T5 leadership & communication skills 2013


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  • Nagging –adj-making you worry or feel pain slightly all the time
  • Espionage – spying-secret
  • Schmooze – to talk in a friendly way about unimportant things at a social event, especially because you want to gain an advantage for yourself later (+with)
    Acquaintanceship – a relationship with someone you know, but who is not a close friend
  • T5 leadership & communication skills 2013

    1. 1. Leadership & Communication Skills Mohd Rafi/Ghazali Ahmad, Ph.D ©2009/10
    2. 2. Leadership Skills
    3. 3. What is Leadership?   Leadership is a process in which a leader attempts to influence his or her followers to establish and accomplish a goal or goals. Leadership is a continuous process, with the accomplishment of one goal becoming the beginning of a new goal. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 3
    4. 4. What Leadership is Not   Leadership is not just a person or group of people in a high position; understanding leadership is not complete without understanding interactions between a leader and his or her followers. Neither is leadership merely the ability or static capacity of a leader. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 4
    5. 5. Leadership vs. Management   Management involves planning the goals of an organization, recruits the necessary staff, organizes them, and closely supervises them to make sure that the initial plan is executed properly (PODC). Leadership goes beyond management of plans and tasks. It envisions the future and sets a new direction for the organization. Successful leaders mobilize all possible means and human resources; they inspire all members of the organization to support the new mission and execute it with enthusiasm. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 5
    6. 6. The Role of a Leader  To ensure that the mission and goals of the organization is achieved by exercising their power and influence over subordinates. That power is exercised in earlier stages by motivating followers to get the job done and in later stages by rewarding or punishing those who do or do not perform to the level of expectation. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 6
    7. 7. The Role of a Leader    Once a goal is set, the leader assumes the role of ensuring successful accomplishment of the goal. Another vital role of leadership is to represent the group/organization and link it to the external world in order to obtain vital resources to carry out its mission. When necessary, leadership has to defend the organization's integrity. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 7
    8. 8. Additional Roles   Challenge the process—search out challenging opportunities, take risks, and learn from mistakes. Inspire others to come together and agree on a future direction or goal— create a shared vision by thinking about the future, having a strong positive vision, and encouraging others to participate. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 8
    9. 9. Additional Roles    Help others to act—help others to work together, to cooperate and collaborate by developing shared goals and building trust, and help to make others stronger by encouraging them to develop their skills and talents. Set an example—behave in ways that are consistent with professed values and help others to achieve small gains that keep them motivated, especially when a goal will not be achieved quickly. Encourage others—recognize each individual's contributions to the success of a project. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 9
    10. 10. Characteristics Successful and Leader     of a Effective Inborn or acquired? Personality traits: determination, emotional stability, diplomacy, self-confidence, personal integrity, originality, and creativity. Intellectual abilities: judgmental ability, knowledge, and verbal communication ability. Physical traits: age, height, weight, and physical attractiveness. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 10
    11. 11. Types of Leader   Autocratic leaders set their goals without considering the opinions of their followers, then command their followers to execute their assigned tasks without question. Consultative leaders solicit the opinions and ideas of their followers in the goal-setting process but ultimately determine important goals and task assignments on their own. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 11
    12. 12. Types of Leader   Democratic or participative leaders participate equally in the process with their followers and let the group make decisions. Extremely laid-back leaders, so called laissez-faire leaders, let the group take whatever action its members feel is necessary. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 12
    13. 13. Leadership Styles   The job-centered leader closely supervises subordinates to make sure they perform their tasks following the specified procedures. This type of leader relies on reward, punishment, and legitimate power to influence the behavior of followers. The employee-centered leader believes that creating a supportive work environment ultimately is the road to superior organizational performance. The employee-centered leader shows great concern about the employees' emotional well-being, personal growth and development, and achievement. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 13
    14. 14. Leadership Styles   The leadership style of initiating structure is similar to the job-centered leadership style, whereas consideration is similar to the employee-centered leadership style. A leader who could demonstrate both high initiating structure (job-centered) and high consideration (employee-centered) would be successful and effective in all circumstances. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 14
    15. 15. Leadership Styles     Task-oriented leadership or situational leadership style is appropriate when the situation is either extremely favorable (good relationship, well-defined tasks, have power) or extremely unfavorable to the leader. If situation is moderately favorable, people-oriented leadership style is appropriate. Directive leadership style is effective when followers are inexperienced and lack maturity and responsibility. Supportive leadership is effective when followers are experienced and/but willing to take charge. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 15
    16. 16. Charismatic and Transformational Leadership  A great leader is remembered for his or her charisma, which means "divinely inspired gift" in Greek. Charismatic leaders have profound effects on followers. Through their exceptional inspirational and verbal ability, they articulate ideological goals and missions, communicate to followers with passion and inspiration, set an example in their own behaviors, and demand hard work and commitment from followers, above and beyond normal expectation (e.g. Adolph Hitler). APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 16
    17. 17. Charismatic and Transformational Leadership    Transformational leadership is an extension of charismatic leadership theory. Bernard Bass (1985) views leadership as a process of social exchange between a leader and his or her followers. In exchange for desired behaviors and task accomplishment, a leader provides rewards to followers. This nominal social exchange process is called transactional leadership. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 17
    18. 18. Charismatic and Transformational Leadership   A transformational leader places a higher level of trust in his or her followers and demands a much higher level of loyalty and performance beyond normal expectations. With unusual charismatic qualities and inspirational person-to-person interactions, a transformational leader transforms and motivates followers to make extra efforts to turn around ailing organizational situations into success stories (e.g. Lee Iacocca). APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 18
    19. 19. Visionary Leadership  Visionary Leadership increases efficiency by moving decision-making responsibility to the frontline. Efficiency is achieved with limited supervision. To make frontline responsibility effective, leadership must give workers opportunity to develop quality decision-making skills and learn to trust them (e.g. Wal-Mart stores & HP). APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 19
    20. 20. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership push responsibility to the frontline. – When priority is responsibility at the frontline, leadership will seek talent, people he can depend on to complete tasks with limited supervision. The policy will be “do it.” The frontline develops quality decision-making skills that are also found in layers of management. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 20
    21. 21. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership leads to higher efficiency. – High efficiency workplaces are based on visionary leadership, where workplace policies authorize decision-making responsibility at the frontline. Limited supervision is needed with worker responsibility. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 21
    22. 22. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership delegates decisionmaking responsibility. – Decision-making responsibility, at all levels, allows minor problems to be solved by those who are first aware of them. Management can stay focused on problems related to the organization goals. As a bonus, employee motivation is high when they feel what they are doing makes a difference. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 22
    23. 23. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership provides learning opportunity. – Learning to make quality decisions is the result of worker responsibility, resulting in the development of personal skills. An experienced workforce prevents elementary problems. Continuous learning opportunity is highly motivating—it controls employee inspiration, skill level and quality. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 23
    24. 24. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership rewards achievers. – People, who have a burning drive to be an achiever, seek opportunity in organizations that have a reputation of supporting personal ambitions. Their presence inspire co-workers to do the same or simply be proud of their surroundings. Visionary leadership welcomes subordinates more capable than themselves, because their first priority is to get the job done with limited supervision. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 24
    25. 25. Elements of Visionary Leadership  Visionary leadership nourishes natural talent. – Where workers have decision-making responsibility, unique skills and natural talent are soon recognized by coworkers and leadership. An employee may discover talent he did not know he had. With discovery, he can search for ways to develop it. Efficiency increases when natural talent is in harmony with assigned tasks. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 25
    26. 26. Entrepreneurial Leadership  "It is a constant struggle to find people who can be both entrepreneurial and conventional leaders... Finding them is the fundamental issue in any company that wants to grow." – Roger Ackerman, Chairman and CEO, Corning, a Fortune 50 company APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 26
    27. 27. What is Entrepreneurial Leadership?   In the increasingly turbulent and competitive environment business firms face today, a new type of "entrepreneurial" leader distinct from other behavioral forms of managerial leadership is required. Entrepreneurial leadership is leadership that is based on the attitude that the leader is self-employed. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 27
    28. 28. What is Entrepreneurial Leadership?  Entrepreneurial leadership involves instilling the confidence to think, behave and act with entrepreneurship in the interests of fully realizing the intended purpose of the organization to the beneficial growth of all stakeholders involved. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 28
    29. 29. Elements of Entrepreneurial Leadership     Take initiative and act as if they are playing a critical role in the organization rather than a mostly important one and energize their people, Demonstrate entrepreneurial creativity , search continuously for new opportunities and pursue the, Take risk , venture into new areas and provide strategic direction and inspiration to their people, Take responsibility for the failures of their team, learn from these failures and use them as a step to ultimate success and strategic achievement APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 29
    30. 30. 8 common characteristics – entrepreneurs vs. leaders Entrepreneurs Leaders Risk taking 1 4 Achievement oriented 2 3 Creative 3 5 Visionary 4 1 Able to motivated 5 2 Persistence 6 7 Flexible 7 4 Patient 8 6 Source- Zainai Mohamad, Entrepreneurship Education – The Future of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education. Entrepreneurial Leadership Training Programme Series. 11-12 Oct.2011, Kota Bharu, organised by AKEPT and UMK APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 30
    31. 31. Communication Skills: Negotiation & Networking
    32. 32. Communication Skills Defined   Communication is the process by which information is exchanged between individuals. It requires a shared understanding of symbol systems, such as language and mathematics. Communication skills refer to the skills in using language effectively and persuasively. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 32
    33. 33. Types of Communication  Verbal or oral communication – Speaking, language, intonation, choice of words, loudness, orator ship, clarity, confidence, etc.  Non-verbal or body language – Gestures, body movement, physical movement, restlessness, overwhelmed, etc.  Written communication – Readable, convincing, short, precise, clear message, non-grammatical error, standard formatting, using symbols, acronyms, etc. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 33
    34. 34. Effective Communication  The party who receive the message understood clearly the content of the message, therefore message must be: – – – – – – Precise Concise Clear Meaningful Convincing Authoritative APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 34
    35. 35. Communication Skills – Area of Importance        Sales/business presentation Project proposal Business meetings Business negotiations Sales promotions Project biddings Daily communication APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 35
    36. 36. Negotiation Skills   Successful entrepreneur don't take "no" for an answer. Get what you want through effective negotiation. Precedes before reaching an agreement. MOU INTENT Negotiate APT 2013 MOA Negotiate © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 36
    37. 37. Importance of Negotiation Skills    The strength of your agreements, understandings and relationships can make the difference between success and failure. Weak agreements always break down. They bring nagging dissatisfaction and aggravation into your business and personal lives. Strong agreements help you reach and exceed your own objectives, while bringing mutual satisfaction to all parties. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 37
    38. 38. Situations of Negotiation         Determining the price and terms at which you buy or sell; Closing deals with an important customer; Persuading others to work with and not against you; Setting or meeting budgets; Finalizing and administrating simple or complex contracts; Working on a problem with someone important to you; Managing and supervising those responsible for doing the work properly in your organization, in other departments, and on the outside; and Breaking or avoiding a serious impasse APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 38
    39. 39. Negotiation Success Factors         Know your own facts and the other party in advance Projects your confidence visibly Use any hidden leverage Understand and use your power base Do not enter into negotiation until you got all the facts verified Always think long term relationship Do not dictate your term, communicate! Win-Win strategy APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 39
    40. 40. Networking Skills  What is network? – Something resembling an open work fabric or structure in form or concept, especially:    APT 2013 A system of lines or channels that cross or interconnect: a network of railroads. A complex, interconnected group or system: an espionage network. An extended group of people with similar interests or concerns who interact and remain in informal contact for mutual assistance or support. © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 40
    41. 41. Networking Skills  Networking – To interact or engage in informal communication with others for mutual assistance or support.  Networking skills – The ability to take advantage or benefits of the network for the betterment of the organization APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 41
    42. 42. Types of Networks      Formal and Informal Networks National Networks Regional Networks Tailor-made Networks Event Networks APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 42
    43. 43. Entrepreneurial Networking   In business, entrepreneurial networks are social organizations offering different types of resources to start or improve entrepreneurial projects. Having adequate human resources is a key factor for entrepreneurial achievements. Combined with leadership, the entrepreneurial network is an indispensable kind of social network not only necessary to properly run the business or project, but also to differentiate the business from similar projects. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 43
    44. 44. Purpose of Networking  To create pool of talent (exchanges) – The goal of most entrepreneurial networks is to bring together a broad selection of professionals and resources that complement each other's endeavors. Initially a key priority is to aid successful business launches. Subsequently provide motivation, direction and increase access to opportunities and other skill sets. Promotion of each members talents and services both within the network and out in the broader market increases opportunities for all participants. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 44
    45. 45. Purpose of Networking  To share/acquire resources at competitive rate – One of the key needs of any startup is capital, and often entrepreneurial networks focus on providing such financial resources, particularly tailored to their membership demographic. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 45
    46. 46. Purpose of Networking  To stand as a common voice (unified force) – Entrepreneurial networks may also become community involved, endorsing reforms, legislation or other municipal drives that accommodate their organization's goals. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 46
    47. 47. Membership Composition         Lawyers, various specialties Scientists Engineers Architects Contractors/construction managers Real estate professionals Suppliers Government people or institutions APT 2013      Partners High skilled employees Clients or any other kind of social contacts that can make the entrepreneurial business (or project) successful Mentors Investors © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 47
    48. 48. Tips for Better Networking       It’s not who you know. It’s also who they know. Know what you’re looking for before you look. Schmooze with care. Consistency is king (even though cash is important too). Prioritize tangibility. Build relationships, not acquaintanceships. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr.Ghazali 48