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Experience Zone Best Practices

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A white paper that lays out the case for Experience Zones in Sports Venues

A white paper that lays out the case for Experience Zones in Sports Venues

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    Experience Zone Best Practices Experience Zone Best Practices Document Transcript

    • USING EXPERIENCE ZONES TO IMPROVE OLDER SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT VENUES Best Practices White Paper Bob Bangham Seth Rabinowitz
    • Authors Bob Bangham Creative Director, RipBang Studios Bob is a pioneer in the development of experiential marketing environments and branded attractions. He founded RipBang Studios to provide sports and entertainment venues with innovative solutions that build brand loyalty, maximize sponsorship integration, and increase per-cap revenue. With an eye toward operational efficiency, he creates brand and fan driven environments and experiential graphics designed to enhance events. For over 20 years Bob has employed a combination of marketing savvy, development strategy, thematic art, graphics, and architecture to create memorable commercial destinations. During his career as an executive with, Rockwellgroup, NBBJ Sports and Entertainment, Gensler, and the founder of Olio Inc, Bob has contributed to entertainment landmarks such as Universal City Walk Hollywood, Treasure Island Resort Casino, Paris Resort Casino, New York New York, Tokyo Disney Sea, The Seattle Space Needle, Staples Center, The Water Color Inn, Heinz Field, Meadowlands Xanadu, US Airways Center, Amway Center, and many others. The RipBang team has created successful temporary and permanent brand environments for PBS, The Food Network, Scion, Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile, Red Bull, Bright House, Amway, Air Tran, US Airways, The US Olympics Committee, The FIFA World Cup, The Cricket World Cup, The PGA, The Breeders Cup, The Phoenix Suns, The Orlando Magic, The Minnesota Twins, and many more. Seth Rabinowitz Seth Rabinowitz is a veteran sports and entertainment industry executive and consultant. He current- ly runs Rabinowitz Consulting, an advisory firm specializing in developing fan engagement strategies for sports organizations, media companies, and consumer electronics manufacturers. 2
    • 1. Introduction The past few years have been a thrilling period for stadium and arena development. New venues such as the O2 Arena (London, 2007), Bird’s Nest (Beijing, 2008), and Dallas Cowboys Stadium (2009) have advanced the state-of-the-art in architecture, sightlines, fan amenities, and sponsorable inventory. They have also become icons beyond the sporting world. That these buildings have captured Zones.” These environments are specifically the imagination of the sports and facilities planned, designed, built, and operated to industries is no surprise – they are spec- enhance the gameday experience and comple- tacular testament to the power of vision and ment the sporting action.More than just money. Yet, as an industry we cannot allow another venue “amenity,” they are inventory this admiration to obscure an important that is highly sellable and ideal for sponsor truth: these venues are exceptions rather activation and fan engagement. Experience than the rule. Zones have of course been around for decades Indeed, in this time of tight budgets and under different labels, but only in the past few scarce credit, in most circumstances a years has the art and science of their success- new venue – or even a major renovation – ful development and commercial exploitation is unlikely at best. Rather, for those with a been fully studied. professional interest in stadiums and arenas Using examples from stadiums and – sports teams, facility managers, real estate arena projects around the country, we will developers, bankers, and public officials – the illustrate how Experience Zones have helped most important challenge today is not how to solve a variety of common venue challenges. build something new, but rather how to make We will then distill these examples into a set of the most of what already exists. actionable best practices and identify a process This White Paper explores a solution to of next steps. this challenge that we call “Experience This White Paper explores a solution to this challenge that we call “Experience Zones.”
    • 2. Common Challenges Making the best of what you have first requires understanding what you have – and what you lack. Our analysis has identified five common conditions found in many older venues. Lack of Sponsorable Inventory New venues are built for sponsorship, with landmark entrances, large plazas, and other physical signatures. Older venues may (or may not) have the same functional assets, but they generally lack the distinction that makes them attractive to sponsors. Unused / Underused Physical Space Recent venue designs have generally optimized the physical space to create a cohesive guest experience. After years of accumulating design modifications, temporary facilities, and operating practices, older venues often have “dead zones” and other inefficiencies that hinder the guest’s enjoyment. Amenities in the Upper Deck New venue designs and business plans have focused on creating a rich fan experience at all price points. Older venues typically still reflect a time when just providing a seat was enough, especially in the “cheap seats.” A House, but not a Home Many recent venues, particularly those with a single primary occupant, have been designed to reflect the brand identity of their tenants. Older venues from an era of multi-purpose planning are more generic. Difficult Navigation New venues in general have solved the challenge of patron wayfinding through a combination of better design, larger spaces, and effective signage. In older venues, with cramped concourses, limited sight lines, and multiple signage systems, wayfinding is a constant challenge. 4
    • 3. Examples of Solutions Experience Zones can be an effective solution to each of these common challenges. In fact, in many cases, this approach can be one of the most cost effective and timely improvement strategies. We will explore each situation in turn. Lack of Sponsorable Inventory utilitarian bridge between the grandstand and the infield into DuPont Monster What makes something sponsorable is Bridge, a unique VIP area with 56 seats its ability to command the engagement of and a bar. patrons. Physical landmarks, which serve The common denominator among as icons and gathering points, naturally play these diverse examples is that ordinary this role and therefore command most of assets can be made into valuable the sponsorship attention.The four Cor- sponsorable inventory when creativity nerstone Partners at the new Meadowlands and imagination combine to create a Stadium (Bud Light, Met Life, Pepsi Max, memorable guest experience. and Verizon) each have naming rights for one of the stadium’s entrances, for example. Unused / Underused Physical Space Similarly, the main entrance pavilion at the As most venues evolve, they accu- recently-renovated US Airways Center in mulate physical spaces that are not well Phoenix is sponsored by Casino Arizona. utilized. These spaces can be as benign as But, if striking physical landmarks “dead zones” that just lack energy and ap- are unavailable, there are ways to drive fan peal, or as bad as “dead ends” that confuse engagement using assets that are available. and frustrate patrons. The main entrance Seats, for example, are obviously abundant to New York’s Madison Square Garden is in every venue. In Orlando, the Amway one such example, where event patrons Center (opening in October, 2010) takes mix with subway and train riders in a seating to the next level in a special section chaotic and uninspiring entrance plaza. featuring sponsor Airtran’s Business Class Recognizing that this is hardly a fitting in- airplane seats. Game-related equipment is troduction to “The World’s Most Famous also plentiful. At the Xcel Energy Center Arena,” a new entry is a signature element in Minneapolis (opened in 2000), home of of the planned $500 million renovation the NHL’s Minnesota Wild, dozens of High that will begin this year. School hockey jerseys are displayed in an exhibit sponsored by Wells Fargo Bank. At a very different scale, Dover International Speedway, a NASCAR track in Delaware (opened in 1969), also employed a variant on this theme, by turning an otherwise -
    • New construction is not the only Times have clearly changed. Today, solution, however. A more widely appli- in an era of rising prices and shrinking cable, and far less expensive, approach for purchasing power, a sufficient supply of “dead” space is to create a targeted new relatively inexpensive tickets is critical to use that acknowledges its physical short- many venues’ business plans. But lower comings and devises a work-around. One prices do not mean lower patron expec- notable example of this approach comes tations. Indeed, today, patrons at every not from an arena or stadium, but from price point demand value. In fact, at the O’Hare Airport in Chicago. United Air- lower prices points, which are now just lines presents “The Sky’s the Limit,” a mul- as likely to be populated by families as timedia art installation that leads pedestri- they are by avid fans, the demand for a ans through a long subterranean passage. diversity of attractions and amenities is Similarly, at Bank of America Stadium in often greatest. Charlotte, NC (opened in 1996) the NFL’s In 2005, for example, when the NBA’s Carolina Panthers celebrate football with Phoenix Suns renovated America West “Carolinas Connection,” a permanent in- Arena (now US Airways Center), they stallation of almost 650 helmets from high built the Verizon Wireless Jungle. This school and college teams. This exhibit is 10,000 sq. ft. upper-concourse dining and situated in an endzone concourse of the entertainment zone is a permanent uppermost seating area. The NFL’s Mi- attraction intended to serve for families ami Dolphins used large installations by the same role that more traditional club a famous South Beach artist to add visual settings serve for adult guests. A similar interest to the otherwise-dreary and out- approach was utilized by the NBA’s Char- dated concrete entrances and helix ramps lotte Bobcats in the Time Warner Cable at Sun Life Stadium (opened in 1987). Arena (opened in 2005) but targeted to The takeaway here is that physical adults. deficiencies can often be addressed just as well by “software” (exhibitry and programming) as by “hardware” (redesign or reconstruction). Amenities in the Upper Deck At one time, the only thing event patrons expected for their money was a seat, especially in inexpensive Upper Deck sections filled with diehard fans for whom anything else was just a distraction. As a result, older stadiums and arenas have few amenities in their upper reaches. 6
    • Their 9,000 sq. ft. “Rock the Rooftop” area Pirate Ship and Buccaneer Cove, combines interactive exhibits with a sports a 20,000 sq. ft. pirate-themed retail and bar, and is marketed as a reason for people dining concourse. Older venues, on the in lower seating areas to visit the upper level. other hand, tended to be more generic. At Similarly, in 2008, as part of their multi-year best, these non-descript venues do little or renovation project, MLB’s Boston Red Sox nothing to contribute to a team’s brand; at also enhanced the upper deck seating by con- worst, they actually can harm a brand, as verting several luxury suites into the “Coca- in the case of the NFL’s New York Jets, who Cola Corner,” a family-friendly section and for 25 years played in a building named standing-room section. Teams like the NFL’s Giants Stadium. Philadelphia Eagles and New England Patri- The Jets’ identity crisis was a motiva- ots have taken a different approach. At both tion for their (unsuccessful) bid for a dedi- Lincoln Financial Field (opened in 2003) cated facility in Manhattan. Here again, and Gillette Stadium (opened in 2002), the however, teams in this situation need not upper deck endzones have plazas that, with focus only on solutions that involve new team consent, have been turned into lively de venues. The NHL’s Detroit Red Wings, for facto standing sections that for many fans are example, recently named one entrance at seemingly preferable to regular seats. Joe Louis Arena (opened in 1979) not after The key here is not the specific design a sponsor, but after team legend Gordie or programming solution -- it is the point Howe. A team’s brand is also about its that, especially today, low price point cherished fan rituals. seating areas merit as much attention as the VIP areas. A House, but not a Home Sports teams are the primary tenants in most stadiums and arenas. In newer venues, this level of importance is often reflected in the very design of the facility – resulting, for the team, in a house that is truly a home and an extension of its brand. The new Yankee Stadium (opened in 2009), for instance, faith- fully recreated many of the signature elements from the 85-year history of its predecessor, including the unique roofline frieze, the manually operated outfield scoreboards, and the Monument Park exhibit area. Raymond James Stadium (opened in 1998), home of the NFL’s Tampa Bay Buccaneers, has its iconic
    • The point here is that many details build a brand, and when done right the details of a venue can help the brand to grow and stand out in a competitive marketplace. value of a team that had played for 45 years in “uncool” Shea Stadium. The point here is that many details build a brand, and when done right the details of a venue can help the brand to grow and stand out in a competitive marketplace. The NHL’s Chicago Blackhawks retained the Difficult Navigation signature sound of their famous pipe organ when they moved from Chicago Stadium to Good navigation can make a bad the United Center in 1994. Another ap- facility better and poor navigation can proach is to brand a facility in a way that also make an otherwise good facility worse. preserves the equity of the team’s identity, Like many details, when navigation is done as the NFL’s Denver Broncos did when they correctly it is almost invisible; but when opened INVESCO Field at Mile High in done incorrectly, the resulting confusion, 2001. The new venue’s name, while some- bottlenecks, and delays can be glaring. thing of a mouthful, did retain the essence Sports facilities provide additional of the fact that other teams feared playing in challenges because they are usually Denver’s thin mile-high air. Finally, in some circular and multi-level, factors that tend cases, a team can actually enhance its brand to cause people lose their bearings. by borrowing some equity from another Fortunately, sub-optimal navigation property within the facility. When the New is one of the easiest venue challenges to York Mets developed the concession plan for address. Citi Field (opened in 2009), they included an outpost of Shake Shack, an iconic New York burger joint, as part of a strategy to add a “cool factor” and expand the entertainment 8
    • One solution is simply to “edit” what The main message here is exists, which, especially in older venues, tends to be an inconsistent and confusing that simplicity, consistency, accumulation of different signage and graph- and memorability are the ics systems. Starting in 1996, Tropicana Field most important elements (opened in 1990), home of MLB’s Tampa Bay Rays, undertook a complete signage over- in facility navigation. haul. To enhance the stadium’s branding, the team’s logo was incorporated into new directional signage, for example, and “old fashioned” signage designs and lettering were used to give a more historical feel to a decid- edly non-historic venue. Another approach is to create navigation icons that help people remember where they are and where they are going without using maps. At University of Phoenix Stadium in Arizona (opened in 2006), for example, the entrances feature massive number or letter sculptures to assist guests in remembering their entry/exit point. These are as much works of art as signs. Inspired by shopping malls, yet another approach is to create anchor uses as orienta- tion points. In Philadelphia, for example, Citizens Bank Park (opened in 2004), home of MLB’s Phillies, anchors its entire out- field with the Ashburn Alley entertainment area. To aid navigation of this 50,000 sq. ft, 625-foot-long area, each end has a signature eatery: “Bulls,” a BBQ joint run by a former Phillies player, and “Harry the K’s,” which honors legendary Phillies broadcaster Harry Kalas. The main message here is that simplicity, consistency, and memorability are the most important elements in facility navigation.
    • 4. The Business Case for Experience Zones These days, any capital investment plan has a high burden of proof. This is especially true in sports venues, where teams have historically been able to rely on sponsors and other parties to fund their initiatives. In this section, we suggest six questions that can be useful in evaluating and building a business case for an investment in Experience Zones. 1). What are my specific objectives? enhance an asset. (Consider, for example, Finding the right solution usually starts by the fact that in Forbes Magazine’s 2009 really understanding the problem. Objectives valuations of major pro sports franchises, could include direct revenue (sponsorships), only about half of the most valuable teams indirect revenue (ticket sales, retention/ in each league are those with the highest annual renewal), event day revenues (no-show operating income. The others are those, like reduction, per-caps), guest satisfaction, and/or MLB’s Los Angeles Dodgers or the NHL’s Phila- brand enhancement. delphia Flyers, with strong national brands.) So, brand value should also be considered 2). What are my solution alternatives? among other long-term considerations. Once objectives are clearly defined, a range of possible solutions can be identified. For a 5). Does each alternative help create a point of complete analysis, the “do nothing” option difference? should also be considered, since that is Stadium- and arena-based offerings com- usually the default outcome. pete against many other forms of entertain ment, so ways to stand out in the market 3). For each alternative, what is my cash ROI? place are critical. The first source of ROI is direct revenue, in this case most likely from incremental 6). What is the longevity of each alternative? sponsorships. But it is important that a full Any venue improvement initiative consumes range of indirect revenues also be con- not only money but also management sidered. For example, can the investment time and attention. It is important that these support revenue objectives like increased investments have a long useful life, so that per caps, ticket sales, season ticket holder the problem that was solved does not re- retention, and no-show reduction? Finally, emerge in a few short years. ROI can also come from cost reduction, so the analysis should consider operational ef- ficiencies and other savings. 4). Does each alternative build asset value? In addition to cash ROI, the best invest ments also build long-term asset value. In sports, a strong brand is one clear way to 10
    • 4. The Business Case for Experience Zones (cont.) Experience Zone Costs: cost and organizational implications of Costs can vary widely, of course, ongoing upkeep need to be considered. This depending on the project’s setting, nature, is particularly true when technology is in- and scope – but certain rules of thumb can volved, since the state-of-the-art changes so be useful in reaching a preliminary cost rapidly. A second caveat is specificity. Many estimate. Experience Zone costs fall into Experience Zones are built for one specific two categories: purpose or sponsor, and may be difficult to adapt to an alternate use. A final concern Hard Costss Soft Costs is distraction. Like anything, Experience Construction Planning/Design Zones can be overdone and become a dis- Fixtures Engineering Equipment Architecture traction from, rather than a complement to, Permits & Fees the game or event that should always be the Insurance focal point of the patron experience. Simple projects in an Typically an existing facility start additional 10% at roughly $100 per to 20% of the square foot. Hard Costs. A state-of-the-art Family Zone typically costs $250 to $350 per square foot. Costs can reach as high as $400 per square foot for a luxury environment. When evaluated against these criteria, Experience Zones tend to compare favorably against other alter- natives. Their ROI is usually strong be- cause up-front investment is relatively low, they are highly sponsorable, and they support indirect revenues like per caps and no-show reductions by adding to the overall event experience. Expe- rience Zones also can be good brand builders that increase asset value. Experience Zones also come with a few caveats. The first is commitment. Experience Zones need to be main- tained and periodically updated, so the
    • 5. Best Practices Even the most solid business case is no guarantee of success. Rather, in our experience the most important success factor is the quality of the implementation of the ideas. As the number of Experience Zones grows and as their documentation and study im- prove, a set of best practices can be distilled. Incorporating these best practices into a project can significantly improve its quality and there- fore the likelihood of success. Start with a Master Plan Give People Something to Do, Not Just Something to See. Any venue improvements should start with a detailed definition of the objectives Too many sponsored elements at and explanation of the business case (see stadiums and arenas are just “eye candy” above) and a long-term vision. We call this a – signs, displays, or exhibits. They are Master Plan, and it can serve as an invaluable attractive, but ultimately do not really touchstone as the years pass. It can also help engage the fan. A better approach – for determine the point at which you have done venues and for sponsors – is to include “enough,” and help avoid crossing the line interactive and participatory elements as of over-commercialization and distraction. well, so that fans have something to do Finally, it can also be very valuable in and are engaged on multiple levels. maintaining the discipline of your sponsor- Script the Guest Experience ship package structuring and ensuring that you protect sponsor exclusivity to the The ultimate takeaway by every maximum extent. event patron should be fond and lasting memories. Especially in sports, where Think Engagement, not Inventory there is no control of the outcome of Value is created by fan engage- the game itself, this should not be left ment, so plan and design from the fans’ to chance. Rather, venue managers and perspective outward. Create something their tenants should work together to that fans will like and use and the value literally “script” the entire guest experi- of the inventory will take care of itself. ence from arrival to departure to ensure Have Specific Target Audiences that are many opportunities for positive memories. Don’t try to be everything to everyone. Identify subsets of your patron base with specific needs and wants, and create specific Experience Zones to serve these. Just make sure that each Zone clearly communicates its target, so that you don’t have disappointed 20-somethings in the family zone. 12
    • 5. Best Practices (cont.) Be Dynamic If a guest has to look for a sign, he or she is probably already lost. Don’t let upgrades in Especially in sports, with navigation and wayfinding become after- large numbers of season ticket thoughts or victims of the budgeting process. holders, many stadiums and are- nas play host to the same people Think Like a TV Director over and over again. This creates Create icons that will look good on a risk of the “been there, done television and become signatures of your that” syndrome, where the nov- facility. Make these icons unique reflections elty of new attractions wears off of the venue’s tenants and home city. quickly. To counteract this, where possible Experience Zones should dynamic, rather than static, attrac- tions that change frequently and always offer something new. Go Beyond Logo Lock-Ups For the benefit of both the property and the sponsor, venue sponsorships should be about much more than just co-presen- tation of logos. Venues offer a unique opportunity for a true merging of brand equities. At a minimum, Experience Zones should highlight how the spon- sor is also fan of the team. Better still, use Experience Zones to bring to life the ways in which the property and the sponsor truly share brand equities. Best of all, enlist sponsors early in the process so that they have full “ownership” of the outcomes. Make it Easy to Find The best attractions serve little purpose if they are hard to find.
    • 6. Next Steps Moving forward with any capital project is usually an interative process, starting with a general concept and then going through stages of refinement before finally arriving at a definitive plan. In the case of Experience Zones, we have identified four steps along this process, discussed below, along with a general estimate of the time and money involved. Step 1: Initial Analysis and Review Duration: The goal of Step 1 is to assess the Approximately one month; ideally situation and formulate a plan of ac- completed before the start of the tion. If a Master Plan already exists (see annual selling cycle. above), the initial analysis will build on that work; if not, this step can serve as Estimated Budget Range: the basis for a future Master Plan. Either $15,000 to $30,000 in Soft Costs. way, the following questions should be addressed. 1).Goals and Objectives. Why proceed? What problems will this solve and/or opportunities will it create? 2).Physical Inventory. What strengths and weaknesses does the physical space have? What spaces could be (or must be) reinvigorated or repurposed? 3). Target Audience(s). Who will be targeted? What demo graphic and/or sales data exists for these groups? What are their needs and wants? 4). Sponsorship Opportunities. What national, regional, and/or local sponsors could be integrated into the project? What are their key decision points? 14
    • 6. Next Steps (cont.) Step 2: Business Case Step 3: Detailed Project Planning The goal of Step 2 is to reach a go/ The goal of Step 3 – which only takes no-go decision by presenting a detailed place if a project is approved – is to create a business case. detailed concept plan and, concurrently, a sales kit to market the opportunity to 1). Project Expense Budget. potential partners. How much will the project cost, This step is divided into two parts, one and over what time period? What of which should be contingent on sponsor financing sources are available (e.g., interest, while the other should proceed with operating budget, capital budget, “cost or without a sponsor attached. of revenue” offset to sponsorship income)? Part One: Signage and Graphics 2). Revenue Projection. 1). Signage and Graphics System. How much can the project’s sponsorship Create a system that simplifies wayfinding, inventory be sold for, and over what reduces clutter, and reinforces the brand of deal term? How will the project the venue and/or the contribute indirectly to the growth tenants. of other revenues? 2). Sponsor / Partner Integration. 3). Brand Building. Ensure that venue naming rights holders How, specifically, will the project help and other sponsors and partners are build the brand and create differentia- integrated into the system in a way that tion from the competition? maximizes their visibility. Duration: 3). Fabrication. Approximately two weeks Create the signs and graphical of work; length of approval elements. cycles will vary. 4). Installation. Estimated Budget Range: Finally, install the elements throughout the No out-of-pocket costs. facility.
    • Duration: 4). Deal Terms. Negotiate final pricing and other Approximately three months; deal terms. ideally done in the off-season. Duration: Estimated Budget Range: One to three months; Soft Costs of $100,000 to ideally completed at the $500,000, depending on the start of the annual selling project scope and venue cycle. type. Hard Costs can vary widely, with a signage up- Estimated Budget Range: grade costing starting at about $100,000, while and $15,000 to $30,000 in entire signage and graphics “soft costs” per concept; system for an arena or sta- $5,000 to $10,000 per dium can cost $1.5 million to additional sales pitch. $5 million. Part Two: Experience Zone Design and Sales Unlike signage, Experience Zone elements should generally have a sponsor commiment before they are constructed. 1). Concept Development. Prepare specific Experience Zone concepts, with detailed illustrations and photo simulations. 2). Sponsor Pitches. Communicate concepts and specific spon- sorship opportunities to potential partners, using co-branded pitch documents. 3). Sponsor Integration. Once a sponsor has committed, collaborate to maximize sponsor integration, value, and brand messaging. 16
    • 6. Next Steps (cont.) Step 4: Construction, Fabrication, and Installation Finally, in Step 4 the project turns to the implementation of the Experience Zones themselves. 1). Final Design. Translate concept designs into detailed, construction-ready blueprints. 2).Construction. Build (and/or demolish) as necessary to create the desired physical environment. 3). Fabrication. Create the exhibits, interactive attractions, and other Zone elements. 4). Installation. Finally, install the exhibits and attractions as well as any other fixtures or equipment. Duration: Three to six month construction period, depending on size and complexity of the project and other uses of the facility; ideally completed during the facility’s off-season. Estimated Budget Range: Construction Hard Costs of $250,000 to $2,500,000, depending on a wide range of facility- and project-specific factors.
    • 7. Conclusion Decision makers grappling with For venues that embrace this level of how to enhance aging stadiums and are- commitment, however, they can be a nas have more options than they may first highly effective solution that at once think. New construction or substantial improves the guest experience and the renovation will always be tempting – and sponsorship proposition. when the economics and politics allow, We predict that Experience Zones probably the best strategy. But in most will continue to gain popularity as venue cases today, this option will simply not be managers, sports teams, public officials, on the table and more creative approach- and other interested parties address the es will be necessary. Experience Zones challenge of keeping all stadiums and are one best practice to maximize the arenas – not just the aging ones – fresh utility and value of what exists through and relevant to an increasingly distracted smart and targeted investments. public. Doing this with limited financial If conceived, built, and operated resources will make the need for creative properly, Experience Zones can generate solutions even more keen. Adopting the a measurable ROI and boost the appeal of growing body of best practices in this a venue and its tenants. Like any capital area will serve the entire industry well by improvement, they are not cheap, per se, providing additional success stories. It but their cost tends to compare favor- will also drive further innovation by rais- ably to other venue-enhancement strate- ing the bar of performance in an industry gies. Nor are they hands-off. Experience that has competition at its essence. Zones require an ongoing commitment to physical maintenance and content updates. the guest experience and the sponsorship proposition. 18