Cloud computing


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Cloud Computing, Data Protection and Geography

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Cloud computing

  1. 1. Cloud Computing, Data Privacy and Geography Robyn Caplan, 2011
  2. 2. What is Cloud Computing? <ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyya et al., 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward and Sipior, 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jaegar et al, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of Cloud Computing by General Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in popularity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. google .com/trends? q=cloud +computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Companies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon (EC2), Google App Engine, Microsoft Live Mesh, Sun Microsystems (Sun Grid), Grids Lab (Aneka) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Buyya et al. 2008: 10) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Where is the Cloud? <ul><li>Location of data centers dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to high-capacity Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws, policies and regulations of a Jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting fact: is hosted in the EU. ( </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Who Uses the Cloud? <ul><li>Corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Profit Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Private Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Even Governments… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reasons for the Cloud <ul><li>Result of the large amount of data currently online. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic reasons for providers and users. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease and accessibility for storage and retrieval of data. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concerns <ul><li>Major Concerns across the spectrum of users are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust and Control of Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Buyya et al. 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Jurisdictional Considerations <ul><li>Why does the placement of data centers matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Law regarding data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Policies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Jurisdiction: Where will cases be adjudicated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Intervention: How intrusive is the government where the data centre is located? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of Doing Business: The favourability of the business climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction Shopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems (Jaegar et al., 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. National/International Perspectives <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed Right to Privacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of the Privacy Commissioner and PIPEDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accusearch, Inc. d/b/a v. Federal Trade Commission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation of Google and Facebook </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSAC and Fingerprinting Canadian Students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial Commissions with Acts on Private Sector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia and the US Patriot Act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrepretation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also: Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Alberta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. EU Data Protection Directive <ul><li>Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union </li></ul><ul><li>Article 8: Protection of personal data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has been collected concerning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>him or her, and the right to have it rectified. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>authority. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Precedence for the EU Data Protection Directive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for Protection of Privacy and Cross-Border Flow of Personal Data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position of U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 11. The United States of America <ul><li>Sectoral Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Trade Commission: Fair Information Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored Communications Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Patriot Act </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. International Community Where is everyone? <ul><li>Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 3: Will this provide for the protection and privacy of data? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Bodies and Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Engineering Task Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICANN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wu, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIPO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Proposed Solutions and Models for Regulation <ul><li>Darrel West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Computing as new Tower of Babel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Google Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Waters and Cloud Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems and “Project Blackbox” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-Localism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meehan, 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-Mercantilist Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Culturist Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Globalist Model </li></ul></ul>