Resilience and Disaster Risk Management in Hindu-Kush Himalaya Region:International Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentKathmandu, Nepal 06 February 2013 Regional consultation on resilience Hari Krishna Christian Aid email@example.comPresented at the Christian Aid – Regional Consultation on Resilience – South Asia 06-08 Feb 2013, Kathmandu, Nepal
International Centre for IntegratedMountain Development (ICIMOD) A regional mountain The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Extends over 3500 km from Afghanistan to Myanmar And knowledge, learning Home to 200 million People and enabling centre devoted to sustainable mountain development Information and Knowledge are chief Commodities of the Centre www.icimod.org An intergovernmental and independent organisation http://geoportal.icimod.org with eight member states www.icimod.org/drr
The Himalayas, hotspot for climateextremes The third pole on earth - an area of extraordinary beauty and a world heritage site for biodiversity Himalayan glaciers are sources of freshwater reserves. They provide headwaters for 10 An ecological buffer major river systems in Asia – a between the North and lifeline for almost one-third of South Asia humanity
ICIMOD’s Commitment & Role in reducing disaster risk inthe HKH Region• ICIMOD is committed itself to promote and apply new and high end technologies for the dynamic assessment of water- and climate-related hazards, to develop real-time regional information systems, to strengthen community resilience and adaptation strategies, to assist and inform policy making, and to provide a platform for regional cooperation towards comprehensive disaster risk reduction.
Climatic hazards: Main Issues inThe HKH region: HKH region a source of ten large Asian river systems and provides water, ecosystem services, and the basis for livelihoods to a population of around 210.53 million in the region. Greater risks of global warming in the mountains and threat to mountain hydrological system. About 95% population of the total population in the HKH region depends on agriculture and forest resources but the forest cover is decreasing 0.36 km2 per year and the agricultural production decreasing due climate change and several natural disasters
Climatic hazards: MainIssues in the HKH region Climate change and land use degradation accelerating the water- induced disasters such as flash flood, river-line flood, erosion, wet mass movement during monsoon period and drought in non- monsoon period as drying up of natural water springs and streams Faster retreat of glaciers in Himalayas than the world average. Reduction of snow and ice, which in turn leads to low water storage capacity. Lives and livelihoods of millions of Himalayan inhabitants under threat in addition to infrastructure, economic, health and social impacts. Differential impacts on different social and gender groups Differential coping strategies between slow onset and rapid events
Disaster vulnerability of HKH countries China: 6 of the worlds top 10 deadliest natural disasters,. Floods alone killed over 07 Million in the last 100 years. India: About 30 million people are affected by flood every year-mainly in Indo– Gangetic–Brahmaputra plains. . Bangladesh: Lies less than 10m above sea level and 80% of its land is flood plan. 1998 floods of Bangladesh affected more than 75% of country’s land mass. Pakistan: The 2010 Pakistan floods affected approximately one-fifth of Pakistans total land area and about 20 million people. Afghanistan: Afghanistan has been hit by 118 medium to large scale disaster events from 1980 – 2008. Nepal: 6000 rivers and flow from the north towards the south with high velocity due to high river gradient. Annual floods, land slides and drought cause recurrent losses. Nepal is also at high risk of GLOF & Earth quakes. Myanmar: Between 1910 and 2000, there were 12 major floods. Over 2 million people are exposed to flood hazard in Myanmar every year. Bhutan: Lies in one of the most seismically active region in the world. Also, out of 2,674 glacial lakes in Bhutan, 25 pose grave threat of glacial lake outburst flood (ICIMOD/Department of Geology & Mines, Bhutan).Prevention web/UNISDR :
Hazard Events are increasing The middle part of the HKH region comprises of Bangladesh, China, India Nepal and Pakistan experiencing very high frequency of hazard events. The region having average 76 hazard events each year and highest found for china (25) and India (18). Afghanistan,
RESILIENCE Earlier you called me vulnerable Now you are saying I’m resilient Earlier you were worried about hazard risks around me Now you are clapping over my coping capacity Earlier you came to help me prepare Now you say that I must adapt to change Are you giving up?, unlike me! Or You found a better way of helping me to deal with increasing risks, over come vulnerability and cope with Uncertainty!
Measuring RESILIENCE Capacity to resist hazard impacts Accommodate, or adapt to the effects of disasters Capacity to manage, or maintain certain basic functions and structures, during disasters and their aftermaths; Capacity to recover after such events.
Gaps and Needs Need to reduce Scientific un-certaininty of data and Knowledge gap and incomplete picture of risk. Need to create greater regional cooperation in strengthening systems and governance resilience. Need for a stronger, united and common voices that represent mountain communities in different parts of the world. Need to understand the interaction of access to and assurances from commons vis-à-vis resources under private, open access and public control. Need a deeper analysis of portfolio adjustments over, space, time and sector & promote community led adaptation Beyond resilience and coping: Are there risks that people were not accustomed to dealing or those they had never before experienced- and how are they reacting to such risks. Need for creating a synergy in Development, Disaster risk reduction and anti- climate change activities.
Community resilience and Adaptation & Role of Policies and Institutions:International Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentKathmandu, Nepal Main Findings
The role of tree crops in local adaptations to climatevariability in the Himalayas:Case studies in China, Nepal and Pakistan Monoculture systems in the study areas have proven particularly vulnerable to both economic and climatic shocks and shifts, whereas diversified production systems, including through the use of tree crops provided some amount of protection from such impacts. Markets and government policy have greater impact than climate change awareness on the diversification of agriculture using tree crops in the study areas, which played a key of role in enhancing the adaptive capacity of the studied communities. Policy environments and institutions are not yet responsive to the pace of change or new needs for highly adaptive and resilient systems experienced by agricultural communities. Key Message: Capture knowledge of farmers, local extension workers and scientists on response of tree crops to climate change and vulnerability and develop tools for screening of tree crops and agro- forestry systems for their potential to enhance climate resilience.
Governance of flood mitigation infrastructure:A case study in the Brahmaputra Basin in Assam,India Local communities in Assam developed coping capacities to floods based on their traditional knowledge and support networks. Embankments moderate floods, but can also exacerbate them depending on whether or not these structures are well managed. In the study area (Assam), embankments found to be one of the most important strategies for protecting people from floods under the present flood management regime. Embankments influence peoples adaptive capacities to cope and adapt to floods, depending on (i) the extent and impact of flooding, (ii) the extent of peoples dependence on these structures for protection, (iii) the degree of protection these structures provide. Key Message: Institutional and policy reforms are urgently needed to make the flood governance system more accountable and transparent, more flexible and responsive to the needs of the vulnerable communities.
Role of Local Governance in StrengtheningAdaptive Capacity to Water Stress:Cases in Pakistan From the research it emerged that traditional water distribution and management practices were the most pervasive and effective strategy for efficient use of limited water resources and reducing vulnerability to climate extremes Local level institutions¸ through effective water resource management¸ have been important driving force for enhancing local adaptive capacities to water stress. Key Message: Government organizations have well defined mechanisms, both internal and external, for ensuring accountability and transparency at all level of implementation and management. Proper enforcing of these rules and regulations and reducing rampant malpractices will increase the effectiveness of development interventions.
Assessing the potential of labour migration as anadaptation strategy to the rapid onset water hazardsin the Hindu-Kush Himalayas Migration for work is one of the resilience strategy for livelihood adopted by households to respond to the impacts of floods, droughts, and other water hazards. The influence of water hazards is one of the factors that influence the decision to migrate for work. Labour migration is a positive response to water hazards for many, though not all, of the households studied. In spite of relatively low volume, remittances have improved the quality of life of the recipient households and the household’s ability to respond to water hazards. Key Message: Need for Strengthening formal and informal means of social protection for migrants and those left behind & Fostering vocational skills in the origin communities
MessageMessages• Livelihood diversification emerges as a central adaptation strategy but support through institutions and policy is needed for strengthening this resilience.• Social networks and local institutions play a vital role in enhancing resilience• National institutions and policies strongly affect peoples ability to adapt at the local level, but the national level policy is rarely informed by adaptation concerns and priorities.• Eco system contribution to people and systems resilience need adequately recognized and the linkage should be strengtened.• The provision of basic services is fundamental to people’s ability to adapt. The adaptation and development policy frameworks at various levels are not identical but are intertwined.
Messages People’s response and success of their efforts are often influenced by the policy context and quality of governance. Local governance structures may be more effective at managing water variability, but may be at odds with national structures for water management. Long-term recovery and the ongoing challenge of living with water hazard or stress are major gaps in disaster management policy frameworks (India).
Resilience and adaptationKnowledge SummaryNeed to develop Greater understanding on Portfolio of adjustments thatfeed resilience and adaptation.Intra Household: Asset disposal, migration, reduction in consumption, reallocation ofresources and dependency on external humanitarian assistance.Inter-Household: Labor, credit, land related bi-lateral contracts, exchange of favors andtheir impacts.Community: Reliance on CPRs, group ploughing, sowing, group trading, groupresources of food, fuel wood and other contingencies & community collectives,.Public Interventions: drought or flood relief from public institutions, seed supply, postDisaster infrastructure Development, community capacity building .Cultural: Drawing strategies and options form myths, folklore, sanctions on private profitsduring stress periods, use of traditional systems and calendars to anticipate and cope with risks, etc.
From vulnerability to resilience and riskreduction-GFDRR: Disaster risk reduction is the first line of defense in adapting to climate change. Need to build resilience now for better adaptation to a changing climate. Strengthens capacities, Develop appropriate tools and methodologies to address DRR in changing climate Augment innovation and knowledge sharing, Ensure additional investment for disaster risk reduction.
From vulnerability to resilience and riskreduction: ICIMOD approach Community Level: Working on Disaster Risk Reduction with direct / indirect support to highly vulnerable up-stream & down stream communities. These community level initiatives provide examples of good practice in order to build evidence to influence appropriate Development and Disaster Management Policies at the international, national, and local levels and support their implementation. National & Regional Level Stakeholders: Our ultimate goal is to influence government policies, programs and practices of HKH nations so that they are consistent with our goals for reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience of mountain communities. We also seek to influence other development actors’ activities at the national level. We understand that mobilizing and redirecting the resources managed by national and local governments and development actors will be far more effective when these efforts draw strength from our ground experience through our three strategic program areas. International Stakeholders: International stakeholders are seen as powerful influencers for national level policies and programs. HFA & MDGs in particular guide DRR & Development policies in the countries. Our DRR programs not only alien with HFA & MDGs, we are also be part of regional and international learning forums on implementation of these guidelines. In addition we work with and influence international donors, donor countries and various UN entities to increase their investment and use their clout to influence HKH national governments government’s for policy commitments for mountain hazard risk reduction.
ICIMOD Regional, facilitator and broker with a mountain perspective Contributing to country-based knowledge becoming regionally accessible Promoting the extension from local to transboundary approaches Customising international knowledge Capacity development, common methodologies, regionally accessible data, monitoring, quality control