U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides?

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  • 7
  • The Colorado potato beetle is a major pest of potatoes not just in the US but all around the world and these larvae can essentially defoliate potato plants.
  • J. P. Helgeson · J. D. Pohlman · S. Austin G. T. Haberlach · S. M. Wielgus · D. Ronis L. Zambolim · P. Tooley · J. M. McGrath R. V. James · W. R. Stevenson Somatic hybrids between Solanum bulbocastanumand potato: a new source of resistance to late blight Fig. 4 Resistance in Toluca, Mexico, of a BC 1 line derived from a potato # S . bulbocastanum somatic hybrid crossed with the potato cultivar Atlantic. The arrow points to a dead plant of the susceptible variety Alpha (Photo taken by J. P. Helgeson)
  • U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides?

    1. 1. U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides? Leonard Gianessi Crop Protection Research Institute, CropLife Foundation
    2. 2. Transgenic Crops Introduced in the U.S. <ul><li>Herbicide Tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Insect Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Virus Resistant </li></ul>
    3. 3. Pest Management Decisions <ul><li>What is the most cost-effective solution to pest problems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compare costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compare efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is acceptable for buyers? </li></ul>
    4. 4. U.S. Biotech Crops Year % of Acres Introduced 2003 Herbicide Tolerant Soybeans 1996 80 Corn 1997 12 Canola 1999 91 Cotton 1995 75 Insect Resistant Corn 1996 29 Cotton 1996 40 Sweet Corn 1998 <1 Virus Resistant Papaya 1998 52 Squash 1995 ?
    5. 5. Roundup Ready Soybeans: U.S. Adoption % Acres
    6. 6. Roundup Advantages in Soybeans <ul><li>Better weed control </li></ul><ul><li>Improved crop safety </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer application trips </li></ul><ul><li>No need for tillage </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer active ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Taller weeds can be killed </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul>
    7. 7. Canola Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Conventional
    8. 8. Glyphosate Application 8 Days After Glyphosate Application 5 Weeks After Glyphosate Application
    9. 9. Cotton Weed Control: Mississippi (Pre 1997) # of Herbicide Applications 5/A # of Active Ingredients 5/A # of Tillage Passes 3/A
    10. 10. Cotton Untreated Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Impact: + $ 132 million in net income
    11. 11. Grower Benefits of BT Field Corn Borer Pressure Low High Per Acre Yield Increase (bu) + 5 + 10 Benefit + $2 + $12 USEPA, 2001
    12. 12. Adoption of Bt Corn
    13. 13. Bt CornValue (bu/A) Low High Texas 3 40 Kansas 5 40 Oklahoma 8 18 Colorado 7 23 Louisiana 4 30
    14. 14. Bt Corn Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible Impact: + 3.5 billion Lbs./year production
    15. 15. Bt Cotton Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant Impact: -1.9 million lbs/yr insecticide use
    16. 16. Roundup Ready Corn Adoption % U.S. Acres
    17. 17. Roundup Ready Corn <ul><li>Low-cost broad spectrum alternatives being used </li></ul><ul><li>Not available in all important varieties (until recently) </li></ul><ul><li>Not approved in the European Union </li></ul>
    18. 18. Roundup Ready Corn Adoption: 2003 % Acres
    19. 19. The genetically modified papaya plants are already being credited with saving an industry that was on its way out New York Times July 20, 1999
    20. 20. Papaya: Infected Tree Removal
    21. 21. Papaya Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
    22. 22. Squash Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
    23. 23. Sweet Corn Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant
    24. 24. Florida Sweet Corn Production Million Lbs/Yr
    25. 25. Spraying Sweet Corn: Florida
    26. 26. Florida Sweet Corn Experiment
    27. 27. Bt Sweet Corn Projection: Florida <ul><li>80% of Acreage </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of 10 Insecticide Applications/Acre </li></ul><ul><li>Insect Control Cost Reduction of $40/Acre </li></ul><ul><li>Production Increase of $125/Acre </li></ul>
    28. 28. Bt Fresh Sweet Corn
    29. 29. Future Insect Control Options: Florida Fresh Sweet Corn <ul><li>Continued Use of 10 Insecticide Treatments/Acre? </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic Bt Sweet Corn? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Attribute® brand sweet corn Photo courtesy of Syngenta Seeds
    31. 31. Biotech Crops Approved but not Planted in the U.S. Current Status Sugarbeet: Herbicide Tolerant Seed Available Potato: Insect Resistant No Seed Available Virus Resistant No Seed Available
    32. 32. Sugarbeet: US Conventional Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Potential Impact: - $93 million/year weed control costs
    33. 33. Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Sugarbeets: U.S. <ul><li>% Acres Planted </li></ul><ul><li>1999 0 </li></ul><ul><li>2000 0 </li></ul><ul><li>2001 0 </li></ul><ul><li>2002 0 </li></ul><ul><li>2003 0 </li></ul>
    34. 34. Colorado Potato Beetle
    35. 35. Potato Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible
    36. 36. Potato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible
    37. 37. U.S. Acreage: Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes 1999 4 % 2000 2 % 2001 0 % 2002 0 %
    38. 38. Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes: Washington Potential Impacts Insecticide Use -130,000 Lb/Yr Insect Control Costs -$600,000/Yr Potato Production +$5 Million/Yr +90 million lbs/Yr
    39. 39. Potato Late Blight Damage
    40. 40. Fungal Resistant Potato Biotech Fungal Resistant Conventional Fungal Susceptible
    41. 41. Citrus: Texas Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
    42. 42. Citrus Canker Eradication Programs: Florida <ul><li> Trees Destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>1910-1933 258,000 Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>1986-1994 88,000 Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>1996- 1,200,000 Commercial </li></ul><ul><li> 600,000 Residential </li></ul>
    43. 43. Citrus Canker Biotech Bacteria Resistant Bacteria Susceptible
    44. 44. Spraying Antibiotics :Apples
    45. 45. Apple Bacteria Susceptible Biotech Bacteria Resistant Potential Impact: 100% reduction in antibiotic use
    46. 47. Florida: Potential Grape Production <ul><li>Florida Ranks #2-3 in Grape/Wine Consumer Purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Florida has Climate/Soils for Successful Grape Production </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Florida accounts for 0.01% of U.S. Grape Production </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Wine Industry: $ 36 billion/year </li></ul>
    47. 48. TAMU
    48. 49. Biotech Grape: Bacterial Resistant Gene Marking
    49. 50. Tomato Geminiviruses: Florida <ul><li>Reduced Tomato Production by 20% in 1990-1991 </li></ul><ul><li>At Low Incidence Because of Increased Insecticide Use </li></ul>
    50. 51. Biotech Tomato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible Under Development at the University of Florida
    51. 52. Current Impacts (8 Case Studies) <ul><li>Food and Fiber Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ 4 Billion Lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ $ 1.5 Billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pesticide Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 46 Million Lbs. </li></ul></ul>
    52. 53. Potential Impacts (32 Case Studies) <ul><li>Food and Fiber Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ 10 Billion Lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ $ 1 Billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pesticide Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 117 Million Lbs. </li></ul></ul>

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