T3 the entrepreneurial motivation 2013

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Entrepreneurial behaviour

Entrepreneurial behaviour

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  • 1. The Entrepreneurial Motivation Mohd Rafi/ Ghazali Ahmad, Ph.D ©2009/10
  • 2. Lecture Outline      What is entrepreneurial motivation? Sources of motivation Models of entrepreneurial motivation Triggers and barriers to entrepreneurial motivation Ways to enhance entrepreneurial motivation APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 2
  • 3. What is EM?  Entrepreneurial motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, striving, aspirations or needs direct, control or explain the entrepreneurial behavior of human beings. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 3
  • 4. Elements of EM    Motive Motive Behavior Goal Goal APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali Behavior 4
  • 5. Relationship between Motive, Behavior & Goal Help (Assistance) Effort Goal Barriers (Internal) Activity Intention (Motive) APT 2013 Barriers (External) Expectation (+ve/-ve) © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali Feelings (+ve/-ve) 5
  • 6. Sources of Entrepreneurial Motivation  Internal/Intrinsic – – –  Personal goals Need for achievement Ambition External/Extrinsic – – – – – Compulsion Support Successful entrepreneurs Access to capital Status APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 6
  • 7. Models of EM      Needs-based entrepreneurial motivation A general model of entrepreneurial motivation Entrepreneurial intentions model Enterprise formation model Model of entrepreneurial motivation and the entrepreneurial process APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 7
  • 8. David McClelland, Psychologist (1917-98) Needs-based Entrepreneurial Motivation APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 8
  • 9. David McClelland's NeedsBased Motivational Model  Need for achievement (n-ach) – attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. Feedback as to achievement and progress, and a sense of accomplishment.  Need for authority and power (npow) – influential, effective and to make an impact ,personal status and prestige.  Need for affiliation (n-aff) – friendly relationships and interaction with other people  Need for security/safety (n-sec) – Comfortable with secure employment and unwillingness to take higher risk APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 9
  • 10. Behavior of Achievement-Motivated People  A chievement is more important than material or financial reward.  A chieving the aim or task gives greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition  F inancial reward is regarded as a measurement of success, not an end in itself.  S ecurity is not prime motivator, nor is status. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 10
  • 11.  Behavior of Achievement-Motivated People F eedback is essential, because it enables measurement of success, not for reasons of praise or recognition.  A chievement-motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better.  A chievement-motivated people will logically favor jobs and responsibilities that naturally satisfy their needs, i.e. offer flexibility and opportunity to set and achieve goals, e.g., sales and business management, and entrepreneurial roles. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 11
  • 12.  Behavior of Achievement-Motivated People C apacity to set high personal but obtainable goals  C oncern for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success  T he desire for job-relevant feedback (How well am I doing?) rather than for attitudinal feedback (How well do you like me?) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 12
  • 13. A Model of Entrepreneurial Motivation Internal PC PE PG Source: Naffziger, Hornsby and Kuratko, (1994) Expectation/ Outcome Comparison Decision to behave Entrepreneurially Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards Entrepreneurial Strategy Entrepreneurial Management Firm Outcomes Implementation/ Outcome Perception BE IDEA APT 2013 Internal/External PC = Personal Characteristics PE = Personal Environment PG = Personal Goals BE = Business Environment © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 13
  • 14. Entrepreneurial Intentions Model Perceived net desirability of self-employment (NDSE) Tolerance for risk (TR) Self-employment intentions Perceived feasibility (selfefficacy) of selfemployment (SE) Source: Gerry Segal, Dan Borgia & Jerry Schoenfeld (2005) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 14
  • 15. Factors Critical to Start-Up & Reasons for Not Starting-Up Source: Martyn Roberton et.al. (2003) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 15
  • 16. A Model of Enterprise Formation Source: Vollery, Mazzarol, Doss & Thein, 1997 APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 16
  • 17. Triggers to start up • Invest (need a job; way to personal savings, super, redundancy; earn a better salary) • Creativity (take advantage of own talents; have an interesting job; create something new; realise a dream) • Autonomy (work own hours, own location; be one’s own boss) • Status (follow example of a person I admire; increase status/prestige; maintain family tradition) • Market Opportunity (saw one) • Money (make more, keep more RM) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 17
  • 18. Barriers to start up • Lack of resources - lack of marketing skills, lack of management/financial expertise, lack of information, difficulty in obtaining finance • Compliance costs - high taxes and fees, compliance with government regulation, problems finding suitable labour • Hard reality - assessment that risks are greater than expected, uncertainty and fear of failure APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 18
  • 19. Entrepreneurial Motivation & Entrepreneurship Process Source: Shane, et.al. (2003) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 19
  • 20. Entrepreneurial Behavior & Favorable Business Outcome APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 20
  • 21. Pull Factors  Religious Values – A lot of bounties in business – Follow the teachings of the religion – Duty to lead a prosperous life  Psychological – Doesn’t like to be controlled – Want freedom APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 21
  • 22. Pull Factors  Riches and Power – Rich and famous – Sophisticated life-style  Service to the Society – Corporate social responsibility – Philanthropic activities  Entrepreneurial Culture – Entrepreneurial mindset – Business succession APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 22
  • 23. Push Factors  Frustration – – –  Limited job mobility VSS and “retrenchment” Dissatisfaction Necessity – – – No jobs Need to support family Lack educational qualifications APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 23
  • 24. Barriers to Entrepreneurship  “Too much to lose” – Terlalu memikirkan apa yang akan berlaku kepada diri & keluarga sekiranya gagal – Sikap takut kepada kegagalan yang tinggi – Sangsi dengan keupayaan diri sendiri – Terlalu mementingkan faktor jaminan APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 24
  • 25. Barriers to Entrepreneurship  “Personal inadequacy” – Saya terlalu tua atau terlalu muda atau kurang pengalaman – Terlalu membesarkan kekurangan dan kelemahan diri sendiri. – Menanggapi bahawa kegagalan perniagaan membawa kesan yang terlalu besar APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 25
  • 26. Barriers to Entrepreneurship  “Fear of Competition” – Bagaimana saya boleh bersaing dengan mereka yang telah lama berniaga – Takut kepada bayang-bayang pesaing dan dihantui perasaan bahawa produk atau perkhidmatan yang ditawarkan lebih “inferior” dari pesaing APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 26
  • 27. Barriers to Entrepreneurship  “Lack of Capital” – Terlalu membesarkan kekurangan modal untuk memulakan perniagaan – Tidak ada modal, tak boleh berniaga – Membesarkan kepayahan untuk mendapatkan pembiayaan APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 27
  • 28. Barriers to Entrepreneurship  “Lack of Opportunity” – Terlalu membesarkan masalah mendapatkan peluang – Peluang perlu dicari – Masalah kepada orang lain mungkin peluang kepada kita – Guna “lubang” untuk cari lubang (peluang) APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 28
  • 29. Factors in Entrepreneurial Success          Achievement Oriented Personality Entrepreneurial Attitudes Belief in Self and Ability Social Context Precipitation Event Intention to Start a Venture Opportunity Recognition Controlling Resources Timing APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 29
  • 30. Konosuke Matsushita (founder of National Panasonic Ltd) 1894 -1989 APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 30
  • 31. APT 2013 © 2009/10 Dr. Rafi/Dr. Ghazali 31