATE/Default.htm rmacdonald@smcvt.edu jnagle2@smcvt.edu

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