INTRODUCTIONIn any society, educators have the ability to make a massive positivecontribution, making such contribution is a challenge and teachers mustwillingly embrace new technology and learning opportunities, educatorsare beginning to recognize that they must teach students, the futureleaders and citizens of the society using current technologies so thatthese students will be comfortable in using future technologies.
Introduction continues…Technologies and digital media are everywhereand integrated into every aspect of individual’slives. Today educators must provide students withthe skills they will need to excel in a technologysociety.
SUB-HEADINGS1. Knowledge society agendaWe need to realistically evaluate where our deficienciesexist, both inside and outside the classroom. Education isnot a drop your child off for 7 hours and they returneducated. It involves the parents backing up and supportingthe teachers at home, Requiring and helping with homeworkto make sure it is done..
Knowledge society agenda continuesNot all parents are created equal, so we need tomake sure that the parents have the resources tolearn the material being taught so they can help thechildren learn. There seems to be a need for a studyisland for parents who wish to help their children buthave been away from school for many years
Knowledge society agenda cont..Recognizing that not all children learn in the sameenvironment and realize that other choices maybe necessary. Some may thrive under a moredifficult discipline setting, while different childrenfade under the same authority.
Knowledge society agenda cont..Build programs that allow parents the choice ofwhere their child should attempt to succeed. Weare not intended to repeat the past in hopes ofgaining an alternate ending.
Knowledge society agenda cont..• We are free to reinvent the system, let us graspthis opportunity and move both our schooldistrict and our children forward now.(Anderson, P., and M. Tushman.)
2. Pervasiveness of technologyThe task that individuals performs at work and atleisure.From the factory to the office to leisure time activities,the tasks individuals perform differ dramatically fromthe days of little or no technology. Factory workersmonitor automated equipment instead of performingmanufacturing operation themselves
Pervasiveness of technology cont..Thousands of college professors, managers, andoffice workers are their own secretaries,keyboarding their own papers, reports, memos,and correspondence. Millions of peopledownload music from iTunes and play it on theiriPods..
Pervasiveness of technology cont..Time and place of workTechnology makes it possible to change the locationof work for a large number of people, and it enableswork to take place at any time during the day. For thefirst time since the Industrial Revolution, rural areasare gaining population.
Pervasiveness of technology cont..Connectivityelectronic mail has dramatically changed the nature ofcommunications through its asynchronous nature and ourability to communicate easily across time zones. Cellularcommunications provide constant phone access. In thenear future, cellular and other hand held devices willbecome a primary means for connecting to the internet,especially when the user is travelling.
Pervasiveness of technology cont..The way in which we structure organizationOne of the most exciting contributions oftechnology is the way it enables organization todevelop innovative new structures.
Pervasiveness of technology cont..Companies can use Information Technology (IT) tobecome practical, assigning projects to task forcesdistributed around the world who communicateelectronically, a company can easily concentrate onits core capability and use technology to make iteasier to distribute work to partners
Education for AllShared responsibilityFrom the supply side, the government mustguarantee enough resources to make educationavailable and affordable for diverse groups.
Education for all cont..From the demand side, the government shouldaddress and fulfil the different demands fromspecific groups, such as the poor students andthose from rural areas. Education is a sharedresponsibility between government, communityand private sectors.
Education for all cont..TeachersThe number one priority for improving educationshould be a focus on teachers. Additionally,increasing the number of teachers and alsoimproving their education and thus, the quality ofteaching should be priorities..
Education for all cont..In Ghana, increasing the number of teachers hasbeen successful because it had mobilized itsresources, such as retired teachers or teachersoutside the system or in other professions.(Jacque Delors 1996) argues
Education for all cont..QualityProviding quality education goes further thanbuilding a school. Comprehensive curricula mustbe developed, in order to eradicate taboos andstereotypes leading to conflict and discrimination.
Education for all cont..Education will prepare the next generations tocontest the ideologies preventing marginalizedgroups from participating fully and equally in thesocial, cultural and economic development oftheir society.
Education for all cont.. FundingIt is through education that the affected communities willbe able to make a stable and inclusive transition to peace;and it is, indeed, those educated children who will betasked with constructing a tolerant society capable offostering sustainable, inclusive and stable economicdevelopment
Objectives of the Future nationalstrategies Combating povertyEfforts to combat poverty and vulnerability play a key partin the Government’s strategic approach to promoting socialcohesion. They are integral components of a policy thatseeks, on the one hand, to afford access for everyone to afair wage, goods and services and, on the other hand, toprovide specifically for people at risk.
Future national strategies cont..Social transfers are one aspect of this policy,which is illustrated by the social inclusionindicators showing the effectiveness of socialtransfers in reducing the poverty risk, as are tax-adjustment and income-redistribution measures.(Kay, R. 2006).
Future national strategies continues(Tearle, P. 2003). Implemented that the processof compiling this report included discussions atboth ministerial level and with the social partners,including NGOs.
Future national strategies cont..Coordination of social inclusion and social protection policieswith policies pursuant to the strategy for growth andemployment, as well as national sustainable-developmentpolicies, is ensured partly by the inter-ministerial committee incharge of preparing the national plan for innovation and fullemployment, and also by the inter-ministerial committeeresponsible for sustainable development strategy.
Future national strategies cont..Adapting day-care provision for children withspecial needsThe system of childcare Centre’s is designed toprovide individual support for those children whoneed it, in addition to the normal care offered to allchildren.
Future national strategyUsing the Centre to make available specificresources for children with disabilities, to ensurethat at least one third of all day-care can cater forchildren with special needs, to increase day-careresources and the quality of care they can offer.
Future national strategies cont..The Government has also begun working toimprove the care of children outside day-care bydeveloping a system of support by parentalassistants and cooperation between day-care.
Future national strategies cont..Health promotion and empowerment(Anderson, P., and M. Tushman 1990). From 2008onwards the Ministry for Health and Social Security,in cooperation with the Union of Sickness InsuranceFunds plans to invest in public-health programs andhealth promotion campaigns on a greatly increasedscale.
Future national strategies cont..In pursuit of a policy based on keeping patientsinformed, the aims are to make peopleincreasingly aware of how lifestyle (diet, etc.) canimpact on health and to alert them to the financialsituation of the social security system generally inrelation to the use of generic drugs for example.
Future national strategies cont..In the interests of an efficient and effective policyapproach, the Government should develop amechanism for coordinating sickness insurancebenefits and dependence insurance.
Future national strategy cont..Gender- based pedagogyGender inequalities were closely related to landownership in southern African, and that somecountries were beginning to develop policies toaddress the issues. Educational materials were beingproduced that were gender sensitive, and mostcurriculum were sensitive.
Future national strategies cont..There is also an increased awareness of gender issuesamongst parents. Success factors political will,financial support for gender based pedagogies, andgender mainstreaming. There is a need to continueefforts to mainstream gender into education systemsand the curriculum.(Boakye,K.B.,&Banini,D.A.2008).
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesTechnology resources: physical and practiceClearly access to ICT as physical technology is theprimary access required for use in teaching andlearning. We note that such considerations aredisappearing from investigations in someinstances:
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesTwo recent US higher education studies (Jones2002; Allen & Seaman 2003) simply assumephysical access is in place. In the local context, asdescribed earlier, this remains a burning issue. Ingeneral, however, physical access is at theforefront of all accounts of access in the literature.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesResource of personal agencyIn order for individual students or academics touse ICT meaningfully for teaching and learning,they need access to personal, collective andcontextual resources.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesWhile we are committed to the importance ofcontext, it is important to identify specificresources which need to be accessed byindividuals in order to give them agency. Wefound the notion of an active orientation useful.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudes The practice and professional development of teachersTeachers with a changed and extended role are central to theway ICT is adopted and used at the classroom and studentlevel. The supposition that teachers might be displaced by thetechnology has been largely discounted, even though the mediaand popular opinion seem still to characterize the technology asvaluable independent of teachers.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesNot only does this fail to understand the key roleof the teacher in using ICT in schools, but by dis-empowering the teacher and stressing thetechnology, it undermines the educationalpotential of the technology itself (Biggs,J.2003)
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesLEARNING TO CHANGE – ICT INSCHOOLSAn optimum balance between operational skills andan understanding of the pedagogical implications isdifficult to achieve. First, however, a starting low levelof technical skill among student teachers must beremedied, both because it will be a barrier toclassroom use and because the pedagogicalimplications will make little sense without sometechnical competence.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesWhile initial teacher education cannot go very farin equipping teachers to evaluate educationalmaterials or to analyses learning processes,beginning teachers need some basic pedagogicalframeworks within which they can readily andenthusiastically accommodate ICT.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesICT Integration into the School CurriculaInformation, Communication and Technology hasmade tremendous advances which could effectivelybe put to advantage to enhance educational delivery.Many Ministries of Education has recognized thispotential and have reformed their educational systemtake advantage.
National and international initiatives regardingprofessional development of teachers with regard toteacher ICTs and professional aptitudesIn a case study of some pioneer schools in ICTintegration (Boakyi K & Banini, A.D, 2006) it wasdiscovered that some schools in both the publicand private sector in the education industry hadtaken advantage of the ICT innovation and weremaking good progress.
CONCLUSIONIndeed, the desire for certificates and the extentsto which both teachers and students are ready togo to achieve this desire has left very little roomfor the school system to pursue the totality of thenational goals and objectives of education,especially the non-examinable ones.
Conclusion cont..This tends to limit education to the narrow scope oflearning to pass examinations and be awardedcertificates and not learning as a basis for acquiringskills to continue the learning process after school.Schooling must equip pupils and students to growthrough life and not simply go through life.
Conclusion cont..This concern, coupled with the need for putting ICTintegration to advantage in educational provision providethe basis for a study into the extent to which the educationsystem is catering for lifelong learning skills and also listingit to appraise the relevance and use of ICT in thedevelopment of these skills to meet the continuingdevelopmental needs and challenges facing society.
Reference listAllen, I.E. & Seaman. J. (2003). Sizing the Opportunity:The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the UnitedStates, 2002–2003. The Sloan Consortium.Anderson, P., and M. Tushman. “TechnologicalDiscontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Modelof Technological Change.” Admiration Science Quarterly35, no.4 (December 1990): 604-633.Biggs,J.(2003). Aligning teaching for constructive learning.New York: The Higher Education Academy PressBoakyi K & Banini A.D. (2006); Integrating ICT in Teachingand Learning in West and Central African Schools: A CaseStudy of Pioneer Schools in Ghana
Reference list cont..Boakye,K.B.,&Banini,D.A.(2008).Teacher ICT Readiness inGhana.InK.Toure,T.M.S. Tchombe,&T.Karsenti(Eds.),ICT andChanging Mindsets in Education. Bamenda ,Cameroon:Langaa; Bamako, Mali: ERNWACA/ROCAREKay, R. (2006). Evaluating strategies used to incorporatetechnology into preservice education: Areview of theliterature. Journal of Reasearch on Technology in Education28(4),383-408Jacque Delors (1996); Learning the Treasure Within, UNESCOReport, ParisTearle, P. (2003). ICT implementation: what makes thedifference? British Journal of Educatonal Technology, 34(5),567-583.