Anaerobic respiration 2
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Anaerobic respiration 2

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tugas biologinya bu henri hehe :p

tugas biologinya bu henri hehe :p

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    Anaerobic respiration 2 Anaerobic respiration 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Anaerobic respiration
      Respiration without oxygen
    • 2 different types of “Respiration”make up all of Cellular Respiration
    • What happens if there is no available electron acceptor?
      Glucose
      2 ADP
      2 NAD+
      glycolysis
      2 ATP
      2 NADH
      2 pyruvate
      Aerobic respiration: The NADH then passes its high energy e- to the
      electron transport chain (becoming NAD+ again) and eventually to O2
      Anaerobic respiration: Without O2, NADH has nowhere to donate its e- to, NAD+ cannot be regenerated, and glycolysis stops
    • Anaerobic respiration
      With no oxygen oxidative phosphorylation and Krebs cycle cannot take place. (Cells without mitochondria cannot respire aerobically – e.g. red blood cells)
      In anaerobic respiration glycolysis takes place as usual yielding pyruvate and a small amount of ATP.
      If pyruvate levels were allowed to build up it stop glycolysis and inhibit ATP production, also the reduced NAD produced must be oxidised back or else the cell would run out of it – again stopping ATP production.
    • Process of Cellular Respiration
    • Anaerobic respiration
      All living organisms break down sugars to get energy. In humans this breakdown usually occurs with oxygen.
    • 25
      energy
      C6H12O62C2H5OH + 2CO2
      glucose alcohol
      Anaerobic respiration can be represented by the equation
      The energy released by anaerobic respiration is considerably
      less than the energy from aerobic respiration.
      Anaerobic respiration takes place at some stage in the cells
      of most living organisms.
      For example, our own muscles resort to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not delivered to them fast enough.
    • Micro-organisms
      26
      Anaerobic respiration is widely used by many micro-organisms
      such as bacteria and yeasts.
      Bacteria and yeasts are microscopic single-celled organisms.
      Bacteria are to be found everywhere, in or on organisms,
      in water, air and soil
      Yeasts are usually found in close association with vegetable matter such as fruit
    • 1. In Muscle Cells - During extraneous
      activities, the oxygen in the muscle tissue is
      decreased to an extent that aerobic
      respiration does not occur at a sufficient
      rate. Hence, there is a buildup of lactic acid
      and your muscles get tired
      2. In Yeast - The fermentation end product is
      ethyl alcohol, and CO2
    • Anaerobic respiration
      glucose
      Producing ethanol from pyruvate regenerates oxidised NAD and allows glycolysis to continue
      triosephosphate
      oxidised
      NAD
      reduced
      NAD
      pyruvate
      reduced oxidised
      NAD NAD
      ethanal ethanol
      alcohol dehydrogenase
    • Anaerobic respiration
      glucose
      Producing lactate from pyruvate regenerates oxidised NAD and allows glycolysis to continue
      triosephosphate
      oxidised
      NAD
      reduced
      NAD
      pyruvate
      reduced oxidised
      NAD NAD
      lactate
      lactate
      dehydrogenase
    • Anaerobic respiration
      First CO2 is removed from pyruvate to produce ethanal.
      Alcohol dehydrogenase converts ethanal to ethanol by adding hydrogen taken from reduced NAD.
      Process used by humans for many thousands of years to produced risen breads and alcohol for drinking.
    • Anaerobic Respiration refers to the
      oxidation of molecules in the
      absence of oxygen to produce energy
      It is also known
      As Fermentation
    • Anaerobic fermentation
      Fermentation: An alternative set of reactions that can follow glycolysis in the absence of oxygen as a final electron acceptor.
      Extremely inefficient: no Kreb’s cycle, no ETC. Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP’s per glucose molecule
    • FERMENTATION PATHWAYS ALLOWS CELLS TO REGENERATE NAD+ FOR GLYCOLSIS
      Fermentation
      by-product
      Intermediate accepts
      electrons from NADH
      2 NAD+
      2 NADH
      2
      Pyruvate
      Glucose
      2 ATP
      2 ADP
    • 2 types of fermentation
      Fermentation
      Lactic Acid Fermentation
      Alcohol Fermentation
    • 2 types of fermentation
    • LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OCCURS IN HUMANS
      Pyruvate accepts
      electrons from NADH
      2 NAD+
      2 Lactate
      2 NADH
      Glucose
      2 ATP
      2 ADP
      2 Pyruvate
    • ALCOHOL FERMENTATION OCCURS IN YEAST
      2 CO2
      2 Acetylaldehyde
      2 Ethanol
      2 NAD+
      2 NADH
      Glucose
      2 ATP
      2 ADP
      2 Pyruvate