U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides?
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  • 7
  • The Colorado potato beetle is a major pest of potatoes not just in the US but all around the world and these larvae can essentially defoliate potato plants.
  • J. P. Helgeson · J. D. Pohlman · S. Austin G. T. Haberlach · S. M. Wielgus · D. Ronis L. Zambolim · P. Tooley · J. M. McGrath R. V. James · W. R. Stevenson Somatic hybrids between Solanum bulbocastanumand potato: a new source of resistance to late blight Fig. 4 Resistance in Toluca, Mexico, of a BC 1 line derived from a potato # S . bulbocastanum somatic hybrid crossed with the potato cultivar Atlantic. The arrow points to a dead plant of the susceptible variety Alpha (Photo taken by J. P. Helgeson)

Transcript

  • 1. U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides? Leonard Gianessi Crop Protection Research Institute, CropLife Foundation
  • 2. Transgenic Crops Introduced in the U.S.
    • Herbicide Tolerant
    • Insect Resistant
    • Virus Resistant
  • 3. Pest Management Decisions
    • What is the most cost-effective solution to pest problems?
      • compare costs
      • compare efficacy
    • What is acceptable for buyers?
  • 4. U.S. Biotech Crops Year % of Acres Introduced 2003 Herbicide Tolerant Soybeans 1996 80 Corn 1997 12 Canola 1999 91 Cotton 1995 75 Insect Resistant Corn 1996 29 Cotton 1996 40 Sweet Corn 1998 <1 Virus Resistant Papaya 1998 52 Squash 1995 ?
  • 5. Roundup Ready Soybeans: U.S. Adoption % Acres
  • 6. Roundup Advantages in Soybeans
    • Better weed control
    • Improved crop safety
    • Fewer application trips
    • No need for tillage
    • Fewer active ingredients
    • Taller weeds can be killed
    • Less expensive
  • 7. Canola Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Conventional
  • 8. Glyphosate Application 8 Days After Glyphosate Application 5 Weeks After Glyphosate Application
  • 9. Cotton Weed Control: Mississippi (Pre 1997) # of Herbicide Applications 5/A # of Active Ingredients 5/A # of Tillage Passes 3/A
  • 10. Cotton Untreated Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Impact: + $ 132 million in net income
  • 11. Grower Benefits of BT Field Corn Borer Pressure Low High Per Acre Yield Increase (bu) + 5 + 10 Benefit + $2 + $12 USEPA, 2001
  • 12. Adoption of Bt Corn
  • 13. Bt CornValue (bu/A) Low High Texas 3 40 Kansas 5 40 Oklahoma 8 18 Colorado 7 23 Louisiana 4 30
  • 14. Bt Corn Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible Impact: + 3.5 billion Lbs./year production
  • 15. Bt Cotton Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant Impact: -1.9 million lbs/yr insecticide use
  • 16. Roundup Ready Corn Adoption % U.S. Acres
  • 17. Roundup Ready Corn
    • Low-cost broad spectrum alternatives being used
    • Not available in all important varieties (until recently)
    • Not approved in the European Union
  • 18. Roundup Ready Corn Adoption: 2003 % Acres
  • 19. The genetically modified papaya plants are already being credited with saving an industry that was on its way out New York Times July 20, 1999
  • 20. Papaya: Infected Tree Removal
  • 21. Papaya Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
  • 22. Squash Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
  • 23. Sweet Corn Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant
  • 24. Florida Sweet Corn Production Million Lbs/Yr
  • 25. Spraying Sweet Corn: Florida
  • 26. Florida Sweet Corn Experiment
  • 27. Bt Sweet Corn Projection: Florida
    • 80% of Acreage
    • Reduction of 10 Insecticide Applications/Acre
    • Insect Control Cost Reduction of $40/Acre
    • Production Increase of $125/Acre
  • 28. Bt Fresh Sweet Corn
  • 29. Future Insect Control Options: Florida Fresh Sweet Corn
    • Continued Use of 10 Insecticide Treatments/Acre?
    • Transgenic Bt Sweet Corn?
  • 30. Attribute® brand sweet corn Photo courtesy of Syngenta Seeds
  • 31. Biotech Crops Approved but not Planted in the U.S. Current Status Sugarbeet: Herbicide Tolerant Seed Available Potato: Insect Resistant No Seed Available Virus Resistant No Seed Available
  • 32. Sugarbeet: US Conventional Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Potential Impact: - $93 million/year weed control costs
  • 33. Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Sugarbeets: U.S.
    • % Acres Planted
    • 1999 0
    • 2000 0
    • 2001 0
    • 2002 0
    • 2003 0
  • 34. Colorado Potato Beetle
  • 35. Potato Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible
  • 36. Potato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible
  • 37. U.S. Acreage: Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes 1999 4 % 2000 2 % 2001 0 % 2002 0 %
  • 38. Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes: Washington Potential Impacts Insecticide Use -130,000 Lb/Yr Insect Control Costs -$600,000/Yr Potato Production +$5 Million/Yr +90 million lbs/Yr
  • 39. Potato Late Blight Damage
  • 40. Fungal Resistant Potato Biotech Fungal Resistant Conventional Fungal Susceptible
  • 41. Citrus: Texas Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant
  • 42. Citrus Canker Eradication Programs: Florida
    • Trees Destroyed
    • 1910-1933 258,000 Commercial
    • 1986-1994 88,000 Commercial
    • 1996- 1,200,000 Commercial
    • 600,000 Residential
  • 43. Citrus Canker Biotech Bacteria Resistant Bacteria Susceptible
  • 44. Spraying Antibiotics :Apples
  • 45. Apple Bacteria Susceptible Biotech Bacteria Resistant Potential Impact: 100% reduction in antibiotic use
  • 46.  
  • 47. Florida: Potential Grape Production
    • Florida Ranks #2-3 in Grape/Wine Consumer Purchases
    • Florida has Climate/Soils for Successful Grape Production
    • Currently Florida accounts for 0.01% of U.S. Grape Production
    • U.S. Wine Industry: $ 36 billion/year
  • 48. TAMU
  • 49. Biotech Grape: Bacterial Resistant Gene Marking
  • 50. Tomato Geminiviruses: Florida
    • Reduced Tomato Production by 20% in 1990-1991
    • At Low Incidence Because of Increased Insecticide Use
  • 51. Biotech Tomato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible Under Development at the University of Florida
  • 52. Current Impacts (8 Case Studies)
    • Food and Fiber Production
      • + 4 Billion Lbs.
    • Farm Income
      • + $ 1.5 Billion
    • Pesticide Use
      • - 46 Million Lbs.
  • 53. Potential Impacts (32 Case Studies)
    • Food and Fiber Production
      • + 10 Billion Lbs.
    • Farm Income
      • + $ 1 Billion
    • Pesticide Use
      • - 117 Million Lbs.
  • 54.